THE HISTORY OF BRENTFORD

 

THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF BRENTFORD, EALING, & CHISWICK, INTERSPERSED WITH BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OF ILLUSTRIOUS AND EMINENT PERSONS, WHO HAVE BEEN BORN, OR HAVE RESIDED THERE DURING THE THREE PRECEDING CENTURIES. BY THOMAS FAULKNER,

Presently being edited by James Bissell-Thomas.

 

CHAPTER I

Introduction — County of Middlesex — Hundreds of Eltborne and Ossulston — Antiquity of Old and New Brentford — The Origin of Villages and Towns — Situation — Geology — River Thames and Fishery — Swan-Upping

CHAPTER II. Historical Events — Battle between King Edmund Ironside and Canute, the former pursues the Danes across the Thames, where Kew Bridge now stands ; great loss of the English in crossing the River — Cruel Murder at Brentford of Edmund Ironside, by Edric Streone, the Traitor, — his punishment and death — Chapter of the Order of the Garter held at the Red Lion Inn — The Marian Persecution — Cruelties of that dreadful Period — Burning of Six Protestants in the Market Place — Civil War — King Charles advances to Brentford — Battle and defeat of the Parliament Army — Plunder of the Town — Petition of the Inhabitants to the Parliament — The King's Messages and Decla- ration — Retreats to Kingston — The Earl of Brentford — Election of Members for the County

CHAPTER III. Parish Church — Original Records — Grants of the Protector's Parliament — Qxieen Anne's Bounty — Augmentation of the Living, and Endowment of the Vicarage — Description of the Interior of the Church — Monuments and Inscriptions — Curates and Incumbents — Benefactions and Charities — Benevolent Societies, and Charity Schools — Extracts from the Parish Books

CHAPTER IV. Market and Fairs — Charter of King Edward the First granted at the instance of Margaret, Queen of England, to the Prioress and Nuns of St. Helen's, London, in their Manor of Brentford — History and Descent of the Property of the Market and Fairs — Manor of Boston — The Clitherow Family — Biographical Account of the late Colonel Clitherow — The Butts — Ancient and Modern state, formerly a place for Archery — The spot used for the Election of the Members of Parliament — Riots and Disturbances — Brentford Bridge — Ancient and Modern state — Royal Grants.

CHAPTER V. Association of the Church Missionary Society — St. George's Chapel and Charities, Old Brentford — Places of Worship not Parochial; — Baptist Chapel, Old Brentford — Chapel of Particular Baptists, Market Place — Boston Road Chapel — Albany Chapel — Brentford British Schools — British and Foreign Bible Society — Brentford Mechanics' Institution — Brentford Poor Law Union and Workhouse.

CHAPTER VI. New Brentford — Boundaries and Extent — Population and number of Houses — The Hum — The Butts and Market Place — The Brent — The Grand Junction Canal — Boston Road — The Half Acre — The County Court — The Petty Sessions — The Town, Houses, and Inns — Sir W. Noy's House, now Mr. Ronald's — The Great Floods — Rejocings on the Arrival of Queen Victoria.

CHAPTER VII. Old Brentford — Boundaries and Extent- — Population- — Half Acre, Wind- mill Lane — Mrs. Trimmer — The High Street — River Ayts — The Ferry — Wharfs and Manufactories — Timber Yard, Saw Mills — Soap Manufactory — Police Station — Pottery — Brewery — Brentford Distil- lery — Gas Light Company — Grand Junction Water Works — Brick Kilns and Tilery

EALING.

CHAPTER I. Name — Situation — Boundaries and Extent — Roads and Highways — Population — Agriculture and Soil — Land Tax — Parochial Rates .

CHAPTER II. Parish Church — Rectory and Vicarage — Vicars — Lecturers — Ancient Church Inventory — Monumental Inscriptions — Charities and Bene- factions — Charity Schools — Extracts from the Parish Books XV

CHAPTER III. Village of Ealing — Ealing and Brentford Volunteers — Ealing Manor — Parsonage House — Manor of Cold-hall — Goodenough House — Ealing- House — Lady Noel Byron's Industrial School — Elm Grove — Ealing Grove — Ealing Green — Little Ealing — Ealing Park — Ealing Dean — Manor of Gunnersbury — Ancient Houses — Eminent Inhabitants

CHAPTER IV. Ealing, north of the Uxbridge Road — Castle Bar Hill — His Royal High- ness the Duke of Kent — Manor of Pitt's-Hanger — Thomas Edwards, Esq. — Fordhook — Henry Fielding, Esq. — Hanger Hill — Hanger Lane — Charles Dibden — The Great Western Railway — The Grand Junction Water Works Company's Engine Houses and Works erecting in 1815

CHISWICK.

CHAPTER I. Name — Situation — Soil — Boundaries — Extent — Roman Road — Water Courses and Bridges — Parliamentary Army at Turnham-green — Battle of Turnham-green — Ancient Manors

CHAPTER II. Rectory and Vicarage — Ancient Inventories o:" the Church of Cheswyk — Prebendaries — Value of the Vicarage — Parliamentary and Common- wealth Clergy — Vicars from 1(>G2 — Church of St. Nicholas — Monu- ments and Inscriptions in the Cburch and Church-yard

CHAPTER III. The Town — The Mall — College-House — Ralph — Dr. Rose — Manor Farm-House — Corney-House — Lord Macartney — Sir Stephen Fox's House — Morton Hall — Sir Stephen Fox — Eminent Inhabitants — Population— Trade

CHAPTER IV. ? Chiswick-House — Historical and Biographical Reminiscences — Earl of Burlington — Dukes of Devonshire — Duchess of Devonshire — Rigbt Hon. C. J. Fox — Right Hon. G. Canning — Picture Gallery and Gar- dens — Visit of the illustrious Sovereigns in the year 1814 — Visit of Her Majesty the Queen and His Royal Highness Prince Albert, in 1S42 — Visit of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor Nicholas, in l844

CHAPTER V. Hogarth-House — William Hogarth, Esq. — Holland the Actor — M. de Loutherbourgh — Arthur Murphy, Esq. — Mawson Row — Bishop Mawson — Chiswick Chapel — British Schools — High-House, Chiswick Mall — Count of Nassau — Mr. William Sharp — Mr. Henry Neele — Mr. Charles Whittingham

CHAPTER VI. Turnham-Green — Situation — Heathfield-House — General Elliot — Pack- horse Inn — Sir John Chardin — Dr. Morell — Dr. Griffiths — Bohemia- House — Stafford-House — Ugo Foscolo — Turnham-Green Church — Horticultural Gardens — Little Sutton — Sutton Court — Grove-House — Strand-on-the-Green — J. Zoffani, Esq. the Eminient Painter — Joe Miller — New Union Iron Steam Boat Company, and Pier — City Barge — Ealing Park — Chiswick Church Bells — Willow Ayte, called Muckinshaw — Projected Hounslow Atmospheric Railway

THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF BRENTFORD.

CHAPTER I.

Introduction — County of Middlesex — Hundreds of Elthorne, and Ossulstone — Antiquity of Old and New Brentford — The Origin of Villages and Towns — Situation — Geology — River Thames and Fishery — Swan Upping. The obscurity which envelopes the events of remote times, renders the attempt to trace the origin and ancient state of our cities and towns extremely difficult. The most careful and diligent investigator of ancient records can scarcely hope to dispel the clouds which darken them; and yet, from these sources are chiefly derived the faint and glimmering lights which guide us through the uncer- tain labyrinth of early ages. But in the elucidation of subjects of this nature, we are frequently led astray by the delusive excursions of fancy ; for the fabulous and discordant opinions of many of our early writers on subjects of antiquity have a tendency rather to mislead, than to inform the mind of the reader, and their authority must not be received without careful examination, their zeal not being sufficiently tempered with that cool and patient investigation which will allow no idea to implant itself, unless founded on a basis that cannot be overturned by future enquiry. But whatever difficulties may arise in the prosecution of antiquarian researches from the above-mentioned causes, it is the duty of the Topographical Historian to make use of such a share of industry, diligence, and discrimination, as may enable him to produce a connected and consistent narrative of past events. Middlesex. — This county derives its name from its position relatively to the three surrounding kingdoms of the Heptarchy. Though of an irregular form, it resembles a parallelogram, with an area of 282 square statute miles, or 180,480 statute acres. It is divided into six hundreds : viz. Edmonton, Elthorne, Gore, Isle worth, Spelthorn, and Ossulstone. The same number of hundreds are mentioned in the record of Domesday, so that it is obvious that the political divisions of Middlesex have undergone but little alteration since the period of the conquest* This county gave birth to the title of Earl to Lionel Cranfleld, Lord Treasurer to King James the First, who was created Earl of Middlesex, in 1622, but the title became extinct, by the death of his son, the third Earl, in 1674. It was revived in 1675, in favour of Charles Sackville, son and heir apparent of Richard Earl of Dorset, who had married Frances, sister and heiress of the last Earl. The hundred of Ossulstone affords the title of Baron to Charles Bennet Earl of Tankerville, whose family was anciently seated in Berkshire. Sir John Bennet was made Knight of the Bath, at the coronation of Charles the Second ; and he was, in the year 1682, advanced to the peerage, by the title of Baron Ossulstone. The towns and villages in the environs of London pos- sess many claims on the notice of the historian, and they may be considered as worthy members of that metropolis, for they are closely indentified with its history and aggran- disement. Indeed, upon the tranquillity and happiness of " It is in effect but the suburbs at large of London, replenished with the retiring houses of the gentry and citizens thereof, besides many palaces of noblemen, and three stately royal mansions, wherefore much measure cannot be expected of so fine ware, the cause why this county is so small, scarce extending, east and west, to 18 miles in length, and not exceeding, north and south, 12 miles in the breadth thereof." — Fuller's Worthies Middx.

INTRODUCTION. London, depends, in a great measure, the prosperity of the whole country ; but more especially of those interesting parishes in its immediate vicinity, three of which it is the object of this work to describe. The origin of Towns and Villages. — It is a well known fact, but which has scarcely been adverted to, that all the present towns and villages appear to have existed from the Saxon times. This circumstance is in general sufficiently attested, both by their names, and by historical evidence. They have, indeed, become much larger, during a succession of ages ; yet no very great addition has been made to their number. The vast increase of the population and wealth of the country has nearly all been collected and arranged around the centres of the original towns and villages, which, it is curious to reflect, were so numerously spread over the face of the country in those early ages. It is also certain that the present division of the country into parishes, is as old as the tenth century, which proves that the English villages in the Saxon times were nearly as numerous as at the present day. Tythings, Towns, and Vills. In process of time, by the increase of inhabitants, there arose small appendages to these towns, called Hamlets ; and the designation of Entire Vills, Demi- Vills, and Hamlets, are noticed so early as the 14th of Edward the First. Sir Henry Spelman con- siders that an entire vill consisted of ten freemen, or frank- pledges ; demi- vills of five ; and hamlets of less than five* Brentford. — The township of New Brentford lies within the hundred of Elthorne, in the county of Middlesex, it is bounded on the north by Hanwell, on the east by Ealing and Old Brentford, on the west by Isleworth, and on the south by the River Thames. The whole of the town called Old Brentford, lies within the hundred of Ossulstone, and parish of Ealing. NeAv Brentford takes its name from the river Brent which appears at different dates under the titles of the Brain, the Brawnie, the Braint, and finally, the Brent, The town is divided into two parts, called Old and New Brentford, and East and West Brentford. In Norden's- Map of Middlesex, published in 1636, they are called Great and Little Brentford. The town is upwards of a mile in length, and is situated on the Great Western Boad at the distance of seven miles from London. Which end of this town is the most ancient it is rather difficult to decide. In favour of the antiquity of New Brentford we have the proximity to the Ford, the date of the Chapel of Ease, now the Parish Church, the site of the Market and Fair, its being the place of County Elections, and the outward appearance of certain buildings. On the other hand, the name of Old Brentford is an argument of itself. The distinction of Old and New Brentford certainly existed in 1642, as appears by the printed Journals of that period. The outward appearance of certain buildings must have its weight, and it is a well known fact, that before the New Cut was made, there was always along the shore of this part of the town, many barges and other vessels ; New Brentford offering no such convenience, where goods of all sorts could be landed, and then conveyed by carriage to the inward towns and villages. This is a feature, however, altogether independent of the Ford. I mean that if there had been no Brent, and no Ford over it, this being the most convenient spot within the influence of the tide for landing goods, corn, and other goods, for which there would be a demand in the inland country, would naturally occasion the houses to be built, and attract the business that was there carried on. Regarded in this light, it seems merely a question whe- ther the transit of the Ford, or the traffic of the Thames, would be the first to cause the erection of habitations. * The origin of towns and cities depends on a variety of accidental and anomalous circumstances. The ford of a river, the cell of a hermit, the inaccessability of a mount, the protection of a Castle, the fertility of a plain, the plenteous fishery on a sea coast, or at the mouth of a river, or, perhaps, the vicinity of a royal court, or the household of some rich and powerful lord, or of some opulent and hospitable abbey, are among the causes to which the rise of most of the towns and cities of modern Europe is to be referred. Indeed, the evidence on both sides is so nearly balanced, that we may, without much mistake, declare the two towns coeval. In respect to the situation of the town of Brent- ford, it must be evident to the most casual observer, that it is one where trade and commerce might be expected to flourish ; and it can hardly be doubted, but commercial considerations had considerable weight with its original founders. Be this, however, as it may, in descending the stream of time, and arriving at authentic annals, we become acquainted with a series of interesting events relative to the history of the County Town of Middlesex.

Geology. — All who are familiar with even the outlines of the delightful and somewhat fashionable science of Geology, cannot fail to be aware, that Brentford is situated in the same chalk basin as London ; and, consequently, like the metropolis, has the blue or London clay for its most impor- tant stratum. Immediately below the soil are various layers of sand and gravel, intermixed with patches of loam and clay, and extending to a depth of from ten to twenty feet. We then meet with the grand deposit of blue clay, which is in this neighbourhood about two hundred feet thick, having below it the abundant green sand formation so rich in soft clear water, which is yielded to the various deep wells in and around the metropolis. The very interesting paper published in 1813, by the late Mr. Trimmer, F.R.S., of which we think the fol- lowing abstract will be found acceptable, contains nearly all that is known of the geology of this neighbourhood up to the present time. A few artesian borings, and deep excavations of recent date, have only confirmed the general accuracy of Mr. Trimmer's observations, and made some small additions to his list of organic remains. The works of the Grand Junction Water Company near Kew Bridge, now in progress, give promise of further specimens, which all zealous geologists on the spot will do well to look out for and preserve. In this neighbourhood have been found some of those organic remains which form the tacit memorials of ages. otherwise unknown, and which are calculated to excite an ardour of curiosity that it would be difficult to gratify by rational deduction. An account of these discoveries was written by the late Mr. W. K. Trimmer, and is printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1813, accompanied by a letter from that gentleman's brother, stating the decease of the author shortly after he had prepared that paper for publication. The account may be deemed the more valuable from the circumstance of Sir Joseph Banks having witnessed the progress of the investigation in its principal stages. The specimens of organic remains discovered near Brentford, were found on digging clay, under the direction of Mr. Trimmer, for the manufacture of bricks and tiles. They were discovered in two fields, which are not con- tiguous to each other. The first field in which the earth was perforated, is about half a mile north of the Thames at Kew Bridge, its surface being about twenty-five feet above the Thames at low water. The strata on this spot are thus described : — first, sandy loam, from six to seven feet in depth, the lowest two feet being slightly calcareous ; second, sandy gravel, a Yew inches only in thickness; third, loam, slightly calcareous, from one to five feet in depth; between this and the next stratum, peat frequently intervenes in small patches; fourth, gravel with water ; this latter stratum varies from two to ten feet in thickness, and is always the deepest in the places covered by the peat ; fifth, the main substratum of blue clay, which extends under London and its whole vicinity, and which is proved (by the perforation effected in the digging of several wells,) to be about two hundred feet in thickness under the more level lands, and pro- portionably thicker under the hills. It does not appear that any organic remains have been found in the first stratum. In the second, snail shells, and the shells of river fish have been met with, and a few bones of land animals, but of an inconsiderable size, and in so mutilated a state that the class to which they belong could not be ascertained. In the third stratum, the horns ( and bones of the ox, and the horns, bones, and teeth of the deer have been found. In the fourth stratum were discovered teeth and bones of both the African and Asiatic elephant; teeth of the hippopotamus, and bones, horns, and teeth of the ox. A tusk of an elephant, dug from this stratum, measured nine feet three inches. In the fifth stra- tum, the blue clay, the fossils, are entirely marine, with the exception of some specimens of fruit, and pieces of ฃ>etrified wood, the latter when large, being always penetrated by teredines. The other fossils from this stratum are crabs, nautili, oysters, teeth and bones of fish, and a great variety of small marine shells. This stratum has been penetrated, in the field under notice, only to the depth of thirty feet. The second field is a mile to the west of the former, and about the same distance north of the river Thames, and a quarter of a mile eastward of the river Brent, its height above the river Thames at low water being about forty feet. The strata are thus enumerated : — first, sandy loam, to the depth of eight feet, the lowest three feet of which are slightly calcareous ; below this are two strata of gravel and clay, as in the former field ; but these have, in the present instance, been only penetrated in digging for water. In the first stratum, as in the other field, no organic remains have been discovered ; in the second, (but always so low as to be within two feet of the third stratum,) have been found the teeth and bones of the hippopotamus and ele- phant, the horns, bones, and teeth, of several species of deer, and of the ox, together with numerous shells of river fish. The remains of hippopotami are here so abundant, that in turning over an area of 120 yards, in the year 1813, parts of six tusks of that animal were found, besides a tooth, and part of the horn of a deer ; parts of a tusk, and a grinder of an elephant, and the horns, with a small por- tion of the skull of an ox. One of these horns, measured by Mr. Trimmer, was found to be four feet six inches long, following the curve, and five inches in diameter, at the larger end. Mr. Trimmer observes, that the gravel stones in this stratum do not appear to have been rounded in the usual way by attrition, and that the bones must have been deposited after the flesh was off, because no two bones have been found together, as joined in the living animal ; and he likewise observes, that the bones are not in the least worn, as must have been the case had they been exposed to the wash of a sea beach. In the third stratum were also found horns and bones of the ox and deer together, with shells of snails and river fish. See further particulars in the Philosophical Transactions for 1813, where are introduced engravings of the principal articles discovered. The collection of organic remains formed by this ingenius correspondent of the Royal Society, is now preserved in the house of the Rev. E. Trimmer, of Putney. Not any discoveries of importance have occurred since that period. Though many deep borings have been made, these, from want, evidently, of lateral extent, have been very unproductive in fossils. The foundation of the engine-house of the Grand Junction Water Company, near Kew bridge, erected in 1840, was laid at a depth of near forty feet; and, in the course of the necessary excavations, several large nautili, and many smaller marine shells were found. River Thames and Fishery. — This town and neigh- bourhood are daily refreshed by the tide of this noble river which flows from the Nore to Teddington (Tide-end town), a few miles beyond Richmond, a distance of more than sixty miles from the sea, a greater length than it flows into any other river in Europe ; yet the Thames must yield to the superiority of many rivers in point of magnitude. The Ganges, and the Nile in the East ; the Mississipi, the Ama- zons, and the Rio Plata in the west ; are in this respect superior to the Thames. The mighty rivers of the western hemisphere pour their streams into the sea through regions that extend over parallels of latitude, and precipitated down wild cataracts, they traverse vast wildernesses, exhi- biting in their gloomy majesty, an unappropriated world. It has been observed, that these rivers contribute their waters not to the Pacific, but to the Atlantic ocean, and preserve the equilibrium of the globe ; a suggestion that fills the mind with reverence and adoration of the beneficence, wisdom, and omnipotence of the Creator. But these magnificent rivers are deficient in the attri- butes that distinguish the Thames above all others. This noble stream supplied by nature, but improved and directed by art, bears the produce of every climate, and the commodities of every foreign state to the British capital, and to its populous and increasing vicinity. Amidst operations that surpass in magnitude and wealth the representations of ancient Tyre, the humblest industry, and the most ardent- enterprise have contributed to the strength and resources which have raised the British name among the nations of the earth. The Fishery, which was formerly carried on here, and in the neighbourhood, is now sadly reduced, and employs but few hands, the daily passage of the steam boats by constantly agitating the water, has driven away the fish higher up the river, where they find a safe retreat and shelter from this annoyance. Fifty years ago, there appear to have been as many as a hundred families in Brentford, supported solely by fishing : there are now hardly twenty, notwithstanding the great increase in the population of the town since that period. Perhaps another cause of the downfal of the Brentford fishery is the vastly increased amount of impurities poured into the Thames by the sewers of the ever- growing capital, and of the large suburban villages that lie along the river. The resident bargemen of Brentford, (exclusive of the lightermen, their masters,) number somewhat between two and three hundred, and are on the whole a very thriving class of labourers.

Swan Uppixg. — There are a great number of Swans upon the Thames. They are under the special guardianship * For the condition of the fisheries in the river Thames above London Bridge of the Lord Mayor of London, who annually, by himself or by his deputy, goes up the river in his state barge, accompanied by the Vintners' and Dyers' companies to mark the young Swans. The Swan hopping or upping, that is the taking up of the Swans to mark the Cignets, and revive the marks on the old birds, if obliterated, is performed in the presence of the Royal Swineherd's man. The marks used during the three preceding reigns, as well as the present, may be seen in Yarrell's interesting work on British birds, where much curious information is given on this subject, together with no less than sixteen Swan marks, which are made upon the upper mandible with a knife, or other sharp instru- ment. Formerly large nocks ventured unmolested below Lon- don Bridge, into that channel, now narrowed by vessels from every region. Paulus Jovius describing the Thames in 1552 says, " this river abounds in Swans, swimming in flocks, the sight of which and their noise, are very agreeable to the fleets, that meet them in their course." Shakspeare must have seen this sight, when he made York compare the struggle of his followers at the battle of Wakefield, to a Swan encountering a tidal stream. " As I have seen a Swan, With bootless labour swim against the tide, And spend her strength with over-matching waves.

HISTORICAL EVENTS.

CHAPTER II.

Historical Events — Battle between King Edmund Ironside and Canute, the former pursues the Danes across the Thames, where Kew Bridge now stands; great loss of the English in crossing the River. — Cruel Murder at Brent- ford of Edmund Ironside, by Edric Streone, the Traitor, — his punishment and death. — Chapter of the Order of the Garter held at the Red Lion Inn. — The Marian Persecution. — Cruelties of that dreadful Period — Burning of Six Protestants in the Market Place. — Civil War — King Charles advances to Brentford — Battle and defeat of the Parliament Army — Plunder of the Town — Petition of the Inhabitants to the Parliament — the King's Messages and Declaration — Retreats to Kingston — The Earl of Brentford — Election of Members for the County. During the warlike contentions that took place between Edmund Ironside and Canute, Brentford became the scene of a bloody battle and an atrocious murder, the circum- stances of which are, however, variously related by our early historians. After the death of E their ed, in the year 1016, the citizens of London and all the Thanes there present, proclaimed his son Edmund, King of England, he having already given signal proofs of his courage and good conduct. But the Danes and all the counties declared for Canute. As the City of London was a great support to Edmund, the Danish king endeavoured to take it from him, believing that by depriving him of his chief strength, a speedy end would be put to the war. Whilst Edmund was gone to secure Wessex, Canute advanced towards London, and immediately forming the siege carried it on vigorously ; but the brave resistance of the citizens giving Edmund time to throw in succours from the Surry side of the Thames, the Danish king was obliged to raise the siege. Having thus been frustrated in his designs upon London, he used many stratagems to surprise the English, or to draw them away from the city; and having succeeded in this last device, he commenced the siege a second time ; but, meeting with the same resistance as before, the inhabitants, by a glorious defence, again gave Edmund time to come to their relief. A battle soon after took place, when the English under Edmund Ironside defeated the Danes with great slaughter, and pursued them to Brentford, where in the heat of the action great numbers of the English were drowned in the River Thames, in or near the spot where Kew Bridge now stands.

 

Here soon afterwards the same king with his army passed over the Thames at low water in pursuit of the Danes who were ravaging Kent. The particulars of this war would be interesting, if it was possible to give a clear account of them, but we find much confusion in this portion of our English annals. Subsequently peace was made by the partition of the perfidious leader Edricus sought him as his natural master, and under the auspices of a welcome peace which came with him, swore to remain faithful to him. 'Tis therefore, for the third time, an army having been gathered together, the king saved London from a siege, and drove the Danes to their ships. Two days after he crossed the Thames at a place called Brentford, about to fight a third time, he soon joined battle with them, and having put them to flight, this time he remained the conqueror, while many English having incautiously traversed the river were drowned. After that the king having gathered a greater army in West Saxonia, in the mean time the Danes returned to London and besieged and attacked it on every side ; but God helping, they retired soon, and for ever. Then collected he his force the third time, and went to London, all by the north of the Thames, and relieved the citizens, driving the enemy to their ships. It was within two nights after that the king went over at Brentford, where he fought with the enemy, and put them to flight ; but there many of the English were drowned) from their own carelessness, who went before the main army with a design to plunder. After this the king went into Wessex, and collected his army, but the enemy soon returned to London and beset the city without, and fought strongly against it both by water and land ; but the Almighty God delivered them. Then assembled King Edmund the fourth time all the English nation and forded the Thames at Brentford, whence he proceeded into Kent. Then the Danes retreated from London with their ships to Arnan, and there landing from their vessels in Mercia, they burnt and killed all that came in their way, as Avas their custom, they took all the provisions, and they sent their vessels and cattle to the Medway. Then king Edmund for the fourth time assembled the whole English people and advanced across the Thames at Brentford, and from thence towards Kent, and in the interval the Danes fled, and he pursued them with his cavalry to Scapige, and slew all those he could take. The kingdom, and every thing being settled, the two kings met and mutally swore to maintain the peace ; which resolution was received with joy by the nobles of Edmund's party, who eagerly desired to embrace any expedient to put an end to such a fatal war. But, lamentable to relate, Edmund did not long enjoy this peace, the attainment of which had occasioned him so much trouble and anxiety, for he was cruelly murdered at Brentford, by the con- nivance of his brother-in-law, Edric Streone.This notorious character was always the second man in the country, whoever might be the first, and whose base career had ever been marked by treachery and blood. The circum- stances of this sad and deplorable event, are variously related by the early annalists, though all agree that Edmund the Atheling, (which signifies in the Saxon language, illustrious, or of royal blood), Edmund Iron-side, as he was called by the English, was murdered, yet if we may place confidence in the narrative of an ancient annalist, Canute must be exonerated from all participation in this horrid deed, the perpetration of which, was even punished with death by his command. It seems most probable, that Edric Streone instigated his own son to commit the murder, and he hastened to bring the first news of it from Brentford to the king, who at the time concealed his sentiments, because he thought he might have future occasion for the traitor, and he even promised King Edmund some days after this was killed treacherously at Brentford, thus he fell while he flourished in his kingdom, feared and dreaded by his enemies. In the night he went in some house to perform the natural evacu- ations, where the son of Edric the leader, hid in a secret cave by the advice of his father, stabbed the king twice in the belly, and taking flight, left the knife in the viscera. Then Edric came to king Canute and saluted him, saying, " Hail to thee, sole king," and made the circumstance known to him. The king answered, " I am so much beholden to thee for this service, I will place thee higher than any of the English nobility." Therefore he caused him to be beheaded, and his head to be placed on the highest tower in London. Thus Edmund, was a mighty king, who had reigned one year, and is buried near his grandsire Edgar, at Glastonbury. To exalt him above all the other peers of the realm. Some time after, at the feast of Christmas, Edric had the insolence to upbraid Canute publicly, for not rewarding him for his past services, but he had no sooner spoken, than the king answered him in a rage, saying, that since he was so audacious as openly to avow so black a treason, he should receive his due punishment, and he immediately ordered him to be executed, and his head to be fixed upon the highest Tower of London-wall. He was accordingly drawn by the heels from Barnard Castle, through the City, to Houndsditch, after he had been put to death. William of Malmsbury, and Matthew of Westminster, affirm that he was beheaded in the king's palace. Brompton says, that his head was fixed on the highest gate in London. Henry of Huntingdon, says on the highest tower of London.

Order of the Garter Chapter. — Henry VI., held a chapter of the Order of the Garter at the Lion-inn, in Brentford, when Sir Alvaro Vasquez d'Almanda,* a Portuguese knight, (whom for " his great zeal and good love," the King created Earl of Avranches in Normandy, with a pension of one hundred marks a year, and to whom he presented a gold cup, containing one hundred marks), and Sir Thomas afterwards made Lord Hoo, and Hastings, appear to have been elected, and they, as well as Sir John Beauchamp, were installed on the 16th of August fol- lowing, f Burning of Six Protestants in the Year 1558. When persecuting zeal made royal sport, With tortured innocence in Mary's court, And Bonner, blithe as shepherd at a wake, Enjoy'd the show, and danc'd about the stake. In this year the inhabitants of Brentford were destined to witness one of these dreadful spectacles. It does not appear, however, why this place was chosen for this pur- pose, but it was probably selected with a view of striking a terror into the inhabitants, for neither of those unfor- tunate persons who suffered the punishment of death, were in any way connected with the neighbourhood. The persecution of the Protestants was carried on with unabated vigour, during the whole of the reign of Queen Mary, and thus popery was rendered an object of horror, and hatred to the nation. Persons whom neither books nor sermons would have reached, were converted to the Protestant faith, by the constancy of the martyrs, which indeed provoked the persecutors to farther cruelty. What they could not effect by the fear of death, they hoped to accomplish by torments in prison. Their victims were fastened by the feet, hands, and neck, in the most painful postures, they were scourged and beaten, tortured with iire and deprived of food. Meanwhile the continued executions caused a universal consternation. The bigots only triumphed; the rest who had any humanity, could not without great concern, behold men exposed to such inhuman sufferings who were accused of no crimes, but solely for their religion. It could not but be observed, how differently the Protestants behaved from the Roman Catholics. In Edward's reign very few had suffered im- prisonment for their religious opinions, but in Mary's time no punishment was thought too cruel for those who dared to persevere in their opinions. The only measure that was wanting to complete the spiritual bondage of the nation, was the establishment of one of those infamous tribunals which were at that time in full operation in Spain, and this, in all likelihood, would have been done if Mary's life had unhappily been prolonged. The spirit of its laws had already been introduced, but the feelings of the country were opposed to this atrocious system. During the four years that this persecution continued, it appears by authentic records, that two hundred and eighty-eight persons were burnt alive, and the number of those who perished in prison is unknown. It is clearly ascertained that there were burnt five bishops, twenty-one divines, eight gentlemen, eighty-four artificers, one hun- dred husbandmen, servants and labourers, forty women, two boys, and two infants. In the midst of these dreadful scenes the Queen's health declined, and her death was daily looked for, and when that event happened she was not regretted nor lamented, nor was there even the semblance of sorrow for her loss. She died in the morning, in the afternoon the bells of all the churches in London were rung for the accession of Elizabeth, and at night bon-fires were made, and tables set out in the streets at which the citizens caroused.* Here follows an authentic narrative of the martyrdom of six, who suffered at Brainford, for the true testimony of Jesus Christ. — u Not long after the death of seven godly martyrs that suffered in Smithfield, were six other faithful witnesses of the Lord's true Testament, martyred at Brainford, the 14th day of July, 1558, which said six were of that company that were apprehended in a close, and by Islington, and sent to prison. Whose names hereafter follow : — Robert Miles, Stephen Cotton, Robert Dynes, Stephen Wright, John Stade, William Pikes. The six fore-named martyrs, (gentle reader) had their articles ministered to them by Thomas Darbyshire, Boner's Chancellor, at sundry times, when though they were severally examined, yet had they all one manner of articles ministered to them. On the 21st, 22nd, and 2ord days of June, these good men were produced before Boner's Chancellor, and had the aforesaid articles ministered unto them, and they had made answer unto the same — in the end the Chancellor commanded them to appear before him again, the 11th day of July, after in the said place at Paul's. When they came, he required of them, whether they would turn from their opinions to the mother holy church, and if not, that it then, whether there were any cause to the contrary, but that he might proceed with the sentence of condemnation. Whereunto they all announced, that they would not go from the truth, nor relent from the same, while they lived. Then he charged them to appear before him again the next day, to hear the definitive sentence read against them, according to the ecclesiastical laws then in force. At which time, he sitting in judgment, talking with these godly and virtuous men, at last came unto the same place. Sir Edward Hastings, and Sir Thomas Cornwall, knights, two of Queen Mary's officers of her house, and being there, they sat down, over against the Chancellor, in whose presence the said Chancellor condemned these good poor lambs, and delivered them over to the secular power, who received and carried them to prison immediately, and there kept them in safety, till the day of their death. In the mean time, the naughty Chancellor slept not, I warrant you, but that day in which they were condemned, he made certificate into the Lord Chancellor's offices, from whence the next day after was sent a writ to burn them at Brainford aforesaid, which accordingly was accomplished in the same place, the said 14th day of July. Where- unto they being brought, made their humble prayers unto the Lord Jesus, undressed themselves, went joyfully to the stake, whereunto they were bound, and the fire flaming about them, they yielded their souls, bodies, and lives, into the hands of the omnipotent Lord, for whose cause they did suffer, to whose protection I recommend thee, gentle reader. Amen. Historians differ as to the particular day when the King set up his standard at Nottingham. Dugdale says that the King erected it on Friday, August 12th. Clarendon says, that it took place on Thursday, August 25th. But it is of little conse- quence on what particular day that fatal signal was set up, a signal which involved Britain in the names of a civil war, during which period our nobles indulged an animosity fatal to their country, when the rights of the Church were injuriously trampled upon, and when the untimely deaths of the most virtuous citizens were daily witnessed ; and, moreover, the execrable murder of the Sovereign. For whatever might be the mistakes committed by the martyr in the cabinet, or in the field, he commands our admiration and regret, which is likewise given, without reserve, to the gallantry, and disinterestedness of his fol- lowers, while even of the regisides we think as of men, ambitious, it may be cruel, turbulent, and unjust, but bold in their conceptions, and high-minded in their very guilt. We may, therefore, shudder as we peruse the tale of wars raged, and murders committed under the pretext of zeal for religion, or to promote the cause of civil liberty. During this unhappy contest, Brentford was not so favoured as to escape the visitation of the sword, although the inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood, do not appear to have entered with zeal into the views of either party; yet it was their calamity to feel bitterly the rod of war, without having toiled for the harvest of its thorns. The contending armies traversed the county of Middle- sex, and the high road from London to Brentford, from one extremity to the other, from East to West. In the year 164ฃ, in the beginning of November, while messages were ineffectually passing between the King and Parliament, the King marched with his whole army co Colebrook, and on the 11th of the month advanced to Brentford ; the fact is thus related by Lord Clarendon. " So the King marched with his whole army towards Brentford, where were two regiments of their best foot, for so they were accounted, being those who had eminently behaved themselves at Edge-Hill, having barricadoed the narrow avenues of the town, and cast up some little breast- works at the most convenient places. Here a Welsh regiment of the King's, which had been faulty at Edge- Hill, recovered its honour, and assaulted the works, and forced the barricadoes, well defended by the enemy, the King's forces entered the town, after a very warm service ; the chief officers, and many soldiers of the other side, being killed ; and they took there above five hun- dred prisoners, eleven colours, and fifteen pieces of cannon, and good store of ammunition. But this victory, for considering the place, it might well be called so, proved not at all fortunate to his Majesty-"* Among the King's collection of pamphlets in the British Museum, is one entitled, " A true relation of the battail at Branford, the 12th of November, London, 1642. The account of the Battle of Brentford is as follows : — Prince Rupert taking advantage of a thick mist, brought up his force at Brentford, where he was most valiantly opposed by my Lord Robert's regiment on the bridge, who beat them off, and with great resolution maintained the bridge, till they had spent all their powder and shot, at which time, it pleased God, that Colonel Hamden and Colonel Hollis's regiment came in, who very manfully set upon them and slew many of them, with the loss of a very few on our side. — At Brentford, Nov. 12, 1642. The circumstances of this action have been variously represented by the journalists and historians of the two parties. The following account which differs in many particulars from any other I have seen, seems entitled to a considerable degree of credit. It is taken from a manu- script letter, dated November 15th, written as it appears, by an officer who was in the engagement, merely for the information of a relation, and, therefore, not likely to con- tain any wilful misrepresentations. " On Saturday, very early* (says the writer,) we marched * Here the Welsh under Sir Charles Salisbury their leader, made true the Greek proverb : — Ocpevyiov irakiv fiaxtjatrai. He that flieth will fight again. For those that fly may fight again, Which he can never do that's slain. Hudibeass, Those who showed swift heels, at Edge-Hill battle, used as stout arms as any in this fight. For formerly they were little better than naked, whereas since they had recovered armour, to fence their bodies and resolutions to arm their minds. From Ashford, and at Hounslow Heath all the king's foote met, expecting a battaile, but none offered : on still we went to Hounslow towne, thence to Brainforde, where unexpect- edly we were encountered by two or three regiments of their's, who had made some small barricadoes at the end of the first towne, called New Brainford. The van of our army being about 1000 musketeers, answered their shots soe bitterly, that within an hour or less, they forsooke their worke in that place, and fled up to another which they had reaised betwixt the two townes, from whence, and a brick house by, with two small ordinance, they gave us a hot and long shower of bullets. My colonel's (Sir Edward Fritton's) regiment was the sixth that was brought to assault, after five others had all discharged, whose happy honour it was (assisted by God, and a new piece of cannon newly come up) to drive them from that worke too, where it was an heart breaking object to hear and see the miser- able deaths of many goodly men ; we slew a lieutenant- colonel, two sargeant-majors, some captains, and other officers and soldiers there, about thirty or forty of them, and took four hundred prisoners. But, what was most pitiful was, to see how many poore men ended and lost their lives, striving to save them ; for they run into the Thames, and about two hundred of them, as we might judge were there drowned by themselves, and so were guilty of their own deaths ; for had they stayed, and yielded up themselves, the King's mercy, is so gracious, that he had spared them all. We took there six or eight colours, alsoe their two pieces of ordonance, and all this a very small losse, God be praised ; for believe me, I cannot understand that we lost sixteen men ; whereof one was a son of Mr. Daniel, of Tabbley ; Mr. Thomas Daniel, a fine young gentlemen, who was a lieutenant under my Lord Kivers, he and his captain were both slain, and a lieutenant Captain Preston and another Captaine, Richard Storie, Leftenant, and Leftenant Daniel, John Whitaker, Richard Allderdon, and divers others which were slaine, one of the King's party. — October. Thomas Wade, a soldier from Sharp's the 10th, Leftenant Coust, Richard Mills and others, one the Parlement side. — December, Parish Register Burials of our regiment, but none of our countrymen. Then we thinking all had been clone for that night, two of our regiments passed up through the old towne to make good the entrance, but they were again encountered by a fresh onset, which scattered like the rest after a short conflict, fled away towards Hammersmith, and we were left master of the townes. That night most lay in the cold fields. Next morning we were startled a fresh by the fresh music of some canon, which proved to be but some fourteen barges of theirs, who with thirteen ordinance, and six hundred men, attempted very indiscreetly to pass down the river from Kingston-on-Thames, by the town where we lay for Lon- don; but, being discovered, what from the bancke and from Sion howse, (the Earl of Northumberland's,) where we had placed some four musketeers within two or three howers space, we sunk four or five of their vessels, with the canons in them, took the rest and eight pieces in them, for our breakfast ; after which, within two hours we could descry a great army making down upon us from London, who marching, came up within musket shot of us ; but the King finding his men wearie, and being satisfied with what he had done before for that tyme, and havinge no convenient place for his horse which is the greatest pillar of his army to fight, very wisely drew off his men by degrees, and unperceived by them, left the towne naked, some of his horse dragoons keeping them deceived till the foot were all gone, and then they gallopped in the rear after, which the enemy perceiving, played on their back with their canon, but with no harm or success at all-, God be praised; soe that night we inarched back toward Hampton Court, next day into Kingston, a great towne which they had manned the day before with six thousand men in it, but left it upon our fight at Brainford ; soe here we are now very safe, our foot and our horse round about us." After the battle great outrages were committed in the town, in consequence of which the inhabitants presented the following petition to the Commons, and the House taking the matter into consideration, sent an order to the ministers of Middlesex, that they should upon the fast day then appointed, read in their churches a relation of their sufferings, and excite the people to compassion ; the con- tributions in some places were very liberal ; at Stepney, the sum of thirty pounds was collected. But the accounts given of the cruelties perpetrated by the contending factions during this dreadful contest, should be received with great caution. They were written at a time of violent national agitation, when a spirit of anti-chiistian animosity was widely diffused over the whole country. The humble petition of all the inhabitants of the town of Old Brainford. To the honourable the Commons assem- bled in Parliament, for some speedy course for relief of such great damage and loss as they received by His Majesty's forces of the twelfth and thirteenth of this pre- sent November. Together with an order for the minister, of Middlesex, and partly of London, to read in their parish Churches on the next fast-day, the relation of the sufferings of the inhabitants of Old Brainford, lately printed for Edmund Husbands and John Frank, to excite the people to a com- passionate consideration of them. " London, Nov. 27, 1642. " To the honourable assembly of the Commons House of Parliament. The humble petition of all and every the inhabitants of Old Brainford, in the County of Middlesex. " Sheweth : — That it is too manifest to the world, how that your petitioners on the twelve and thirteen days of this present month, were plundered and bereaved of their several and particular personal estates, as money, plate, household stuff of all sorts, and other necessaries, of what condition soever, by his Majesty's forces, this happening among them, then your petitioners are able to express. The consideration of whose loss amounting to near four thousand pounds, as particulars may appear, together with the miserable and sad condition they are brought unto, your petitioners humbly leave to the consideration and wisdom of this honourable assembly. Humbly craving some speedy course may be thought of, for the relief of your petitioners jn this their distress, by such ways and means as in your great and grave wisdoms shall be thought meet. " And they shall ever pray." " Die Sabbathi, 26th November, 1642. — It is this day ordered, by the Commons assembled in Parliament, that the Ministers of Middlesex, and partly of London, do the next fast-day read in their several parish churches, the relations of the sufferings of the inhabitants of Old Brent- ford, on the twelfth "and thirteenth of this month, by his Majesties forces ; and that they do excite the people to a compassionate consideration of them, and that whatsover shall be collected upon the next fast-day within the parishes aforesaid, may be employed for the relief of the inhabitants of Old Brainford aforesaid, and of such of New Brainford as have been plundered and ruined by the forces aforesaid. " Ordered by the Commons in Parliament, that this peti- tion and order be fortwith printed and published." " A true and perfect relation of the barbarous cruel pas- sages of the king's army at Old Braintford, near London, being presented to the House of Commons, by a Com- mittee of the same House, who was sent thither on purpose to examine the truth of the particular actions of the said army. The king's army upon Saturday the 12th of November instant, (after his Majesty's assent to the Treaty of Accom- modation,) surprised Colonel Holies, his regiment, at Old Brainford, and after they had possessed themselves of the town, they plundered it, without any respect of persons, except the house of one Brent, a Church papist (whose wife was a known popish recusant, and he suspected to give intelligence to the king's army). First they drank and wasted the beer and wine in the several inns, and other places in the town, and such beer and wine as they could not drink, they let it down out, in some cellars as deep as to the middle. They also took from the inhabit- ants their money, linen, woollen, bedding, wearing apparel, horses, cows, wine, hens, &c. and all manner of victuals ; also, pewter, brass, iron pots, and kettles, and all manner of grocery, chandlery, and apothecary ware ; nay, such was their barbarous carriage, that many of the feather beds which they could not bear away, they did cut the ticks of them in pieces, and scattered the feathers abroad in the fields and streets ; they did also cut the cords of the beds, and broke down the bedsteads ; they did cut to pieces and burn the poor fishermens' boats and nets by which they got their living, having pillaged them besides of all that ever they had ; they did cast beef into the dirt, which they carried not away with them ; they littered their horses with wheat sheaves ; they spoiled nurseries of fruit trees of good value, and near upon three bushels of apples from one man they took away, spoiled and trampled to dirt with their horses feet, besides fifteen pair of sheets, his bedding, &c. They also took candles to the value of twenty pounds and upwards from one man, and burnt them all night through the army, and such as they carried not away, either they broke in pieces, or threw into the fire, or trod in the mire. Had they rested with robbing of the richer sort, it had been some degree of mercy, but they left not unplundered, the blind beggar at Old Brainford, taking from him and his wife, their apparel, linen, woollen, and bedding ; and the like they did to the poor almswomen in the Spittle there, and took from them their wheel or rocks, by which they got something towards a livelihood ; and when they had thus plundered and taken away all the goods, except here and there a bed, they defaced some houses, and set one of fire on purpose, as is conceived, to fire the town, which was afterwards quenched by an inha- bitant. Had their wicked carriages here ended in the loss of the inhabitants' goods, without hazard of their persons, they had undergone it with more patience ; but such was their inhuman behaviour, that they did set drawn swords and pistols cocked to men's and women's breasts, threat- ening them with death, if they brought not out all their money, and threatening others to cut off their noses, and pull out their eyes, calling them Parliament dogs, round headed rogues, beating and wounding some of them, (one of them being a lame cripple,) taking others of the ฃ5 inhabitants prisoners, and putting irons upon them, others they tied with ropes, and stripped some to their shirts ; and as one of them was led next day in irons towards Oatlands, stooped to take a little water in his hat to drink, they beat him, and bruised him for offering to do it, their hearts were so scared, that they would not extend com- passion to the aged and grey headed ; for they took one grave old gentleman, above four-score years of age, and put him with other of the inhabitants of the town, into the pound, where they were divers hours, and afterwards were removed into the slaughter-house, where they lay all night, it being a most nasty and noisome place ; and the old gentleman being bound head and foot together all night. They also plundered an ancient gentlewoman of about three score and ten years of age, whose age and weakness would not permit her to go to Church for these seven years last past, they took from her all her bedding, linnen, pewter, &c, and even her mantle from her back, leaving her in a poor and miserable condition. Their plundering was so universal, that even divers of the richer as well as the mean sort were, and to this day are, inforced to live of the charity of the Earl of Essex and his soldiers, the Cavaliers leaving scarce a piece of bread or meat in all the town. It would pierce a heart of flint to see the tears dropping from the old men's eyes, in expressing their sad condition ; and a great addition to these cruelties, was the barbarous, merciless, and unheard of usage of the Par- lament soldiers by the Cavaliers ;* for they did put them into a pound and there tied and pinioned them together, The application of Round-heads and Cavaliers, by which the Parliamen- tarians and Royalists, were afterwards respectively stigmatized in the minds of their opponents, originated from the custom of the London Apprentices, having their hair cut close and round to the form of the skull ; and during their daily progress to Westminster, they usually stopped at Whitehall, where the Queen observing out of the window Samuel Barnadiston, among them, exclaimed, " See what a Round-head is there." This term was, perhaps, first publicly used by Captain David Hyde, who whilst walking near Westminster- hall, with other officers, during the disturbances, drew his sword, and said he would cut the throats of those round headed, cropped cared dogs, that bawled against the bishops. where they so stood for many hours, some of them stripped to their shirts, others to their breeches, most without stockings or shoes, and in that condition removed them to the slaughter-house, where they lay all night, and next day were dragged away over Hounslow Heath towards Oatlands, divers of them bare foot and bare leg, over furs and thistles, till their feet and legs did bleed, and were sorely gauled. But these may be accounted acts of grace and favour in comparison of what they did to others of them ; for when divers of Master Holies, his soldiers fled into the river Thames for safe guard of their lives, they shot at them as they were swimming, and divers of them were drowned. "They took after the fight ended, five of the Earl of Essex his soldiers, and tied them by the hands with ropes, inforced them into the River Thames, who standing in the water to their necks, casting their eyes on their enemies, in hopes of mercy ; but, such was the merciless condition of their adversaries, that a trooper rid in the water after them, and forced them to fall into the depth of the water, saying to them in a jeering manner, swim for your lives, when it was past all possibility to escape. Had their bar- barous carriages begun and ended in the heat of blood and revenge, it had a little qualified their offence ; but, so full of inhumanity were their hearts, even before the fight begun at Old Brainford, with Colonel Hollis, his regiment, that they placed ten of the Earl of Essex his soldiers, whom they had formerly taken prisoners at Kingston pinioned, in the front of their men to be as a breastwork to receive the bullets that came from Colonel Hollis his regiment, that the Cavaliers might escape them ; but, such was the providence of God, that not one of them was hurt, though shot in the clothes in many places, and one of the ten escaped, who was formerly a sergiant to a company in Colonel Essex his regiment, and in the presence of divers witnesses averred the truth of this particular. And now since it appears by this prodigious acts of rapine, devasta- tion, and tyranny, that these men delight in cruelty, and fight against their own associates, and spoil those that favour their own cause with those that oppose it, what remains, but that they be taken not for such as endeavour the defence of the king, but the ruin of the kingdom, and not as enemies of some kind of men, but as the common ene- mies of mankind; and, therefore, mankind should join together against them, as it was said of Ishmael, ( his sword shall be against every man, and every man's sword against him." " 24th November, 1642. Ordered by the Commons assembled in Parliament, that this relation, concerning the passages of the king's army, at Old Braintford, be forth- with printed and published.*" " His Majesties Declaration to all his loving subjects, shelv- ing his true intention in advancing lately to Brainford : — " Though our reputation be most deare to us, and especi- ally in those cases wherein the truth of our most solemne professions (and by consequence of our Christianity) is questioned, yet it is not onely for the vindication of that, and to cleare ourselfe from such aspersion, but withall to preserve our subjects in their just esteeme of, and duty to us, and from being engaged into crimes and dangers by those malicious reports so spitefully framed, and cunningly spread against us concerning our late advancing to Brain- ford, that we have resolved to publish this our following declaration : " At Colebrooke on Friday the 11th of November, (1642) Ave received a petition from both our Houses of Parliament, by the Earle of Northumberland, the Earle of Pembroke and Montgomery, the Lord Wenman, Master Perpoint, and Sir John Hippisly : And indeed we were well pleased to see it so much liker to a petition, than the other papers we had often of late received under that name, and re- turned to it the next day, so gracious an answer, that wee assure ourselves could not but be very satisfactory to all that were truly lovers of peace. The copies of both doe here follow: To the King's Most Excellent Majesty, " The humble Petition of the Lords and Commons now assembled in Parliament. " We your Majesties most loyall subjects, the Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, being affected with a deep and piercing sense of the miseries of this kingdom, and of the dangers to your Majesties Person as the present affaires now stand, and much quickened therein with the sad consideration of the great effusion of bloud at the late battell, and of the losse of so many auncient persons, and further, weighing the addition of losse, misery and danger to your Majesty and your kingdome which must ensue, if both armies should againe joine in another battell, as without God's especiall blessing, and your Majesties concurrence with your House of Parliament, will not probably bee avoided. " Wee cannot but believe, that a suitable impression of tendernesse and compassion is wrought in your Majesties royall heart, being yourselfe an eye witnesse of the bloudy and sorrowful destruction of so many of your subjects; and that your Majesty doth apprehend what diminution of your owne power and greatnesse will follow, and that all your kingdomes will thereby be so weakned, as to become subject to the attempts of any ill affected to this state. In all which respects we assure ourselves, that your Majesty will be inclined graciously to accept this our humble Petition, that the misery and desolation of this kingdome may be speedily removed and prevented. For the effecting whereof, we most humbly beseech your Majesty to appoint some convenient place, not farre from the City of London, where your Majesty will be pleased to reside, untill Committees of both Houses of Parliament may attend your Majesty with some propositions for the removall of these bloudy distempers and distractions, and setling the state of the kingdom, in such a manner, as may conduce to the preservation of God's true religion ; your Majesties honour, safety, and prosperity ; and to the peace, comfort, and security of all your people. His Majesties answer to the aforesaid Petition" " We take God to witnesse how deeply we are affected with the miseries of this kingdom, which heretofore we have stroven, as much as in us lay to prevent ; it being suffi- ciently known to all the world, that as we were not the first that took up arms, so we have shewed our readinesse of composing all things in a fair way by our severall offers of treaty, and shall be glad now at length to find any such inclinations in others : the same tendernesse to avoid the destruction of our subjects (whom we know to be our greatest strength) which would always make our greatest victories bitter to us, shall make us willingly hearken to such propositions whereby these bloudy distempers may be stopped, and the great distractions of this kingdom setled, to God's glory, our honour, and the welfare and flourishing of our people ; and to that end shall reside at our own castle at Windsore (if the forces there shall be removed) till Committees may have time to attend us with the same (which, to prevent the inconveniencies that shall intervene, wee wish bee hastened) and shall be ready there (or if that bee refused us) at any place where we shall be, to receive such propositions as aforesaid, from both our Houses of Parliament. Doe you your duty ; we will not be wanting to ours ; God of his mercy give a blessing. "But the same night after the messengers were gone, certain information was brought unto us, that same day the Earle of Essex had drawne his forces with great store of ordinance out of London towards us, upon which a councell of warre being present, and wee having there .considered, upon debate, our present condition, that being already almost surrounded by his forces, some at Windsore, some at Kingstone, and some at Acton, if wee suffered the remainder to possesse Brainford, we should be totally hemmed in, and our army deprived of all convenience of either moving or subsisting. Yet how necessary soever it appeared, we could not obtaine our owne consent to advance towards Brainford, and either possesse it, or dispossesse them, till wee had satisfied ourselves that it was as lawfull as necessary, and fully weighed all, that not onely reason, but malice itself (which wee knew to bee very watchfull upon our actions) could object against it. Wee considered first that it could not reasonably be esteemed an aversion from peace, and an intention to interrupt the treaty then in expectation; since on the other side wee had cause to beleeve by the former rejection of our offers of treaty, when we were supposed to be in no condition of strength, that if we would not thus preserve our selves from being so en- compassed as to come into their powers, the very possibility of a treaty would immediately vanish. Wee considered next, that much lesse could it be interpreted any breach of faith, since willingnesse to receive propositions of treaty was never held to amount to a suspension of arms ; since otherwise we must (because mention of a treaty had been once made) by the same logick have been bound not to hinder them to encompasse us on all parts to Colebrook towns end ; since no word to that purpose (of any suspen- sion) was in our answer ; nay, since in that (by wishing their propositions might be hastned, to prevent the incon- veniences which would intervene) we imply ed, that by this arms were not suspended; and since their own votes of proceeding vigorously, notwithstanding the petition, and their own actions, in sending after their messengers great store of forces with ordnance so neare to us (having before girt us in on all other parts, and sent men and ordnance to Kingstone after the safe conduct asked of us) implyed the same. " Being resolved upon these reasons, that this advancing was necessary and just, wee were not yet satisfied till wee had endeavoured the same day (though the interruptions of shooting stopt up the way till the next) to satisfie our Parliament and people of the same, and that peace was still our desire, we to that end directed a message by John White Esquire, which was so received, that his danger of being put to death for bringing it, and the imprisonment of him and the trumpeter that went with him in the gate- house, shewed that the very law of nations was by some no more considered then all other lawes had been before. A copy of which message hereafter followes, to shew how little temptation the matter of that gave them for such " His Majesty's Message of the 12th of November. " Whereas last night, being the eleventh of November, after the departure of the Committee of both our Houses, with our gracious answer to their petition, wee received certain information, (having till then heard nothing of it, either from the Houses, Committee or otherwise,) that the Lord of Essex had drawn his forces out of London towards us, which hath necessitated our sudden resolution to march with our forces to Brainford ; we have thought hereby fit to signiiie to both our Houses of Parliament, that wee are no lesse desirous of the peace of the kingdome, then wee exprest in our aforesaid answer, the proposition for which wee shall willingly receive where ever wee are, and desire (if it may be) to receive them at Brainford this night, or early to morrow morning ; that all possible speed may be made in so good a worke, and all inconveniences, otherwise likely to intervene, may be avoided. " And to justify yet further, that our intention was no other then was here profest ; as soon as wee were informed that the Earle of Essex his forces were departed from Kingstone, before any appearance or notice of further forces from London, (our end of not being inclosed being obtained) wee gave orders to quit Brainford, and to march away, and possesse that place. " Wee cannot but make one argument more of the truth of our profession, that this was all our end, and that wee had not the least thought, by so advancing, to surprise and sack London, (which the malignant party would infuse into that our city) and that is, that probably God Almighty would not have given such a blessing to our journey, as to have assisted us so by land and water, as with lesse then a third part of our foot, and with the losse but of ten men, to beat two of their best regiments out of both Brainfords, for all the great advantage of the works in them, to kill him who commanded in chief, and kill and drown many others, to take five hundred prisoners, more arms, eleven colours, and good store of ammunition, fifteen pieces of ordnance, (whereof wee sunk most that wee brought not away) and then unfought with, and unoffered at, nearer then by ordinance, to march away, notwithstanding the great disadvantage of our forces by the difficulties of the passages, if hee, who is the searcher of all hearts, and truth it selfe, had not known the truth of our professions, and the innocency of our heart, and how farre wee were from deserving those horrid accusations of falshood, and treachery cast so point blank upon our own person, and that it would amaze any man to see them suffered to be printed in our City of London, if any thing of that kind could be a wonder, after so many of the same, and how really they desire accommodation, who upon this have voted they will have none. " These our reasons for this action, this our satisfaction sent for it, and this blessing of God upon it, will (wee doubt not) cleer us to all indifferent persons both of the Jesuitecall counsells and the personall treachery, to which some have presumed so impudently to impute it ; and God so blesse our future actions, as wee have delivered the truth of this.

CHAPTER III.

THE CHURCH. It is built in the form of an oblong square, seventy-three feet long, including ten feet of the chancel, and forty-five feet wide. It consists of a nave and chancel. The chancel forms a recess with a circular cieling', and is ornamented with festoons of grapes and foliage, the carving and mouldings are painted white, on a pale blue ground. The Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer, and the Apostles' Creed, are painted in gilt letters on a black ground. Over the centre of the middle window, which is of Venetian form, are placed the royal arms, handsomely carved and gilt. The whole interior of the Church displays a chaste and elegant appearance. It was repaired and painted in the year 1820, and the chancel was again painted in 1840. The pulpit and reading-desk are of oak. The gothic font is placed in the nave. The galleries are supported by eight Ionic wooden columns. The organ is placed in the west gallery. Twenty- one pews on the north side of the nave and north aisle ; and the whole of the north gallery belong to the Minister, as forming part of the endowment. The exterior is plain, built of brick, with seventeen circular headed windows. The ancient stone tower, forming part of the original structure, is embattled, and is still in good condition. The Royal Arms were the immediate successors of the Roods, which were ordered to be taken down) in November, 1547, and are now the only external badge of supremacy. Such texts of Scripture were ordered to be written against the walls of churches as condemned masses. Seats in Churches were subject to sale as early as 1457 ; the price varied from lOd. to lQd., the former sum being paid for one behind the font, and the latter for one opposite the pulpit.

Church Towers were formerly the parochial fortresses, and were fitted up with fire places, &c. The parishioners resorting to them in time of danger. It is said they were introduced about the time of King Edgar, and improved bv the Normans. Monuments and Inscriptions inside the Church. You enter the Church at the north-east side by a door which leads to the Chancel : on the north wall of which is a handsome marble monument, by Westmacot, which cost two hundred pounds, with the following inscription ; In Memory of James Clitherow, of Boston House, in this County, Esq. He died May 9th, 1805, aged 73 years, He was an active Magistrate and was universally beloved and respected. Also, of his wife Anne, Daughter and co-heir of Reginald Kemys, of Bertholth, Monmouthshire, Esq. She died December 25, 1801, in the 71st year of her age ; By her he had seven children, Anne, married to W. Salkeld, Esq. ; Philippa, married to B. Brooksbank, Esq.; Jane, to Peter Baker, Esq. ; Mary, Spinster ; James ; Martha, married to Lord W. Seymour ; and Sarah, married to the Rev. E. Bullock. James Clitherow, Esq. (the above-named son,) Was born February 6th 1766, and died October, 12th 1811, Respected and beloved by all who knew him; He was for many years an able and zealous Magistrate for this County, And for forty-six years Colonel of the Royal Westminster Middlesex Militia; He married Jane, daughter of G. Snow, of Langton, Dorset, Esq. By whom he left no issue ; Deeply interested in promoting the welfare of his fellow men, And gifted with peculiar activity of mind, He devoted all the energies of a Christian spirit, To the fulfillment of his duties in these and every other relation of life. This tablet is erected by his Widow and Sister Mary, In fond and grateful remembrance of One of the best and kindest of husbands and brothers. On the wall of the north Gallery is a marble monument surmounted with arms, and the following inscription : — Sacred to the Memory Of a truly amiable and respectable woman, Ann, Wife of James Clitherow, of Boston House, Esq. ; They were married January 28th 1757, And after near forty-five years of perfect conjugal felicity, She died December 25, 1801, in the 71st year of her age. She was second Daughter and Co-heir of Reginald Kemys, of Bertholth, Monmouthshire, Esq. by Jane his Wife, Daughter and Co-heir of the Rev. Charles Proby, of Tewing, Herts, D.D. She was the happy Mother of seven children Who all survived her. James, her only Son, married Jane, Daughter of George Snow, of Langton, Dorsetshire, Esq. Her Daughters were, Ann, Wife of William Salkeld, of Fifehead, Neville, Dorsetshire, Esq. Philippa, Wife of Benjamin Brookshank, of Hellaugh, Yorkshire, Esq. Jane, Wife of Peter Williams Baker, of Ranstone, Dorsetshire, Esq. Mary. — Martha, Wife of the Right Hon. Lord William Seymour, Fifth surviving Son of Francis, late Marquis of Hertford. Sarah, Wife of the Rev. Edward Bullock, A.M. In hallow'd earth in holy hope repos'd Her peaceful ashes sleep, th' immortal soul Awaits that awful hour, when what she was, Will from the Almighty's final doom he known. Also, of the ahove named James Clitherow, Esq. Who died May 9th, 1805, aged 73 years, In firm expectation of a joyful resurrection, And trusting solely in the merits of Jesus Christ, for Pardon of his sins, and for an happy eternity. On the east wall of the Chancel, on the north side of the window, on a handsome marble monument, with columns, is the following inscription : — In Memory Of Rachel, ye Wife of Christor. Clitherow, Of Boston House, in this County, Esq. eldest Daur. Of lames Paule, of Braywick, in the County of Berks, Esq. Who died October ye 23d, 1714, agd. 40, & had 15 Children born and Christned, 6 of them died infants, & lye by her, nine survived. In memory also Of the sd. Christr. Clitherow, Who died August 20, 1727, aged 61. Arms: — Clitherow, impaling Arg. on a cross sab. 5 etoils of the field for Paule. Christopher Clitherow, married Rachel, daughter of James Paule, Esq. of Braywick, Bucks. Against the same wall, on the south side of the window, is a neat marble monument surmounted with two separate coats of arms and crest. Arms : — Arg. on a Chevron G. between 3 eagles displayed sab. 5 annulets, or, for Clitherow, impaling, quarterly 1 and 4. Per Chevron engrailed or and sab. a lion rampant counterchanged, 2 and 3 Arg. three spears in pale, and a chief sab. the shears, heads on the chief Arg. for Barker. James Clitherow, married the daughter of Thomas Barker, of Chiswick. In expectation of a blessed resurrection, lyeth bvried in this Chancel, the body of lames Clitherow Of Boston Howse, in this Parish, Esq.; He departed this Life Ye 25th of Novemr. 1082, leaving 2 Sons, lames & Christopher; and 2 Davghters, Jane & Elizabeth. Jane married John Jennyns, of Hays, in ye County of Middlesex ; Elizabeth unmarried, afterwards wife of Barnham, Son and Heir Apparent of Nath. Powell, Bart. Here also lyeth the Body of Eliz. Relict of ye said James Clitherow, who departed this life ye 24th of Apl., 1G88. She was the davghter of Thos. Barker, of Chiswick, In the said Covnty, Esq. third wife of ye said James Clitherow, And mother of ye sd. Christopher & Elizabeth. On the south wall of the Chancel, a handsome marble monument with arms, and the following inscription : — In this Chancel lies the body of James Clitherow, of Boston House, in this Parish, Esq. eldest Son and Hen- of Christopher Clitherow, and Rachel his wife. He married Phillippa, eldest Daughter and Co-heir of Leonard Gale, of Crabbet, in ye County of Sussex, Esq., (by Sarah, his Wife, sole Daughter & heir of Richd Knight, of Cowden, in ye County of Kent, Esq.,) by whom he had two sons, James and Christopher, & seven daughters, Philippa, Martha, Sarah, Rachel, Philippa, Elizabeth, & Ann. He died regretted by all that knew him, the 3rd day of May, 175'2, aged 58 years, leaving a character so well known, & so universally esteemed, as to render an encomium unne- cessary. In affectionate regard to the memory of her husband, this monument was erected by his widow who lived equally esteemed, & died as justly regretted, January 14th 1760, aged 55. Here also lie the bodiees of their daughters. Philippa, | Martha & Elizabeth. On the east wall of the South Aisle, is an elegant monument of marble in the form of a Sarcophagus, supported by the figures of faith and hope, designed with exquisite simplicity, and executed in a style that must reflect credit on the age which produced them, as specimens of monu- mental sculpture, by Flaxman, thus inscribed : — Thy will be done. Sacred To the memory of William Howell Ewin, LL.D. Who died November 29th, 1804, in the 74th year of his age. Also, of his Sister, Susanna Howell Ewin, Who died January 12th, 1808, in the 70th year of her age. In the Chancel lies buried William Noy, Attorney- General to King Charles the First. A brass plate with an inscription was placed over his tomb, but was soon defaced. On the east end wall, over the South Gallery, is placed an elaborate monument in form of an alcove, with a pediment supported by two Corinthian columns of scagliola marble, displaying the figures of John Middleton, Esq. and his wife, kneeling at a fald stool, in the dress of the times. Over the pediment are the family coat of arms. At the base of the Monument on each side are the arms of Middleton and Philips, in separate coats. The following inscription is on a black tablet under the above. Here sleepeth in the Lord, John Middleton, Esquire sometimes a student of Lyncolnes Inne, who was borne in ye Parrish of St. Olave, Sovthwarke in the County of Surrey, he married Elizabeth, the daughter of Thomas Philipps of New Brentford ; after he lived regliously in ye feare of God & favour of all good men for temperance, uprightnesse, & deeds of piety, as ye annuity of five pounds to be distributed uppon ye feast of St. Thomas Th' apostle among ye poore of this Towne of New Brentford for ever, where hee sometymes was an Inhabitant, may give sufficient testemony. Hee departed this life ye 40 yeare of his Age in ye yeare of our Redemption 1624. John Middleton married the daughter of Thomas Philips of Brentford. On the south wall of the South Aisle, on a marble tablet — Sacred to the Memory of Mr. Rohert Hazell, wbo died on the 18th day of January, 1840, aged 44 years. Near the preceding on a marble tablet — To the much esteemed Memory of three worthy men, Brothers, and natives of this Parish, Henry, John, and Thomas Whitehead, whose remains lye under- neath. This Monument is erected as a small token of grateful respect by their very affectionate relative and executor to the last surviving brother, George Balston, of Knigbtsbridge. On the same wall on a circular tablet with drapery : — Near this Place lie the Mortal remains of the Rev. William Cooke, B.D. Late Vicar of Preston, in the County of Suffolk, and of Melton Parva, in the County of Norfolk. And formerly Fellow of Emanuel College, In the University of Cambridge. He died the 1st of April, 1810, aged 76. Filial affection inscribes this Tablet to the memory of a good man and kind parent. Against the eastern wall of the North Aisle on a marble tablet surmounted with an urn. A Sacred memorial of Mr. John Soame Howard, Late of this Parish, who died January 27th 1810, aged 52 years, Of Mrs. Martha Howard his wife, who died February 27th, 1824, Aged 67 years, And of Mary Ann Howard, daughter of the above, who died March 18th, 1818, Aged 26 years, whose remains are deposited . Iu the middle aisle of this church. On the north wall, on a marble sarcophagus — Sacred to the Memory of Charlotte, The affectionate wife of George Cooper, Esq. Of this Parish, Who died universally respected, 11th April, 1834, In her 34th year. On the same Avail on a marble tablet, surmounted with two urns — Near this place lie the remains of Benjamin Lucas, Esq. Of the Butts, of this Parish, who died the 7th of January, 1788, aged 66 years. Also, of Mary Lucas, his Widow, Who died the 11th of March, 1803, aged 67 years. . On a circular tablet with arms, on the east wall of the north gallery — M. S. Of Mrs. Curtis Cullum, late Wife of Thomas Cullum, Gent. Eldest Daughter of Henry Hawley, Esq., and Alice His Wife ; she died in Childbed ye 8th day of February, Ten days after the birth of their Daughter Anna, Whom she left issue, being then first and only child. Thomas John Hardwick, Eldest Son of Philip Hardwick, Architect, And Grandson of the above, Born 3d Augt. 1820, died 14th April, 1836 .

The Virgin Mary was the tutelar saint of John Redman, and this bell was no doubt presented by him about the year 1520, so that it has occupied its present position upwards of three centuries. List of the Communion Plate. — A silver spoon, three silver cups, a large silver flagon, three silver patens, a figure of St. Lawrence on the top of the Beedle's staff. With the Communion Plate are a cup and two salvers on which are engraven the arms of a Dowager Countess ; this coat, it is natural to suppose, is the arms of the donor, and the received opinion has been, that the plate was the gift of the Dowager Lady Capel, of Tewkesbury and of Kew, a benefactress, by will, to the Charity School ; but it is more probable to have been the gift of the Countess Dowager of Northumberland. The arms, by the Coronet, are the arms of a Dowager Countess ; and Lord Capel, whose widow Lady Capel was, never had any other title than Baron Capel, of Tewkesbury ; besides, the arms are not the Capel arms, being only a Lion rampant, the colours not expressed, whereas the Capel arms are Gules, a lion rampant, between three cross crosslets fitchee ; or further, his name was Bennett, and the arms on her monument in Kew Chapel, are the same as THE CHURCH OF SAINT LAWRENCE. Lord Tankerville's, nothing resembling the female arms in the engraving. Algernon, Earl of Northumberland, who died in 1688, had for his second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Theophilus, Earl of Suffolk. The fashion of the plate is that of the end of the seventeenth century. She lived a Dowager from 1688 to 1705, and the first quartering in the Percy arms is Or, a Lion rampant, azure. The female coat on the plate is merely the Howard arms, except the bend is marked as Gules not Argent, the crosslets are not fitchee, and the charge on the bend is the Howard arms omitted. Hence, a fair conjecture arises, that the coat of arms is that of the Countess Dowager of Northumberland, engraved by some ignorant hand ; and her inhabitancy of Sion House, adjoining the township, supports the conjec- ture, either that she gave the plate, or that it was bought after her death in 1705. The under-mentioned are selected from a " schedoule" of what belonged to the Chappel of New Brentford, taken the 27th day of September, by the Minister and Chappell- wardens in the year 1669, " One large folio Bible. The Books of Common Prayer, one lost by the flood, April 26, 1682. A Book of Homilyes. Erasmus, Paraphrase on the Gospell, lost by the flood. One Book of Canons. The Parchment Register Books. One little Booke of Collections and Distribution - of Almes. Six Books of Formes of Prayers to be used on several occasions. One silver Chalice, gilt. One Poor's-box with two locks One Chest with three locks and keys. One Chest of Armour. Twelve leather Buckets. Two fyer hooks in the Churche and two in Market-place. One silver Bell, Pin, Collar, and Ball used at Whitsontide."

INCUMBENTS from 1650 to 1842. I Lambeth MS. Library. Death of Vincent. 1650 John Bennett 1654 Robert Gorden 1657 Abriel Borfit, M.A. 1675 John Franklyn, M.A. 1694 Samuel Packer. 1707 John Le Hunt, B.A. 1726 William Chilcott, D.D. 1729 Thomas Vincent. 1743 Daniel Burnaby, M.A. 1760 John Home Tooke. (Resigned in 1769, but his name is not entered in the Bishop's Registry.) 1780 Sam. Glasse, D.D. Death of Burnaby. 1785 G. H. Glasse, Clerk. Resig. Rev. Samuel Glasse, D.D. 1786 John Evan Randall, M.A. Resig. G. H. Glasse, Clerk. 1803 T.Whipham, Clerk. DeathofJ.E.Randall,M.A. 1805 William Ambor Keating, Clerk. Resig. Thos. Whipham. 1808 Sir Robert Peat, D.D. Resig. W. A. Keating. 1837 John Stoddart, D.D. Death of Sir R. Peat. 1842 Geo. Harrison, M.A. Resig. J. Stoddart, D.D, John Franklyn, M.A. was, by the agreement of a vestry and consent of the Rector of Hanwell, elected to be their Minister in the Chappel of New Brentford, in whose time the Church House was re-built, William Barker, and George Lewis being Churchwardens.* J. Le Hunt, B.A. succeeded Mr. Packer, he was appointed Curate by the nomination of the Rev. Roger Rogerson, Rector of Hanwell, by whom he was recommended to the Bishop of London for his license which he received on the ninth of July, 1707. He was the first who refused to be chosen by the town's people.

INCUMBENTS. Electing their own curate, contrary to the rules of the Church.* In the year 1760, Mr. Horxe was admitted a priest of the Church of England, and in the course of the same year he was appointed Assistant Minister, under Mr Bur- naby, the Rector of Hanwell, and officiated for nine years, as appears by his signature in the Parish registers. He administered every possible comfort to the poor, and was regular in his attention to the sick, a circumstance attended with a double portion of consolation ; for not content with praying with those who desired it, he actually studied the healing art, for the express purpose of relieving the com- plaints of such as were unable to pay for medical advice. He was accustomed to plume himself on the cures he had performed ; and often observed, that although physic was said to be a problematical art, he believed that his medical, were fully as efficacious as his spiritual labours. In the year 1773, Mr. Home, equally marked throughout life by eccentricity of character and singularity of fortune, resigned his Church preferment, and resumed the study of the law.f The Rev. G. H. Glasse distinguished himself in the early part of his life as a classical scholar, and possessed a remarkable facility of writing Greek verses. In 1781, he published a Greek translation of Mason's Caractacus, and in 1788, a translation of Milton's Samson Agonistes into the same language, both in verse. Dr. Glasse published Contemplations on the Sacred History, 4 vols. 12mo. (1792), Louisa, a Narrative of Facts, supposed to be on the myste- rious History of the Lady of the Hay Stack, translated from the French; a volume of Sermons on various subjects, 1793; another volume altered from Bishop Beveridge, 1804; and several single Discourses. He was a frequent contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine, under the signature E. E. A.$Sir Robert Peat was Curate for several years before the Parish Register. was appointed to the living. He had been Chaplain to, and a great confidant of his Majesty George the IV, who, while Prince of Wales, procured him, in 1808, this preferment. He was in the Commission of the Peace for the district of the Tower of London, and was Prior or Prelate of the sixth language of the Sovereign order of St. John of Jerusalem, and Senior Knight Grand Cross of Stanislaus of Poland. The license to accept this order was granted in 1804, by George the Third, as a special mark of royal favour, Sir Robert Peat being at that time a clergyman. The sixth, or English language above-men- tioned, of the most ancient of all the orders of knighthood has been revived in this country, and is a corporation with the other seven nations or languages. Sir Robert Peat died in 1837, and was buried in the Church* His library, containing a good collection of Theological works, and of Greek and Latin Classics, was sold by Mr. Leigh Sotheby, on the 23rd and 24th of June of that year. The Rev. Dr. Stoddart, who succeeded Sir Robert Peat, is the eldest son of the Rev. John Stoddart, of Northampton, who was for many years Curate of All Saints Church, and also for more than thirty years the very able and much respected Head Master of the Grammar School in that town. Dr. Stoddart was a Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge, and took his doctor's degree in that University, in the year 1836. He was the Curate and Incumbent of the parish of New Brentford for more than fourteen years, and also Vicar of Pattishall, in North- amptonshire, which living was presented to him by the late Lord Chancellor Eldon, in the year 1819. In addition to his duties at New Brentford, he was for more than eight years Chaplain to the Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum at Han well, from its first opening in 1831 to 1839, which office he resigned in consequence of the great increase of patients admitted into that institution, and the increased duties required of the Chaplain.

INCUMBENTS. Thrapston, in the county of Northampton, by the Duke of Dorset, and appointed his Grace's domestic Chaplain. During his residence at New Brentford, he was much respected by the higher orders for his exemplary discharge of his duties as a parish priest, and his zeal in promoting the welfare of the different charitable institutions belonging to that place ; and by the lower orders he was much beloved for his benevolent and unceasing efforts in behalf of their temporal as well as spiritual wants ; and thus possessing alike the confidence of both, he was the channel of continually communicating the bounty of the one, to relieve the wants and necessities of the other. The value of his services as Chaplain to the County Lunatic Asylum, will be best appreciated by the following- extract from the Minutes of the Visiting Magistrates or Justices of that asylum, at a Meeting held on Thursday, the 18th of July, 1839. " Resolved, That the Committee of the Visiting Justices of the Han well Lunatic Asylum, cannot accept the discon- tinuance of the valuable labours of the Rev. Dr. Stoddart, as Chaplain of that Establishment, without expressing their high sense of the zeal, ability, judgment, and kindness, with which, from the commencement of the Asylum, he has uniformly fulfilled his duties of that appointment, and that having communicated these senti- ments in their la^t Report, (the Fiftieth) to the Court of Quarter Sessions, a copy of that Report be transmitted by the Clerk to the Rev. Dr. Stoddart," " Charles Wright, Clerk. " Sessions House, Clerkenwell, " 30th July, 1839." Upon the resignation of the Rev. Dr. Stoddart, the Rev. G. Harrison, M.A. was presented by the Rev. Dr. Walmsley, Rector of Hanwell, the Patron, and was appointed without personal application, or even knowledge, except what he had learned from the Bishop of London in whose diocese the Rev. Mr. Harrison had officiated nine years, and was by his lordship recommended to fill this important appointment.

CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS, From 1529 to 1818, copied from the front of the Galleries of the Church. 1529. Henry Redman, and Joan his wife, bequeathed to the parishioners of Brentford, a rent charge of Six Pounds annually for ever, issuing out of premises in this township. 1624. John Middleton, of Northaw, in Herts., Esq., gave by will, Five Pounds issuing out of certain premises near Battle Bridge, in St. Olive's parish, Southwark, to be distributed among the poor of this township annually. 1659. Dame Mary Spencer, of Boston House, devised a yearly rent charge of Six Pounds on the Butts' Closes, for apprenticing one poor boy of this township annually. 1668. Richard Andrews, Citizen of London, gave Twenty Pounds towards a stock for the poor of this township. 1673. Ann Hubbold, widow, gave Ten Pounds to increase the above stock. In the year 1694, these sums, amounting to Thirty Pounds, were applied towards building a new gallery in the Church, reserving Thirty- six shillings to be paid to the poor of this town- ship annually, out of the rents of the pews. 1692. The Right Hon. John, Lord Ossulston, gave for apprenticing one poor child of this township yearly, the interest of One Hundred Pounds, This amounted, A.D. 1820, with accumulations, to One Hundred and Ninety Pounds in the Three per Cents. 1721. Dorothy, Lady Capel, Baroness of Tewkesbury, who died in 1721, gave the twelfth part of the rent of her farm and lands called Parry, also Perry Court, with closes and lands thereto "belonging, situate in Preston, Faversham, Ospring, and Luddenham, in the county of Kent, to the trustees of the charity schools in this township. 1741. James Townshend, of Brentford Butts, Esq. to be distributed to the poor of this township, the interest of one hundred pounds. 1766. Mary Williams, of Shrewsbury, widow, to be distributed to the poor of this township, the interest of Five Pounds. These sums purchased One Hundred Pounds New South Sea Annuities. The interest is distributed to the poor of this township annually. 1793. James Parker, Esq. gave by will, Five Hundred Pounds, Three per Cent. Consolidated Bank Annuities, the interest thereof to be applied towards the clothing, maintenance, and education of the charity children of this township. 1796. James Clitherow, of Boston House, Esq. gave a messuage and cottages to be used by the poor of this township, as a workhouse for ever. 1814. John Bennett, the interest of One Hundred Pounds, Three per Cent. Consols, annually, to poor persons of this township, not receiving- parochial relief. 1817. Josiah Holford, Esq. gave One Hundred Pounds, Four per Cent, consolidated Bank Annuities upon trust, the interest thereof to be applied for the benefit of the charity schools in this town- ship. 1818. Eliza Pitt, widow, gave by will, Two Hundred Pounds, Three per cent. Consolidated Bank Annuities, the interest thereof to be applied for the benefit of the charity school in this township. Also, Three Hundred Pounds Three per cent.; the interest to be distributed annually in coals, to fifty poor persons residing in New Brentford and the half acre. Legacies and Benefactions to the Charity Schools. 1719. Mrs. Tash 1735. Mrs. Justoils 1809. Mr. Carter, who was brought up in the School 1722. Mr. Fox 1747. Mrs. Moore 1724. Mrs. E. Holford 1768. Mr. Whitehead 1729. Sir Charles Eyres 1809. Brentford Volunteers These sums, with other small donations, from the year 1715, have been invested in the Three per Cent. Consols ; the amount of Stock at this time, 1820, is Nine Hundred Pounds. The chandelier in the church is thus incribed : — " The gift of the Maidens and Batchelors of New Brentford, 1704." ฃ105 20 20 10 20 100 10 100 10 1843. — The Committee appointed by the Parishioners on the 27th June, to enquire into the state of the parish Charities, beg to report that they have examined the books and papers relative to the same, and find them in the state under-mentioned : — No. 1. — Henry Redman's charity. Six trustees are living, to be renewed when not less than two, by the survivors. ฃ6. yearly. Trustees. — John Drinkwater, Christopher Glover, John Winkworth, David Newman, Henry Sexton, Wm. Cooke. No. 2. — John Middleton's Will. ฃ5. yearly, are received from a house now the sign of the Plymouth Aims, Mill Lane, Tooley Street, Southwark, by the churchwardens for the time being. No. 3. — Lady Spenser's Gift of ฃ6., being a rent- charge on the Butts' Closes, paid to the Churchwardens annually, by Mr. Crighton. No. 4. — Andrew's and Rubbold's charity of ฃ1. 16s. paid by the Minister to the churchwardens annually, from the proceeds of the Pew Rents of the north Gallery.

CHARITY SCHOOLS. Ossulston's Charity for apprenticing poor children ; ฃ200. consols, produce ฃ6. per annum. Five trustees were appointed, four are now living who have the power of filling up the vacancies. Trustees — John Winkworth, Abraham Best, G. F. Searle, W. Tomson. No. 6. — ฃ 100. New South Sea Annuities, bought with Mr. Townsend's and Mrs. Williams's Legacy. Mr. Glover is the only surviving trustee. The Minister and Church- wardens are empowered to fill up the vacancies in the trustees. No. 7. — John Bennett left ฃ100. 3 per cents, reduced, to the Minister and Churchwardens in trust. Mr. Welch is the only surviving trustee. The Minister and Church- wardens are empowered to appoint. No. 8.— Elizabeth Pitt left ฃ300. 3 per cents, to the Minister and churchwardens in trust. Mr. Waters and Mr. Harriman, now living at Greenwich, being the sur- viving trustees. Signed, Geo. Harrison, Minister. John Snapp, ] t i, -n r Churchwardens. John Dexter,] P. Glover, David Waters, W. Welch. The various sums left for school pur-poses are vested in Trustees and funded; the interest of which amount to ฃ51. 5s.

PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. The Infant School. — This school, for the instruction of boys and girls, was established by subscription in 1703, and a piece of ground, the intended site of a school-house, was conveyed from Richard Overs to trustees, by lease and release, dated the 28th and 29th May, 1718, in considera- tion of ฃ21., upon which a school-house was built at the expense of ฃ 110, which was raised by subscription. Lady Capel, by her will, dated 1719, endowed it with the 12th part of an estate at Faversham, in Kent, now amounting to about ฃ30. per annum, which, by the tenor of her will, must be received by a person regularly appointed for that purpose, on the 12th of May, in Kew Chapel. Two larger rooms and dwellings having been built for the boys and girls respectively, this is now used as an infant school for the children of both sexes. Trustees.— Rev. J. Stodclart, D. D. ; G. F. S. Searle ; Joseph Hill ; Samuel Smallwood ; Robert T. Fletcher ; H. J. Robinson. The Boys' School in the Ham, conducted on the national system. In the year 1818, Col. James Clitherow, a liberal benefactor to this charity, granted a piece of ground, which was conveyed by him to trustees " for educating poor boys of the township of New Brentford, parish of Ealing, and the parish, and parishes near or adjoining thereto," and on which a new school room, capable of containing two hundred boys, has been erected, at an expense of ฃ1,028, raised by subscription. An additional piece of ground was conveyed by Colonel Clitherow to trustees, (being the same persons as before named, for the infant school) on which a house of residence for the master was built in 1843, at the cost of ฃ247. 14s., towards which Miss Clitherow contributed ฃ100. The sum of ฃ84. 10s. 6d. was raised by subscription, and ฃ63. Ss. 6d. from the general funds of the schools. The total of receipts for the year 1844, were ฃ248. 9s. lOd. The disbursements, ฃ269. 4s. lid., leaving a balance, of ฃ20. 15s. Id., which was subsequently paid by Mrs. and Miss Clitherow. Mrs. Clitherow is the treasurer for the schools, and the Rev. G. Harrison, secretary- The trustees are, John Clarke, John Drinkwater, Rev. John Morris, D.D. William Cooke, Christopher P. Glover. The Girls' School in the Half Acre. — Among the chief improvements which have taken place in New Brentford, has been the erection of a new and capacious School Room, situate in the Half Acre, for the Girls of New Brentford, together with a house for the residence Mistress ; a building well adapted to the purpose for which it was intended, and very ornamental to that part of the parish. It was designed by Henry Moseley, Esq. Architect, and is in the gothic style adopted in the age of the Tudors. To the late Col. Clitherow the parish is much indebted for this most important addition to the means of educating the lower classes. Towards the erection of this building, the Committee were enabled to obtain from the National Society and the Treasury, the sum of ฃ190. and they received from G. Cooper, Esq. a very liberal donation to the parish of a considerable portion of the site which was required for its erection. In addition to these grants, a balance of about ฃ480. remaining from a bequest to the parish, by the late James Clitherow, Esq. for the purpose of building a workhouse, was, by the consent of the parishioners, appropriated towards the erection of this new School, after their proportion of the new Union Work- house had been discharged. The remaining part of the cost of this building, and the expense of the conveyance of the property to certain trustees were entirely defrayed by the late Col. Clitherow, who on this, and as on many other occasions, fully entitled himself to the gratitude and esteem of the inhabitants of New Brentford. The following are the number of children attending the respective schools ; — New ] Jrentford. < 31d Brentford . Brentford End. Total. Boys, 48 19 29 96 Girls, 40 14 8 62 Infants 62 29 8 99 150 62 45 257 Boys clothed, 12. Girls clothed 12. The Trustees for the Girls' school, are the same as those for the Infants' school. For the relief of the Sick and Lying-in Poor, and for pro- moting their general welfare and improvement. President, — The Rev. George Habrison, M.A Treasurer, — Mr. George Fulham Searle. Secretary, — Mr. H. J. Radcliffe, And Ten lady Visitors. This charity was established in the year 1838. At a general meeting of the subscribers and friends, held at the girls' school-room at the Butts, Colonel Clitherow in the chair, the Rev. Dr. Stoddart, the Vicar, having stated the necessity for such a Society in this populous parish, and the success which had already attended his applica- tion for subscriptions and donations, proposed certain rules and regulations, which were adopted. Midsummer Report, — 1844. Receipts ฃ34 8 9 | Disbursements ฃ33 8 11 In the Savings Bank, ฃ86 1 3 BRENTFORD DISPENSARY, For the relief of the sick and diseased Poor, of Brentford and the neighbourhood. This benevolent institution was first founded in the year 1818. Officers. — Henry Pownall, Esq. President; George Oliver, Esq. Treasurer ; Rev. G. Harrison, Secretary. Lady-day Report, 1844. General Statement of the Number of Patients admitted, Sfc. since the origin of the Institution, March 25, 1818. Number of Patients cured and relieved 9,396 \ Ditto under cure March 25th, 1844 87.1 9,901 Ditto who have died 468 j Midwifery Tickets (value 5s. each) distributed to poor married Women 2,352 Total number of persons who have received assistance since the insti- tution of this excellent charity 12,253 Of the above number Four Thousand Five Hundred and Seventy have been attended at their own houses.

CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. Patron,— HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. President,— The Rev. T. T. WALMSLEY, D.D. Rector of Hanwell. Treasurer,— Rev. G. HARRISON, M.A. Secretary.— Rev. F. E. THOMPSON, B.A. It was deemed advisable at the commencement of the year 1842, to establish one for this populous neighbour- hood, and the sanction of the Diocesan, the Lord Bishop of London, having been obtained, a Committee was formed for Brentford and its vicinity. It immediately received the countenance of many of the nobility, clergy, and prin- cipal gentry residing within the district, and its proceedings were commenced according to rules and regulations in strict conformity with those of the Parent Society. Report for 1844. Receipts ฃ97. 16*. %d. | Payments ฃ99. 15s. 2d. Twenty pounds of which is a benefaction to the Parent Society. The Schools and the poor are supplied at a reduction of one-third of the members' prices. Books, &c. sold during the year 1844 : — Common Prayers Bibles Testaments. and Psalters. Books, Tracts, &c. Total. 193 166 260 3488 4107 Books &c. sold since the establishment of the committee in 1822 ;— Common Prayers Bibles. Testaments. and Psalters. Books, Tracts, &c. Total. 2787 1593 5781 60148 70209 The Depository for Books is at the shop of Messrs. P. and M. A. Norburv, New Brentford.

BRENTFORD AND EALING SAVINGS' BANK. This institution was established in the year 1818, for the benefit of the industrious and provident of Brentford, Ealing, Acton, Hanwell, Heston, and the neighbourhood. Patron, — His Grace the Duke of Northumberland. President. — Henry Pownall, Esq. Vice-Presidents. — Rev. W. Antrobus, G. Baillie, Esq., Rev. Dr. Benson, Sir F. Booth, Bart., T. Farmer, Esq., Rev. G. Harrison, M.A., J. Hazard, Esq., G. Oliver, Esq., Rev. H. Trimmer, G. Wood Esq. Treasurer. — Mr. Williams. Trustees. — T. Farmer, Esq., Mr. Gibson, Rev. G. Har- rison, M.A., J. Hazard, Esq., G. Oliver, Esq. H. Pownall, Esq., Mr. J. Sexton, G. Wood, Esq. Secretary. — J. Hill. Dr. To Principal due to \ 1398 Depositors I on the 20th of t November, 1844 ) To Twelve Months' 1 Interest on ditto j To Cash on separate Surplus Fund Ac- count, accrued within the year ,654 16 7 1,160 9 18 3 ฃ39,825 Cr. ฃ. s- d. By Cash in the hands \ of Government, at! „„„,, ., n Interest on the20thf ' iJ >' 04 10 u of November, 1844 j By Cash in Trea-1 surer's Hands . . . . j '0 7 4 ฃ39,825 2 4 Progress of this Bank during the past Year, ending November 20th, 1844: — ฃ. s. d. To Sums received of Depositors within tbe Year 9,189 7 8 By Sums paid to Depositors, including Interest, within the Year 7,468 7 6 Increased Sum deposited this Year ฃ1,721 2 1398 Accounts open November 20th, 1844. 1367 Ditto Ditto, 1843. 31 additional Accounts opened within tbe Year. SINGULAR AND CURIOUS EXTRACTS. 81 SINGULAR AND CURIOUS EXTRACTS FROM THE PARISH BOOKS. 1620. It appears that the Poor's Rates of this period were chiefly raised by profits accruing from the celebration of public sports and diversions, at stated times of the year, particularly at Whitsuntide. The chapelwardens account books contain several curious entries upon this subject, of which the following are copies : Payments made for the Parish Games. s. d. 1620. Paid for Gboules 8 For 6 tynn tokens 6 For a pair of pigeon holes 1 6 1621. At a Vestry held in 1621, several articles were agreed upon with regard to the management of the Parish Stock, by the chapelwardens. The preamble states, " that the inhabitants had for many years been accustomed to have meetings at Whit- sontide, in their church-house, and other places there, in friendly manner, to eat and drink together, and liberally spend their monies, to the end neighbourly society might be maintained ; and, also a common stock raised for the repairs of the church, maintaining of orphans, placing poor children in service, and defraying other charges," which stock not having been properly applied, it was ordered, that a particular account should be given from year to year, of their gains at those times, and the manner of the expenditure. It may be observed, that these games are of later date, and cliffer materially from those noticed at Kingston-upon-Thames. Paid Goodwife Ansell for pigeon holes 16 Paid for the games. Paid for drumbe, sticks, and case .... For two heads of the drumbe Received of Robert Bickleye for the use of our games Of the said Robert Bickleye for a silver bar which was lost at Elyng 1684. Paid for the silver games 1643. Paid to Thomas Powell for pigeon holes. Gained by hocking, at Whitsontide ฃ16. 12s. 3d. 1618, July 12, the hocking occurs almost every year till 1640, when it appears to have been dropt. It was collected at Whitsuntide. The other games were continued two years later. Rifiling is synonymous with raffling. The popular holiday, of Hock-Day, mentioned by Matthew Paris and other ancient writers, was usually kept on Tuesday following the second Sunday after Easter-day, and was distinguished by various sportive pastimes, in which the towns people, divided into parties, were accus- tomed to draw each other with ropes. Spelman says, " they consisted in the men and women binding each other, and especially the women, and hence it was called binding Tuesday." It was customary for the men to hock the women on the Monday, and the women the men on Tuesday ; that is, on that day the women in merriment stop the ways with ropes, and pull the passengers to them, desiring something to be laid out in pious uses in order to obtain their freedom. Such are the general outlines of this singular custom, which some think was held in remembrance of the massacre of the Danes, or of the death of Hardicanute, which happened on Tuesday, the 8th of June, 1041, by which event the English were delivered from their intolerant government; and this opinion seems very probable. The state of slavery in which the wretched Saxons were held by their imperious lords was awful, and the donations for " pious uses," may be considered as'a tacit acknowledgment of gratitude to heaven for freeing the nation from bondage. Hock-day was generally observed as lately as the sixteenth century. Spelman informs us, that it was not totally discontinued in his time, iIn 1621, August 12th, Paid to her that was Lady at Whitsontide, by consent 5 Paid for a beast for the parish use .... The Whitsuntide holidays were celebrated by various pastimes commonly practised upon other festivals ; but on the Monday after Whitsun week at Brentford, a fat ox was provided, and the maidens of the town, having their thumbs tied behind them, were permitted to run after it ; and she, who with her mouth took hold of the ox, was declared Lady of the Ox, which being killed and cleaned, but with the skin hanging upon it, was carried on a long pole before the lady and her companions, to the Butts Common, attended with music and a morrice dance of men, and another of women. The rest of the day was spent in mirth and merry glee. Next day the beast, partly baked, and partly boiled, was served up for the lady's feast, where she sat majestically at the upper end of the table, and her companions with her. It appears by the above extract, that the part of the lady was performed by a woman, who was paid for her trouble. The morrice dance was frequently joined to processions and pageants, and especially to those appropriated for the celebration of the May games. On these occasions, the Hobby-horse, or a Dragon, with Robin Hood, the Maid Marian, with other characters, supposed to have been the companions of that famous outlaw, made a part of the dance. In latter times the morrice dance was frequently introduced on the stage. A modern writer speaks of a set of morrice dancers who went about the country, consisting of about ten men who danced, besides the Maid Marian, and one who played upon the pipe and tabor. 1623, July 4th, Received for the May Pole, ฃ1. 4s. The celebration of the May Games took place on the first of May, the juvenile part of both sexes were accus- tomed to walk to some neighbouring wood, accompanied with music, where they broke down branches from the trees, and adorned them with nosegays and crowns of flowers, and returned with their booty homewards, and made their doors and windows triumph with their spoils, and the after part of the day was spent in dancing round a tall pole, called a May Pole, which being placed in a convenient part of the village, stood there as it were, con- secrated to the Goddess of Flowers. In the celebration of May Games, the youth divide themselves into two troops, the one in livery, the other in the habit of the spring. No doubt the May Games have been long standing, though the time of their institution cannot be traced. Mention is made of the May Pole at Cornhill, in a Poem called, the " Chaunce of the Dice," attributed to Chaucer. In the time of Stow, who died in 1605, they were not conducted with so great splendour as they had been for- merly, owing to a dangerous riot which took place upon May Day, 1517, in the ninth year of Henry the Eighth, upon which occasion several foreigners were slain, and two of the ringleaders were killed.

1625. Paid for a coffin to draw the infected corpses. A dreadful plague broke out in the metropolis, and carried off, in the course of the twelvemonth, upwards of 35,000 persons. Brentford and Ealing appear to have shared deeply in this calamity, and great numbers died in consequence, and were buried in the fields, still known by the name of " Dead Man's Graves."

1638. Given to a Knight's son in Devonshire, being out of means, 6d. To protect persons driven to seek alms, Justices of the peace, were empowered to grant lieenses to beg, within a certain precinct ; but in another statute, the first denounced as vagabonds are, " all persons calling themselves scholars, going about begging," and they were subject to have their right ears burned through with a hot iron, their breast branded, and to be assigned as a slave, which in certain aggravated cases of vagabondism, was awarded to the wretched mendicant.

1634. Paid for a Book of Sporting allowed on Sundays, 6d.

" Given at our Palace of Westminster, the 18th day of October, in the ninth year of our reign." 1634, August 13. Paid Robert Warden, the constable, which he disbursed for conveying away the witches, 65. It appears that the witches of Brentford were very notorious at the beginning of the seventeenth century; frequent allusions are made to them by Shakspeare and others : Mrs. Ford. — My maid's aimt, the fat women of Brentford, has a gown above. Mrs. .Ford. — I would my husband would meet him in this shape: he cannot abide the old woman at Brentford, he swears she's a witch, forbade her my house, and has threatened to beat her. Mrs. Ford. — But is my husband coming. Mrs. Page. — Nay, but he'll be here presently, let's go dress him like the witch of Brentford. Falstaff. — What tell'st thou me of black and blue, I was beaten myself into all the colours of the rain bow, and I was likely to be apprehended for the witch of Brentford; but, that my admirable dexterity of wit, counterfitting the action of a mad woman, delivered me, the knave constable has set me in the stocks for a witch.* The belief in witchcraft at this period was very general, and the numerous trials and condemnation of those unfor- tunate persons suspected of this crime, are shocking to humanity, revolting to our" christian feelings, and reflect indelible disgrace upon the judges who condemned them. Fully impower'd to treat about Finding revolted witches out, And has not he within a year Hang'd three score of e'm in one shire. To deny the possibility, nay, actual existence of witch- craft and sorcery, is at once flatly to contradict the revealed word of God, in various passages both of the Old and New Testament ; and the thing itself is a truth, of which every nation in the world hath in its turn borne testimony, cither by examples seemingly well attested or by prohi- bitary laws ; which at least suppose the possibility of a commerce with evil spirits. The civil law punishes with Merry Wives of Windsor, Art IV. Scene II. and IV "death not only the sorcerers themselves, bnt also those who consult them; imitating in the former the express law of God, that " thou shalt not suffer a witch to live," Exod. xxii. 18. And our own laws, both before and since the Conquest, have been equally penal, ranking this crime in the same class with heresy, and condemning both to the flames.* The ridiculous stories that are told, and the many impostures and delusions that have been dis- covered in all ages, are enough to demolish all faith in such dubious crimes, if the contrary evidence were not also extremely strong. Wherefore it seems to be the most eligible way to con- clude in the words of Mr Addison, " that in general there has been such a thing as witchcraft, though we cannot give credit to any particular modern instance of it."f When an old woman begins to dote and grow charge- able to the parish, she is generally turned into a witch, and fills the whole country with extravagant fancies, imagi- nary distempers, and terrifying dreams. In the mean time, the poor wretch that is the innocent occasion of so many evils, begins to be frightened at herself, and sometimes confesses secret commerces and familiarities, that her imagination forms in a delirious old age. This frequently cuts off charity from the greatest objects of compassion, and inspires people with a malevolence towards those decrepid parts of our species, in whom human nature is defaced by deformity and dotage.

1653. Among other articles in the hands of the chapel- wardens in 1653, was one little collar, a bell, one little bowl, and a pin of silver.

1682. Parish armour — One chest of armour, parish " shedoule," 1682. It appears that every parish was obliged to keep a certain portion of armour according to its size, which was exhibited once a year before the Justices.

1695, Feb. 12. Alice and Elizabeth Pickering, wandering children, were whipped publicly according to law, and sent with a pass to Shrewsbury, the place where they were born. 1699, Dec. 2. Ann Roberts, a vagrant, about 40 years of age, was whipped publicly according to law, in order to be passed from town to town till she comes to Gheton, which was the place of her last abode.

Riots and Disturbances — Brentford Bridge — Ancient and Modern state — Royal Grants. The Market and Fairs.

It has already been remarked, that Brentford was a place of importance at an early period, arising from its situation on the banks of our great river. But it appears that its proprietress, the prioress, and the nuns of St. Helen's, enjoyed but a small portion of the land, in comparison with her rich neighbour of Sion. As a compensation, however, she obtained in the thirty-fifth of Edward the First, the following charter. " Know ye that at the instance of Margaret, Queen of England, our dearly beloved Consort, we have granted, and by this Charter have confirmed unto our dear ly beloved in Christ, the Prioress and Sisters of Saint Helen's, Lo don, that they and their Successors may hold a market once a week, on the Tuesday, in her Manor of Braynford,in the County of Middlesex, and a fair in the same place, to be holden during six days in every year : To wit, on the eve, and also on the day of Saint Lawrence, and for four days next ensuing, unless the said market shall be to the injury of the neighbouring markets and fairs. After the dissolution of the priory, the right of this market and fair appears to have been lost sight of by the crown; as the Hawleys who had probably held it as tenants under the prioress, continued to hold it until the year 1610, thereby usurping the right of the crown, and withholding the ancient rent of twenty shillings a year which had been paid into the Exchequer by the prioress. King James, by his Letters Patent, dated the 18th of September, in the eighth year of his reign, abolished both the market and fair, and commanded the sheriff to make public proclamation thereof; but, in consideration of their great convenience to the inhabitants of that district, the king was induced at the same time to pardon the usur- pation, and grant a regular licence to James Hawley, Esq. ; to hold a like market and fair on the same days above- mentioned, reserving the whole rent of twenty shillings. The spot on which it was held in the grant is described as lying on the north "side of the highway, leading from Hounslow, through Brentford to London, between the Inn called the Three Pigeons, (sometimes called the Three Doves,) and a messuage belonging to William Payne, of Sutton Court, Esq. In 1619, Valentine Saunders pur- chased for the sum of ฃ3,350. this licence, as well as the land, and certain other houses and land thereunto adjoining, and by his deed, dated the 9th of June, 1635, he surrendered his license to King Charles the First, who was, therefore, graciously pleased to grant him a fresh patent, dated the 18th of June, in the eleventh year of his reign, empowering him to hold the weekly market as before, and two fairs on the 1st of September, and the other one on the 6th of May, each to continue for six days, exclusive of Sundays and Tuesdays, at the former rent of twenty shillings. James Hawley, Esq. who had preached against Sunday markets ; and pretended to have received a letter from heaven, written by the hand of God, in which he threatened to rain sticks and stones, and boiling water, on all who frequented them. repurchased of Saunders all his interest, obtained a licence from King Charles the Second to take down certain cottages to enlarge the market place, and to add two acres and a half of land lately purchased by him, on the south side of the road, and any other belonging to him ; the old site having become much too confined for the increased quantity of cattle, sheep, and other things brought thereto. The property in the market and fair, together with a license granted by King Charles the Second, dated the 22nd of November, were, in the thirtieth year of his reign, granted to Anne Parish for a market every Thursday, for the sale of cattle and pigs. The property in the aforesaid market and fair was for many years vested in four persons, viz. Mr. Woodcock, Mr. Sullion, Mr. Home Tooke, and Mr. Lucas ; it after- wards passed to Mr. Woodcock, in 1768, who sold it to Mr. La Forest, father of William La Forest, Esq., who sold it to the late Mr. Crighton, the father of the present pro- prietor, who still further enlarged the space allotted to the fair, rendered necessary by the increasing population. Like all fairs in populous neighbourhoods, Brentford fair appears to have had its share of noisy sport and occasional disturbance ; for we find in Hudibrass And though you overcome the Bear, The Dogs beat you at Brentford Fair; Where sturdy Butcher's broke your noddle, And handled you like a fop doodle. More recently the inhabitants of the neighbourhood of the fair became impatient of the indulgence allowed to the public at the fair, and meditating its entire suppression, consulted the late eminent council Mr. Alley, upon the probability of succeeding in the attempt ; but Mr. Alley being satisfied that the fail was perfectly legal, and that no disturbances, or irregularities were committed, than what attend all such fairs gave them no encouragement, and the attempt was abandoned. But country fairs are at best but poor expedients for allaying the cravings of young persons for occasional amusements ; and the man who should succeed in introducing some wholesome and innocent recreation, to gratify the natural passion of youth for liveliness and joy, divested of those gross and immoral results, which fairs and their concomitant exhibitions produce, would entitle himself to the honour of being enrolled amongst the real benefactors of mankind. The weekly market on Tuesday is well supplied, and for the size of the town is very considerable, all kinds of butcher's meat may here be seen in profusion. Besides the stalls, there are exhibited a good supply of poultry, butter, cheese, and eggs ; fruit, vegetables, and green- house plants ; hardware, and brushes, earthenware, and glass ; fish in all its varieties, geese and pigs ; books and prints ; so that it presents more the appearance of a fair than a market. The Court of the Clerk of the Market, is established to punish misdemeanours therein ; as a court oi piepoudre is to determine all disputes relating to property. The object of this jurisdiction is principally the cognizance of weights and measures, to try whether they be according to the true standard, which standard was anciently committed to the custody of the bishop, who appointed some clerk under him to inspect them ; and hence this officer, though now usually a layman, is called the clerk of the market. This is the most inferior court of criminal jurisdiction in the kingdom, though the objects of its coercion were esteemed among the Romans of such importance to the public, that they were committed to the care of some of their most distinguished magistrates, the cumde cediles Markets were originally established for the advantage of trade and commerce ; the Jews had their several markets in the city of Jerusalem. The Romans held three markets in every month, and they were called Nundinal, quasi Novendincs, because they were held every ninth day. With us markets are very ancient, and were thus denominated from the French word marche, which means emporium, forum nitndinorum, and signifies the liberty and privilege which a town has to keep a market; for in the time of the Saxons, markets and fairs were kept chiefly for the preservation of tolls, stallage, pickage, and other profits, belonging to the king's revenue ; therefore all things were required to be sold in great towns, castles, and ports, only in the presence of the magistrates of the place, or king's officer, as appears by a law made in the time of king Edward, who began his reign in the year 900. ' f Let no man sell any thing out of a town, unless in the presence of the Reeve, or some other honest man, and let him who shall do other- wise be punished for his contempt of the king." And king Ethelstan made another law. — " No person shall buy any thing out of a town valued drearer than twenty pence ; but every merchant shall buy within the gate of the town, in the presence of the chief magistrate, or some honest man, or the king's officer, in the view of the passage of the common people. "f William the Conqueror made a law, that no market or fair should be allowed but in cities, boroughs, or walled towns, where the dignity of the Crown might not be lost or evaded. And by these laws, the market and fairs of this town were established and are still regulated. The fairs of later institution, are either free or charged with tolls and impositions.

The inhabitants of West Brentford owe a deep debt of gratitude to the memory of the illustrious Queen, at whose intercession these favours were granted to their, ancestors, which, after a lapse of more than five hundred years, they still enjoy ; and the topographical historian feels an honest degree of exultation in being the organ of conveyance to posterity of this their dutiful and grateful homage to their Royal Benefactress, whose eminent virtues stand recorded and embalmed in the historic page, but require not the tardy testimony of these humble pages to perpetuate their remembrance. Upon turning to the history of Margarite, of France, wife of Edward the First, it appears that she was a most munificent, charitable, and estimable princess, and a loving wife. The Chronicler says, she was " goode withouten lacke." Manor of Burston or Boston. — The only manor in this parish is that of Bordeston or Burston, commonly called Boston, which was part of the possessions of the Prioress of St. Helen's near Bishopsgate, under whom, Jerome Hawley was lessee when that monastery was dissolved. Edward the Sixth, in 1547, granted it to Edward, Duke of Somerset, on whose attainder it reverted to the crown. Queen Elizabeth, in 1572, gave it to Robert, Earl of Leicester, who sold it the same year to Sir Thomas Gresham ; after Lady Gresham's death, which happened in 1598, it was inhabited by Sir William Beade, her son by a former husband, who obtained a new patent from the crown in 1610. Sir William dying in 1621, bequeathed this manor for life to his widow, with remainder to his grand children, the three daughters of Sir Michael Stanhope, viz., Jane, married to Lord Fitzwalter, and afterwards to Sir William Withepole ; Elizabeth, to George, Lord Berkeley, and Bridget to George Fielding, Earl of Desmond. Lady Beade married to her second husband, Sir Edward Spenser, Knt. of the Sunderland family, who possessed this manor many years in right of his wife, making it the place of his residence. One of James Howell's letters, dated February 20, 1647, is addressed to him " at his house near Brainford, Middlesex." Lady Spenser having outlived her second husband, died in 1658, and lies buried in the church, in which year Viscount Hereford, who had married Eliza- beth, daughter of Sir William Withepole, by Jane Stanhope, aliened a third part of the reversion of the manor to John Gouldsmith, Esq., the perpetuity of the other two parts had been before aliened by the Berkeley BOSTON HOUSE. 97 and Desmond families to Lady Spenser, who devised them to her kinsman, John Gouldsmith, above-mentioned.* Among the manorial papers are the following particulars relative to the name. All the most ancient court rolls were burnt in a fire that consumed the old part of the house, a few years before James Clitherow purchased it, in 1670. There are, how- ever, rentals bearing date 21 Henry the Eighth, anno 1529, and another that is not dated, being stiled the rental of Hugh Eston, who purchased the lease in 1652, and sold it in 1658, and, therefore, must be of a date between these two periods, which has no mention of the manor in it. In the most ancient of the rentals, the manor is thus stiled: — 1. Bordestone and Braynford; 2. West Braynford; 3. Braynford, only; 4. Boston and Brayn- ford; 5. and in 1629, Boston near Braynford. Hence it appears that Bordestone was the most ancient name, but that in the beginning of the 15th century, it began to be called Burston or Boston promiscuously. In 1670, James Clitherow purchased the manor, which was conveyed to him by the name of the manor of Burston ; and rentals for almost every year from that period are extant, in which the manor is sometimes called Burston, alias Boston, and Braynford, alias Brainford, until the year 1727, when Christopher, the son of James, the purchaser, died. In the time of James, son of Christopher, the regular yearly collection of quit rents was much neglected, only two or three rentals are to be found, in which the manor is stiled Burston alias Boston, with Brentford, and so it .still con- tinues. There are also two older rentals of 1660 and 1661, when Mr. Gouldsmith was in possession, whose trustees, under his will, sold it to James Clitherow, in both of which it is called Boston with New Brentford. Boston House. — The manor house is pleasantly situated on a rising ground, in the midst of a well- * She was a great benefactor to this parish. The wooded park of fifty acres, about three quarters of a mile to the north of the town. The trees are chiefly elms, of a large size, many of which may be considered to have been planted in the time of Charles the First. It was built partly in the year 1622, by Lady Reade, and partly in 1671, by James Clitherow, as appears by the dates on the pipes, cielings, &c. Great part of the mansion had been recently destroyed by a fire, and many of the old writings and deeds burnt. The most remarkable features of this ancient mansion have furnished several plates to one of the interesting works on Elizabethan architecture, lately published by C. J. Richardson, Esq., F.S.A. Clitherow Family of Boston House. — James Clitherow, who purchased this manor in 1670, was a merchant of eminence in London, the fourth son of Sir Christopher Clitherow, of Pinner Hill House, in Middle- sex, Knight, by his second wife, Mary, daughter of Sir J. Campbell, Knight who was Lord Mayor of London in 1610 ; Sir Christopher Clitherow was Alderman of London, and served the office of Sheriff in 1625, and of Lord Mayor in 1635. He was also President of Christ's Hospital, in the court-room of which is a portrait of him, and he was Governor of the East Land Company ; he was returned as one of the citizens for the city of London in 1627, in the parliament that sat only one year. As he was firmly attached to monarchy and episcopacy, and therefore no favourite of the republican party that then prevailed in London, he was not returned in the next parliament, and soon after retired from public business, to his house on Pinner Hill, which he purchased some years before, and chiefly resided there in a retired manner till his death. He left several children by both his wives, his eldest son was settled in Essex, and the second at Pinner Hill, both of which estates have long been sold, and both those and all other branches of Sir Christopher's numerous family in the male line have become extinct, except the descendants of James, the fourth son, whose great grandson, James, was the late owner of tins manor. Sir Christopher, was son of Henry Clitherow, who was son of another Henry, a citizen of some note in the time of Henry the Eighth, who purchased some houses in Cornhill, in 1554, of the Commissioners appointed by that king for the sale of the possessions of the dissolved monasteries, and it is presumed was a younger son of a family of that name, of Little Botshanger, in the parish of Ash, near Sandwich, in Kent, which, as Philpot in his " Villare Cantianum" expresses it, as it was in elder times, was of eminent account, in that trait whereof Roger de Cliderow, as the name was written, nourished in the reigns of Edward the Second and Third, and he, or rather Richard his predecessor, was Knight of the shire for Kent, in the seventh year of Henry the Fourth ; which Richard was sheriff of Kent in the fourth and part of the fifth year of Henry the Fourth ; and again in the sixth year of Henry the Fifth. He was also constituted Admiral of the Saxon seas, from the Thames mouth along the Saxon shore to the west. The male line of this family ceasing in the time of Henry the Eighth, the estate passed to the three daughters and coheirs of the last male possessor ; but as Sir Christopher had arms of the Kentish family as dis- played by Philpot, taken, as he says, from old authorities which he had seen, being the arms now borne by the family, allowed him as of right, not as a new grant, at the visitation held for London in 1634, it is presumed, as the laws of heraldry were in those days strictly observed, that he must have proved his descent from a Kentish family, to the satisfaction of Henry St. George Richmond, herald, who signed his testimonial under a blazon of the said arms then entered, which is now in the possession of Mrs. Clitherow. The late Col. Clitherow was descended from Sir Christopher Clitherow, whose fourth son, James Clitherow, purchased the manor of Boston in 1670, as before observed. Thus the family has been seated at Brentford for one hundred and seventy years, and there are few others in the metropolitan county who can boast a continuance of half that extent. James Clitherow, Esq. the late colonel's father, died in 1805. In public life, Colonel Clitherow had been for many years most prominent to maintain the established insti- tutions of the country, and in his endeavours to ameliorate the condition of the poorer classes, as well as in promoting the interests of suffering humanity. He was a firm member of the Established Church. In politics, Colonel Clitherow was a staunch and consistent conservative, and for many years filled the station of Chairman of the Middlesex Conservative Registration Committee. His upright and unflinching conduct as a magistrate, both at the Middlesex Sessions at Brentford, and of the divisional bench, of which he was chairman, will long be remembered. In all matters tending to promote the interests of his own immediate neighbourhood, Colonel Clitherow was ever foremost. In private, life he was of most unassuming and unosten- tatious manners. For many years previous to the death of his late Majesty King William the Fourth, he was honoured by his friendship and esteem, which marks of royal favour were continued by the Queen Dowager. The Address from New Brentford, 1839. On Saturday the 13th day of April, 1839, a meeting of the inhabitants of this parish was held at the Boys' National School-room in the Ham, and a resolution unanimously passed that an address be presented to Colonel Clitherow on his partial retirement from public life in consequence of illness, by resigning the situation of Chairman of the County Lunatic Asylum at Hanwell, and other important situations which he had so long held in this place and neighbourhood.f On Tuesday, the 23rd of April, the deputation appointed at the above meeting, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Stoddart, the Vicar, and Messrs. Glover, Ronalds, Winkworth, and Wood, four of the oldest inhabitants in the parish waited on the Colonel at his residence, Boston House, with the address, which was read by the Rev. Dr. Stoddart; on which occasion a new flag was hoisted on the church, and the bells rang several merry peals during the day. " Induced by motives of personal respect and attach- ment towards you, by a sense of gratitude for many public services rendered to ourselves and to the county in which you live, by sincere admiration of your public and private character during the course of a long life, we, whose names are undersigned, wish to embrace this opportunity of conveying to you a testimonial of our common senti- ments and feelings, and the more so, as we regret to hear that you have lately determined to retire from some of your usual engagements and pursuits. To enumerate the various duties which you have so ably and zealously performed for the public good would be almost impossible. The mere statement, however, of your having for so many years filled such important offices is enough to con- vince every one that nothing but the greatest integrity and benevolence of character, combined with high and honourable feeling, sound judgment, decision, and impar- tiality, could ever have placed or continued you in situations of the most acknowledged usefulness and respectability, With respect to your private walk amongst those in your own parish and neighbourhood, we could produce, if it were necessary, a thousand proofs of the esteem and popularity which you have long since merited and secured from persons of all ranks and parties — by your attention to the welfare of our local institutions — by your support of our charities — and by your readiness to assist with your advice and exertions all who needed your powerful aid as a magistrate and as a friend. Having by these means won the general esteem and respect of those around you, we beg, in conclusion, to express our ardent hope that, as long as health and strength will permit, you will not withdraw your countenance and support from those important institutions connected with our own parish ; and our sincere prayer is, that it may please the Almighty Disposer of events for many years to prolong a life so desirable to your own family and friends, so necessary to your own interests, and so beneficial to the welfare of society." Colonel dither on? s reply. " Gentlemen, " I receive the Address you have this day presented to me from the Inhabitants of my native parish with the most heartfelt satisfaction. " It affords me the greatest pleasure to possess so ample an acknowledgment of the sense entertained by my worthy neighbours of my endeavours, during the many years I have resided amongst them, to attend, as far as possible, to the interests of this parish, and to render every service in my power to the community at large, as well as to every individual. " The consciousness of having acted rightly, at least of always intending to do so, is one of the highest pleasures an honest mind can feel ; but when the apฃ>roval of such conduct is manifested in so public and gratifying a manner as the present Address conveys, it doubles the satisfaction: and, as the day arrives — probably not far distant — when I shall quit you and all other worldly connexions, the recol- lection of this act of kindness will afford me, at that awful period, the greatest consolation." The Address from the Brentford Magisterial District and Neighbourhood. At a numerous meeting of the magistrates, clergy, and other inhabitants of the Brentford magisterial district and neighbourhood, held at the Northumberland Arms, Isle-worth, May 11, 1839, H. Pownall, Esq. in the chair, it was resolved that an Address, together with a piece of plate (to be purchased by subscriptions limited to one pound) should be presented to Colonel Clitherow on his partial retirement from public life ; as a testimonial of the high sense they entertained of the ability, zeal, and devotedness which he uniformly manifested in the dis- charge of his magisterial duties, and his readiness at all times to promote the welfare of the neighbourhood. A committee, consisting of forty eight gentlemen from the various parishes, was then appointed to carry out the objects of the meeting; which, being completed, a depu- tation was appointed to present the Plate and the Address to the venerable Colonel. On Tuesday the 2-ith of Sep- tember, 1889, the deputation, consisting of Henry Pownall, Esq., the chairman, the Rev. Dr. Stoddart, the Secretary, and John Farell, Esq. the Treasurer, waited upon the Colonel at his residence, Boston House ; and, in the pre- sence of Mrs. and Miss Clitherow, and a few of their friends, had the pleasure of presenting to him a most elegant piece of plate, together with the Address, which had been most numerously signed. It Avould, indeed, be most difficult to describe the feeling manifested on this interesting occasion by the Colonel and his family. It will, however, perhaps be sufficient to state, that to every member of the committee, and to all who had promoted this testimonial of regard and respect for the Colonel, he begged the deputation would convey his warmest acknow- ledgments ; and, in order that all might be assured of his deepfelt gratitude, he desired the Secretary to send a printed copy of his most appropriate and touching reply to every subscriber in the district. The deputation had then the gratification of communicating to the committee, held the same afternoon at Isleworth, the satisfactory result of their proceedings, and the high gratification they had experienced from their visit to Boston House. The Address. — " We, the undersigned, inhabitants of the Brentford Magisterial District and Neighbourhood, comprising the parishes of Acton, New and Old Brent- ford, Chiswick, Ealing, Greenford, Hanwell, Heston, Isleworth, Norwood, Perivale^ and Twickenham, beg leave to take this opportunity of expressing to you our most unfeigned regret at your partial retirement from public life, and of our conviction of the loss which the public in general, and this district in particular, will sustain whenever they shall be wholly deprived of your valuable services. " The ability, zeal, and devotedness, which you have manifested in the discharge of your magisterial duties, the strict impartiality with which you have uniformly admi- nistered the laws, tempering, as far as possible, justice with mercy, the conciliatory spirit and gentlemanly feeling by which every transaction of your life has been charac- terized, the undaunted firmness which you have displayed in seasons of trial and difficulty, justly entitle you to the respect and gratitude of all classes of the community. " The value also of your public character is much enhanced by the integrity of your private life, adorned as it is with many Christian graces ; without which the most excellent public virtues lose half their usefulness and all their intrinsic merit. Whether we look, Sir, to the immediate neighbourhood, in which you reside, or to the metropolis, numerous proofs present themselves of your active bene- volence and unwearied exertions for the public good, especially in mitigating the direst calamities to which human nature is subject; thus exemplifying, in your life and conversation, the precepts of that holy faith of which you are one of the firmest supporters. " Be assured, then, that whenever you shall deem it expedient to withdraw altogether from public business, you will carry with you into the retirement of private life, the profound respect, the sincere gratitude, and the cordial good wishes of all around you. " We beg, therefore to conclude this address with our united and fervent prayer to the Supreme Disposer of all events, that He may long continue to spare you to your family and friends, and vouchsafe to close your honourable life in peace, founded on that Christian hope which, even here, meets with its reward, and is 'full of immortality.' Colonel Clitherow's Reply. " Gentlemen, " I receive this mark of the approbation of yourselves, my friends, and neighbours, with the deepest sense of gratitude " During the long series of years I have resided amongst you, it has ever been my study to promote those objects which I considered might be useful, and, in the discharge of my magisterial duties, to uphold the laws of my country without favour or affection, for the benefit of all classes of society : and I can most solemnly assure you, I never looked forward to any other reward than that of a self- approving conscience. " When I look at the numerous signatures attached to the address, and to your very elegant and valuable present of plate which accompanies it, I can adopt no language which can adequately convey my feelings on the occasion. " I indeed flattered myself, when I first signified my intention of partially retiring from public business, that I might still attend to those duties more immediately con- nected with the neighbourhood ; but having very lately experienced what I must consider a serious visitation, I fear I shall be unable much longer to occupy myself in any of my usual avocations. To the latest hour of my life, however, I can assure you I shall feel the deepest interest in the welfare and prosperity of all around me, and shall never forget the most acceptable and satisfactory testimonials which have this day been presented to me. " James Clitherow." Description of the Plate. The Plate presented to Colonel Clitherow, was executed expressly for the occasion, by Messrs. Storr and Mortimer, silversmiths, Bond Street. It is in the form of an Epergne, standing on a highly embellished and massive tripod, on the panels of which are engraved the arms of Colonel Clitherow, the object of its presentation, and the twelve parishes and districts from which the subscriptions were received, together with the names of the chairman, secretary, and treasurer. From the centre of the tripod arises a fluted column surmounted by a richly cut crystal basin for fruit or flowers, supported by the foliage of the Acanthus. Round the column are placed three beautiful female figures, of frosted silver, representing Faith, Justice, and Charity, modelled in the most chaste and classical style, by William Bailey, Esq., P. A ; illustrative of those virtues which adorn the character of him, who has been the object of this well-earned and truly splendid testimonial. Of these figures it is impossible to say which is most worthy of admiration ; whether Faith, with her placid and stedfast countenance, long hair, and flowing robes, holding before her a burnished cross, higher than herself; Justice, with her firm and inflexible look, carrying the scales in her right hand, and resting her left on a naked sword ; or Charity, with her lovely and benignant aspect, affec- tionately regarding two children, one of which she presses to her bosom with her right hand, whilst the other on the opposite side is clinging for protection to the folds of her dress. This group is, indeed, altogether so well conceived, and so highly finished after the best models of the antique, that no language can sufficiently express the beauty of its effect. Other testimonials of regard were also lately addressed to Colonel Clitherow, from the different institutions to which he belonged; and in the year 1837, at the suggestion of H. Pownall, Esq., a beautiful and well executed Portrait, by that celebrated artist, W. Pickersgill, Esq., P. A., was painted at the expense of the Visiting Magistrates of the Asylum, and placed in the Committee-room at Hanwell, of which an engraving has since been made:

The Funeral of Colonel Clitherow. The death of Colonel Clitherow took place at Boston House, on Tuesday, the 12th, and his funeral on Wednes- day, the 20th of October, 1841. As soon as the melancholy event was known in Brentford, the inhabitants imme- diately testified their regret for the loss they had sustained, by partially closing their windows ; and on Friday, a large and respectable meeting was held at the Infant School- room in the Butts, when a resolution was unanimously passed, that an application be forwarded to Mrs. Clitherow, requesting her permission, that, as at the funeral of the father of Colonel Clithorow, in 1805, those inhabitants who were anxious to pay their last tribute of respect to the memory of their deceased friend and neighbour, should be allowed to join the procession to the church on this occasion. This request was kindly granted by Mrs. Clitherow, and every necessary arrangement was accord- ingly made to carry out the object of the meeting. Numerous applications were also made at Boston House by the nobility, the clergy, and the gentry, in the neigh- bourhood, and in the metropolis, to be allowed personally to join the procession, or to send their carriages, as is usual on such occasions. By the express desire, however, of Colonel Clitherow during his illness, and in accordance with the feelings of the family, all such applications were most respectfully declined ; and none but the inhabitants who had sent the requisition, the children of the National Schools, and the Staff of the Westminster Militia, were permitted to attend. The procession left Boston House shortly after Eleven o'clock, and was arranged in the following order : First, the children of the National Schools ; next, more than one hundred of the principal Inhabitants and Trades- men in full mourning, two-abreast, and the Staff of the Westminster Militia, under the command of Captain James Blagg, the Adjutant; then the hearse, drawn by six horses, attended by Mr. Winkworth, the undertaker, and his assistants, followed by three carriages, with four horses each, containing the mourners and the domestics ; and, lastly, the Colonel's own private carriage : and notwithstanding the vast multitudes from the town and neighbourhood, which accompanied the whole line of the procession, the utmost order and decorum everywhere prevailed. All shops were entirely closed, and business of every kind suspended throughout the parish. On reaching the church, the procession was met by the Rev. Dr. Stoddart, the Vicar, and the parochial officers ; and the body was carried to the centre aisle by six Serjeants of the militia, and placed immediately under the reading desk, close to the Colonel's family pew. At the moment of entering the church, the immense congregation rose from their seats, and the " Dead March in Saul" was played by Mrs. Wells, the organist. Purcell's appro- priate anthem, " I am the Resurrection and the Life, saith the Lord," was then sung by the choir with excellent effect ; the psalms and lessons appointed for the burial of the dead, were next read by Dr. Stoddart, and afterwards, Kent's beautiful and affecting anthem, " Hear my Prayer, O Lord," taken from the fifty-fifth Psalm, was performed by the choir, assisted by Mrs. Sharp and Miss C. Boden. The body was then deposited in a grave in the chancel, where many of the Colonel's ancestors have been interred, and the usual service closed the ceremony. From the arrangements which had been previously made, all who were present were allowed to pass from the body of the church, the galleries, &c, through the south aisle to the chancel, and thus had an opportunity of inspecting the grave of the deceased ; and many a tear was observed to be shed by persons of all classes, but especially by the poor, as they looked down on the remains of their long beloved and departed friend. Hundreds, also, who could not gain admission to the church before the service, were now admitted, and passed by the grave in the same order. The immediate relatives of Colonel Clitherow who attended as mourners on this occasion, were Snow Paul, Esq., Robert Salkeld, Esq., Edward and Henry Seymour Esq, and the Rev. Edward Bullock ; accompanied hy George Cooper, Esq. the medical attendant at Boston House, and Joseph Maberly, Esq. solicitor. Of the neighbouring clergy, magistrates, and gentry, there were present, the Rev. Dr. Walmsley of Hanwell, the Rev. Dr. Dodsworth of Notting-hill, the Rev. W. Antrobus of Acton, the Rev. J. Smith of Ealing, the Rev. H. Glossop of Isleworth, and the Rev. F. E. Thompson of Old Brentford, Colonel T. Wood, M.P. for Middlesex, A. Wood, Esq., H. Pownall, Esq., G. Baillie, Esq., T. Twining, Esq., C. Turner, Esq., B. Armstrong, Esq., Lieut.-Col. Hunt, and Captain Manchester, of the West- minster Militia; besides many other respectable persons in the neighbourhood, and many who had travelled far to pay this last tribute of respect to their truly venerable and highly valued friend. A large body of the T division of the Metropolitan Police, under the superintendence of inspector Marquarcl, also attended on this occasion. Inscription on the Coffin. JAMES CLITHEROW, ESQ. DIED, OCTOBER 12TH, 1841. AGED 75 YEARS. " Blessed are the dead -which die in the Lord, even so saith the Spirit, for they rest from their labours, and their works do follow them." .A List of the Principal Offices held by the late Colonel Clitherow, almost to the period of his death. Colonel of the Westminster Militia more than forty-five years. Chairman of the Deputy-Lieutenants of the Hundred of Isleworth. A Magistrate and Chairman of the Petty Sessions for the District of Brentford. Chairman of the Visiting Magistrates of the County Pauper Lunatic Asylum at Hanwell. Originator and Treasurer of Queen Adelaide's Fund, for the benefit of those Patients who have been discharged cured from the Hanwell Asylum. Chairman of the Conservative Registration Club. One of the Treasurers of the Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy. Vice-President of the Lay-Union for the defence of the Established Church. President of the Brentford District Committee of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. One of the Committee of the National Society for the Education of the Poor. A Vice-President of the Royal Humane Society. A Governor of Bethlem Hospital. A Commissioner of the Metropolis Turnpike Trusts. Chairman of the Board of Guardians of the Brentford Union at Isleworth. Chairman of the Commissioners of Taxes for the District of Brentford. President and Treasurer of the Brentford and Ealing Saving's Bank. Treasurer of the National Schools of New Brentford. Treasurer of the Brentford Dispensary for the relief of the Sick Poor. And Trustee of several Charities at Ealing, Isleworth, Hanwell, &c. &c.

ARCHERY IN THE BUTTS. Secure behind the Telamonian shield, The skilful archer Avide survey'd the field, With ev'ry shaft some hostile victim slew, Then close beneath the sev'nfold orb withdrew." Homer's Iliad, b. viii. 1. 320. It clearly appears, that the Romans introduced the bow into this country, and that they continued to use it till ARCHERY IN THE BUTTS. Ill their final departure. The Saxons used both the long and cross bow. During the heptarchy, OfFrid, son of Edwin, king of Northumbria, was killed by an arrow in a battle between the troops of that king and the united army of Mercians and Welsh, fought about the year 6SS. The Danes were accustomed to the use of archery in battle, and we find it often noticed at this period in our early chroniclers. Poly dor e Virgil, speaking of the troops of Etheldred, of which part were commanded by his brother Alfred, says, that a great number of archers were placed in the right wing of the army.* From this time till the Norman invasion, little occurs respecting archery, but it is well known, how successfully it was employed by William at the battle of Hastings. Bows and arrows are mentioned on this occasion by all our historians, and the catastrophe of the battle proves the skill with which the invaders used these weapons. Lord Lyttleton, in his life of Henry the Fourth observes, that from many instances in the course of the wars of that prince with the Irish, it appears that the English conquests in Ireland were prin- cipally owing to the use of the long bow in battle with which the Irish infantry were unacquainted. The Welsh at that time were astonishingly expert in the use of the bow, of which Giraldus Cambrensis mentions many instances. Nothing further is to be found in our historians relative to archery till the battle of Cressy in 1346,f and Poictiers in 1356, where the archers poured forth their arrows in such profusion, and gained such glorious victories. We are informed by Holinshed, that during the reign of Richard the Second, a number of archers were sent at the request of the Genoese to assist them against the Saracens on the coast of Barbary, and that they performed great services with the long bow. A memorable circumstance respecting the bow occurred in the reign of Henry the Fourth, which was the victory gained over the Scots near Halidown Hill in 1402, where, in the words of an old historian, " the Lord Percy's archers did withal deliver their deadly arrows so lively, so courageously, so grievously, that they ranne through the men of amies, bored the helmets, pierced their very swords, beat their lancers to the earth, and easily shot those who were slightly armed, through and through." The next signal victory ascribed to the English archers, is the battle of Agincourt, which was fought in 1415, f under Henry the Fifth, in which our countrymen destroyed a great number of the French cavalry by their yard long arrows. They were continued in use during the civil wars of York and Lancaster, and were also the principal weapons used at Flodden Field in the reign of Henry VIII. This, indeed, seems to be the last important action in which archery was used, and though the practice of bows was continued partially through several reigns, they at length seem to have been continued merely as an amusement. The time in which the bow became disused in war by the English army, cannot perhaps be exactly determined. Father Daniel acquaints us, that arrows were shot by the English at the Isle of Rhe in 1627. Captain Grose says, that in 1643, the Earl of Essex issued a precept for " stirring up all well affected people by benevolence towards the rising of a company of archers for the service of the King and Parliament ;" the same author informs us that in a pamphlet printed in 1664, giving an account of the success of the Marquis of Montrose against the Scots, bowmen are repeatedly mentioned. Marks for Shooting at. — The marks usually shot at by archers for pastime, were butts, prickes, and roavers. The butt, we are told, was a level mark, and required a strong arrow with a very broad feather ; the pricke was a " marke of compasse," but certain in its distance, and to this mark strong swift arrows, of one flight, with a middling sized feather, were best suited ; the roaver was a mark of Rapin, vol. i. p. 408. + Polydor. Virg. lib. xxii. p. 570: | Polvdor. Virg. lib. xxviii. p. 27. ARCHERY. 118 uncertain length, it was therefore proper for the archer to have various kinds of arrows, of different weights, to be used according to the different changements made in the distance of the ground. Archery was so much approved by Bishop Latimer as a bodily exercise, that he preached a sermon in favour of it before King Edward the Sixth. The great excellence of archery above other sports, and its utility in a political point of view, are ably discussed in Roger Ascham's excellent treatise, writtenin 1544, and entitled "Toxophilus, the whole Practice of Shooting ; contayned in Two Bookes ; pleasaunt for all gentlemen and yeomen of Englande, for theyr pastyme to reade, and profitable for theyr use to follow both in warre and peace," in which many of the fashionable amusements of the day are justly condemned. In " The benefit of the auncient Bathes of Buckstone, which cureth most greevous sicknesses, neuer before published; compiled by John Jones, Phisites, at the King's Mede, nigh Darby, anno salutis, 1572." The following is given as an exercise or amusement adapted to the invalid : — " Shooting the noblest exercyse." " Shoot- ing at garden buttes, too them whom it agreeth and pleatheth in place of noblest exercyse standeth, and that rather wyth longe-bowe, than wyth tyther, stone bowe, or crosse bowe : albeit to them that otherwyse cannot, by reason of greefe, feeblenesse, or lack of use, they may be allowed. This practese of all other the manlyest, leavyeth no part of the body unexercised, the brest, backe, reynes, waist, and amies with drawing the thyghes and legges, with running or going." In an old ballad written in praise of the Princess Elizabeth, wife of Henry the Seventh, his majesty is described as employed in a princely amusement — " See where lie shooteth at the Buttes, and with him Lords three." Harl. M8S. 367. In the ages of chivalry, the usage of the bow was con- sidered as an essential part of the education of a young man who wished to make a figure in life. The heroes of romance are therefore usually praised for their skill in archery, and Chaucer, with propriety, says of Sir Thopas, " He was a good archere." — Cant. Tales. Indeed of such consequence was excellence in this art esteemed, that Sir John Fortescue, an eminent lawyer in the reign of Henry the Sixth, declares " that the mighte of the rcalmes of Englande standyth upon archers." The first Charles seems to have amused himself in this way, he is represented in the frontispiece of " Markham's Art of Archery," London, 1634, in the attitude and dress of a bowman. The amusement was continued during the reign of the second Charles, who took great delight in it, and even knighted a man for excelling as an excellent shot; and the second James, sometimes attended at exhi- bitions of shooting. The Artillery Company of Finsbury Archers, have survived to the present time : except in that society, the bow, till within these fifty years was very little known in the kingdom. Archery possesses many excellencies as an amusement ; it is adapted to every age and every degree of strength, by increasing or diminishing the power of the bow. It is not necessarily laborious, as it may be discontiued at the moment it becomes fatiguing. As archery is now followed for amusement only, I subjoin a wish, that this fashion may be universally cultivated and approved, and that we may live to see the time, when, with Statius it can be said, " Pudor est nescire sagittas." " It is a reproach to be unskilful with the bow." With respect to the decay of the practice of archery in Brentford Butts, it may be attributed principally to the inclosures made near the spot, and by the gradual increase of buildings, by which the inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood have been deprived of room sufficient for the purpose of shooting with bows, so that it now retains an inapplicable name, and it may with certainty be asserted, that no exhibitions of this description have taken place there since the time of Charles II.

Like other localities in London, as the " Strand," and the CONTESTED COUNTY ELECTIONS. Its former appropriation is preserved only by an inapplicable name. Election of Members of Parliament.— In the preceding pages the reader has beheld scenes of sport and amusement carried on betwixt rivals, in an innocent and healthy diversion, accompanied by good will and mutual moderation. Let us now behold candidates of a far diffe- rent nature, rivals in political ambition, whose aim was popular apjnause, and parliamentary distinction. 1768. As soon as the British Parliament was dissolved, the thoughts and business of the whole nation appeared to be confined to one object, the choice of representatives ; and never perhaps, was any general election carried on with greater heat and violence in most parts of the king- dom. The arts of intrigue, the efforts of faction, the utmost stretch of interest and authority, were exerted in the contests between the rival candidates. It would be a painful task, to enumerate all the instances of popular frenzy and political depravity, that occurred on these occasions ; but Brentford election was attended with such extraordinary circumstances as to deserve particular notice. Long previously to this period, Wilkes, by his flight from public justice had provoked the severest sentence of the House of Commons, and his private affairs also were at this time in the most desperate situation ; but, on seeing that the tide of popularity was taking a turn so much to his advantage, he determined to make a bold attempt to benefit by it, sensible that if it failed of success, the conse- quences could not place him in a worse state than that in which he was already. In the month of March, 1768, he therefore offered himself as Member for Middlesex. During the Election at Brentford the mob behaved outrageously, and committed many excesses. During the tumult which occurred at the Butts, George Clark, a clerk to an attorney, received a blow on his head of which he died, and for 116 MI STORY OF BEENTFOED. which crime Edward Quirk and Lawrence Balfour were afterwards tried at the Old Bailey. 1768, March 28. This morning Sir "William Beauchamp Proctor, and Mr. Wilkes, two of the Candidates for the County of Middlesex, set out for Brentford, where the election came on for Knights of the Shire. Mr. Wilkes went in a coach drawn by six horses, and was attended by an amazing number of people to the place of election, which was held in the middle of Brentford Butts. The majority of hands appeared in favour of Sir William Beau- champ Proctor, and Mr. Wilkes, who were accordingly returned, but a poll being demanded in behalf of Mr. Cooke, the same came on immediately ; and at five in the afternoon Mr. Wilkes had polled six to one, at nine o'clock the poll finally closed, when George Cooke, Esq. and Mr. Wilkes were declared duly elected. The mob behaved in a very outrageous manner at Hyde Park Corner, where they pelted Mr. Cooke, son of the City Marshal, and knocked him from his horse, took off the wheels of one of the carriages, and broke the glasses to pieces. The reason assigned for these proceedings is, that a flag was carried before the procession of Mr. Wilkes' antagonists, on which was painted "no blasphemer." At night, likewise, the rabble were very tumultuous, some persons who had voted in favour of Mr. Wilkes, having put out the lights, the mob paraded the whole town obliging every body to illuminate, and breaking the win- dows of such as did not do so immediately. The windows of the Mansion House in particular were demolished, to the amount of many hundred pounds. They demolished also the windows of Lord Bute, Lord Egremont, Sir Sampson Gideon, Sir William Mayne, and many other gentlemen, at Charing Cross ; at the Duke of Northumberland's the mob also broke a few panes, but his Grace had the address to get rid of them, by ordering up lights immediately into his windows, and opening the Ship alehouse. * Annual Register, The following is a copy of the hand bill distributed by Mr. Wilkes's friends at Brentford. " It is the humble request of Mr. Wilkes to his friends, that they would not disturb the peace, or prevent the voters coming to the place of polling to give their free votes, for whatever candidate they think proper."

1768, Dec. This morning the sheriffs opened the poll for a knight of the shire at Brentford, which was carried on with much tranquility till about a quarter after two, at which time it was generally thought that Mr. Ser- jeant Glynn had polled a greater number than Sir W. B. Proctor, when on a sudden a great riot ensued, the mob mounted the hustings, attempted to seize some of the poll- books, and entirely put a stop to the business. On this occasion, great numbers of freeholders were hurt in trying to get away, others came home directly, and the remainder of the day was a scene of confusion. The following spirited address appeared the next day : Notice To the Gentlemen, Clergy, and Freeholders of the county of Middlesex. The warm professions of gratitude, so frequently uttered by those who feel no gratitude to their constituents, because the means by which they succeed take off all obligation, make me at a loss for terms to express myself on so signal, so generous, and so glorious a support as I have met with from you. Every means employed, every influence exerted during a six months canvass, have not yet been able to divert a great majority of you from espousing the cause of a candidate whom you supposed a friend to the cause of the people, and in whom you hoped to find a zealous defender of the rights and liberties of his country. " The sheriffs, and every person present, were witnesses of a scene never before exhibited at an election. A desperate set of ruffians, with liberty and Proctor in their hats, without the least opposition, without the least provo- cation, or cause of quarrel, destroying those who did not lift a hand in their defence. Sir William, to whom I called to go with me and face this mob, made me no answer, and left me : I remained the last man upon the hustings. "It is at present depending before the House of Commons, what measures shall be next pursued in regard to this election. When they have decided, I will give you the earliest possible notice, and I promise you, that no discouragement shall ever make me desert you, who have shewn that you will not desert yourselves, " I am, Gentlemen, your most grateful, faithful, ci humble servant, "

1769, Jan. 14th. Edward McQuirk and Lawrence Balf, were indicted for having been present, aiding and abetting in the wilful murder of George Clark, clerk to an attorney, at the late election at Brentford, where, in the riot and tumult he received a blow on his head with a bludgeon, of which he died in a few days. On the trial it appeared that the prisoners were hired, with others, previous to the day of election, for the purpose of keeping the peace, and assisting Sir W. B. Proctor's friends at the poll ; that for some time the poll went on with the greatest regularity, but that all at once the prisoners with others, began in a most outrageous manner to knock down all who came in the way. There were many evidences in Balf 's favour, it appearing that he was rather drawn in than a principal ; his council considered it unnecessary to examine a number of creditable housekeepers, who were ready to be produced to his character. The judge was very humane in his charge relative to him, and it seemed to be a disappointment to some in court, when the verdict was pronounced both guilty. Judge Aston humanely observed, that in a case where the lives of two persons were concerned, he would not pretend at once to determine without the clearest conviction. He said he had therefore weighed all the circumstances very minutely relative to the affair, and had the pleasure of having his opinion corroborated by Lord Chief Justice Baron Parker, Judge Gould, and Mr. Recorder ; he was therefore clear, he said, in the indictment being valid. Mr. Recorder then proceeded to pass sentence, previous to which, he hoped, that the fate of these two unhappy persons -would be a warning to all rioters ; as nothing, he said, could be more destructive to the laws of society, particularly to elections, the essence of English freedom, and that the procurors (if any were there) howsoever dignified, as well as the procured, were not- exempt, by our laws, from this catastrophe.

March l 1769, came on at Brentford the second re- election of a knight of the shire, when Charles Dingley, Esq. made an offer to oppose the popular candidate, but being very roughly handled by the populace, he was advised to retire, upon which Mr. Wilkes was chosen a third time, without opposition. But the election held at Brentford was declared null and void, and a new writ was ordered to be issued. April 18. At about half-past nine the election came on at Brentford, the candidates were Mr. Wilkes, Mr. Luttrell, Mr. Roake, and Mr. Sergeant Whitaker. After the writ and the act of bribery were read, Mr. Sawbridge spoke in substance : " That the affair in point was now a dispute between a n and the freeholders of Middlesex, that since the former election there had been a meetino- of the supporters of the bill of rights, wherein he had the honour to take the chair, and it was resolved to support Mr. Wilkes's cause as the cause of liberty, he hoped that they would now stand forth, as they had already done, in such a cause, and he concluded by hoping that the friends of Mr. Wilkes would equally shew themselves friends to peace and good order. " At four in the afternoon the poll was closed, when the numbers were declared. The procession of the different bodies of freeholders on horseback through Charing Cross, Pall Mall, Piccadillv, &c. lasted two hours, some bodies consisted of several hundreds each, all with music playing, colours flying and their hats decorated with blue ribbons, inscribed with the words " Magna Charta and the Bill of Rights." After the poll was over, a number of horsemen, with colours flying, and music playing, attended by several thousand people, went through St. James's Street, the Strand, and over London Bridge to the King's Bench, to congratulate Mr. Wilkes on his success. 14th. The election of John Wilkes, Esq. was again declared null and void. 16th. After long debates which lasted till three o'clock this morning, Henry Laws Luttrell, Esq. was declared duly elected for Middlesex, and has since taken his scat in parliament accordingly. May 8. The grand question on the petition of the Mid- dlesex electors was decided in the House of Commons in favour of Colonel Luttrell, who was then declared the sitting member, on a majority of legal votes, the first precedent of the kind in the Journals of the House. At Hickes's Hall, a bill of indictment was found by the grand jury of Middlesex, against Edward McQuirk, for the murder of George Hopkins, on the 8th of last December, at Brentford. This is the same man who was lately tried and convicted for the murder of George Clarke at the same time and place, and received his Majesty's pardon. A reward of one hundred pounds is advertized for taking him* 1780, Sept. 4. A County Court was held at Brentford, for the election of two members to represent the county of Middlesex in the ensuing parliament. About 11 o'clock the under sheriff opened the business upon a temporary hustings built for that purpose, and after reading the writ and the act of parliament respecting the modes of election, John Wilkes and George Byng, Esqrs. were proposed as candidates by Mr. Scott, and Mr. Foster, no other person being noticed, these gentlemen were declared unanimously elected.

1790, June 29th. John Wilkes, Esq. having declined standing for Middlesex in consequence of the unfavourable reception he met with at a previous meeting of the free- holders at Hackney, Walter Mainwaring and George Byng, Esqrs. were elected representatives of the county, at Brentford. At this election, Mr. Wilkes met with the most humi- liating rebuff and contempt from the very county, and those very people of whom he had been so long the idol; but to use his own metaphor, his " nest was so well feathered with the pluckings of his favourite goose," that he could easily console himself for the loss of unmerited popularity. " But when lie dreadful to the rabble grew Him, whom so many lords had slain, they slew." Dry den's Juv. Sat. iv. 1796, Aug. 8th. The poll for the county of Middlesex, was this day closed, and after a long consultation and hearing of counsel on both sides, the sheriff declared Mr. Mainwaring to be duly elected. Towards night, symptoms of riot were manifested ; the mob attacked Mr. G. Gibbons as he was passing along privately, and obliged him to take refuge in a tradesman's shop ; the mob became violent, and the Guards were sent for, who carried Mr. Gibbons to Hatton Garden Police office, from which he was discharged, for having fired off his pistols at the mob.

1802, Feb. 19th. The Middlesex election came on this day at Brentford, the candidates are, Mr. Byng, Mr. Mainwaring, and Sir Francis Burdett. The town pre- sented a shameful scene of confusion and riot during the poll, nor could Mr. Mainwaring obtain a hearing from the noisy mob. During the heat of the poll, the populace amused themselves in a variety of whims, one of which, was the exhibition of a man placed upon the shoulders of another, handcuffed and heavily ironed, while another was employed in flogging him with a tremendous cat 'o nine-tails, and the man who received the punishment, by the contortions of his countenance seemed to experience all the miseries which such a mode of punishment inflicts The shops were all shut in' Brentford, and the road leading to London was lined on each side with crowds of idle spectators. It is impossible for any but those who have witnessed a Middlesex election, to conceive the picture it exhibited, — it was a continued scene of riot, disorder, and tumult.

1804/ July 25th The Middlesex election came on this day. So early as six o'clock a vast crowd of spectators lined the way along Piccadilly and the road to Brentford. About seven o'clock, Sir Francis Burdett set out for the place in his carriage and four horses, preceded by seven outriders carrying large banners of blue silk, on which were written in letters of gold, " Burdett and Independence." The banners were hailed in every street by the vocifi- rations of the mob. About 10 o'clock, G. B. Mainwaring, Esq. arrived at the hustings, with two postillions in scarlet liveries, trimmed with silver, followed by ten carriages filled with his friends, all of whom wore sky blue favours. The colours of Sir Francis Burdett, were dark blue and orange. Mr. Mainwaring and his friends, were in many instances ill treated by the rabble in the interest of his opponent, who threw stones and otherwise annoyed his respectable party. P. Moore, Esq. member for Coventry, proposed Sir Francis Burdett to the electors for the representation of Middlesex, and was seconded by Mr. Knight. Mr. Mainwaring was afterwards proposed by Alderman Sir William Curtis, and the nomination was seconded by Colonel Wood. Each candidate endeavoured to address the populance, but scarcely any thing of what was advanced by Mr. Mainwaring could be heard above the incessant hissing. The shew of hands, of course, was much in favour of Sir Francis Burdett, when . a poll was demanded by the Annual Register,

1806, Feb. 8th. This morning the committee appointed to try the merits of the Middlesex election assembled, the Right Honorable J. Corry, in the chair. No opposition was made by Sir Francis Burdett to the petition of Mr. Mainwaring, and two of the votes of the former being disqualified, the latter was returned duly elected. County Town. — It is said that if elections have been held for forty years in a particular town, it becomes the county town.

The Bridge. — A bridge has existed here from a very early period, and a few particulars relating to its ancient history, derived from authentic documents may be deemed interesting : In the year 1280, Edward the First, by letters patent bearing date the 4th of December, in the ninth year of his reign, granted to the high sheriff, and others of the county of Middlesex, for the maintenance of Braynford Bridge and the benefit of the adjacent parts, a custom of pontage of several things and persons therein particularly men- tioned, to be taken within the said village, from the Feast of the Purification, for three years thence next ensuing. In the year 1332, Edward the Third, by his letters patent, bearing date February 26th, in the fifth year of his reign, granted to the bailiffs and others of the. village of Braynford for the repairing of the bridge of this village, pontage of several things therein particularly mentioned . I Leland, speaking of Brentford, says, there is a bridge over Brent ryverel of three arches, and an hospital btiilded of bricke on the further side of it. Upon the bed of the river being deepened some time since by the Grand Junction Water Works Company, the piles of the old wooden bridge were found and drawn out, they were very black and quite sound. Aungier's Topog. of Isleworth for passing over the said bridge, to be received by such persons of the village as they had confidence in, for three years ensuing the date of these presents. In the year 1372, Edward the Third, by his letters patent, dated November the 6th, granted to the bailiffs and others of Braynford for the repairing of the bridge, pontage of several things therein particularly mentioned, and of any thing vendible not specified therein, of the value of five shillings, passing over the said bridge, to be received by such persons in whom they could confide, to continue for five years. In the year 1380, Richard the Second by his letters patent, dated March 2, in the fourth year of his reign, granted to John Croucher of Knightsbridge, towards the repairing of the king's highways from the City of London to Braynford, customs of the several vendible commodities therein mentioned, (ecclesiastical men and their proj^er goods bought for their use excepted) to be taken at Knightsbridge, or elsewhere, as he shall think expedient in the king's highway, for three years next ensuing. In the year 1382, Richard the Second renewed a like patent to John Croucher for the same cause, to continue for three years next ensuing. In the year 1386, Richard the Second renewed a like patent, dated July 4th, to John Croucher and Lawrence Newport, or either of them for the same cause, to continue for three years without the exception of ecclesiastical persons. And the money so gathered to be laid out in repairs of the said highways, at the supervisal of Goff and John de Saundford. Brentford Bridge is built of stone, with one arch, it is thirty-four feet wide between the parapits, the water way under the bridge is fifty feet wide, and fifteen feet high to the summit within the arch. It was rebuilt of brick and stone by the county, in 1740, but being placed directly across the river which here takes an oblique direction, occasioned the bridge to form an irregular line, making sharp angles with the road, and in a Report of Public Bridges, County of Middlesex.It was was stated it was extremely inconvenient and dangerous. For half a century it was a constant subject of complaint with the public; at length, in 1811, the trustees of the road incurred a considerable expence in widening a part of the bridge with timber to double its former breadth, for the purpose of reducing one of the angles ; after which the county in like manner expended a large sum in further improvements at the opposite angle. Yet, notwithstanding all these expedients, it Avas found that the evil was not removed. But in the year 1824, a general concurrence was obtained for the erection of a substantial and commo- dious bridge at the expence of the county, so important in this great thoroughfare to the safety of the public. The maintenance of this bridge is at the charge of the county. The section across the stream at flood height could not be correctly ascertained from the locks damming up the water, but the section at Hanwell bridge being 220 feet, it may be estimated at Brentford bridge about 242 superficial feet.

Of certain Custom Duties, The King to the Sheriff often granted for the Building of Bridge at Braynford. To the good men of the county of Middlesex, Greeting: Know ye that we have granted unto you in aid of building your bridge at Braynford, and for the convenience of adjacent places, the under-mentioned tolls, from the Feast of the Purification of the blessed Virgin, in the ninth year of our reign, for the three years next following complete, to be taken at our before-mentioned town, as well as within certain liberties as without, to wit ; for every cart load of building materials for sale, one halfpenny; for every quarter of corn for sale, one farthing; for every cask of wine for sale, cart or waggon load, four pence; for every quarter of salt, one farthing ; for every cart bringing fish for sale, two pence ; for every horse or mare, ox or cow, for sale, one halfpenny ; for every horse's or mare's hide, ox or cow's hide, one farthing ; for every cart or wheel- barrow coming to the same place, one farthing ; for every ten fleeces of wool sold at the same place, one halfpenny ; for every score of sheep or pigs sold at the same place, One penny ; for every load of leaks or onions for sale, four pence ; for every cask of honey for sale, four pence ; for every load of iron or lead for sale, a halfpenny ; for every bundle of cloth taken to the same place, one penny ; for every hundred yards of linen cloth or canvas for sale, one penny. We also grant unto you in aid afore- said, for every Jew or Jewess* on horseback, passing over the aforesaid bridge, one penny ; and for every Jew or Jewess on foot, one halfpenny ; for every cart load of merchandize, one halfpenny; and for the aid aforesaid, and for the collecting and keeping in manner aforesaid, we have appointed our well-beloved Thomas de Wyk, John de Osterle, Thomas Tornegold, William de Newman, Robert Tornegold, John Sewell, that they may be accountable faithfully unto you tAvice in every year for the monies arising from the aforesaid tolls ; and for the aid aforesaid and for the collecting and keeping in manner aforesaid, we have appointed our well beloved that they may be accountable faithfully unto you twice in every year, for the money arising from the tolls aforesaid, and that upon your receipt, the money shall be given up for the carrying on of the works of the aforesaid bridge, but * The poor Jew could not even pass over the bridge without being sub- jected to a fine ! with what pathos and sympathy does the Poet allude to the •cruel treatment and sufferings of the Hebrew nation in a barbarous and unfeeling age. See the doom'd Hebrew of his stores bereft, See holy murder justify the theft, His ravag'd gold some useless sbrine shall raise. His gems on superstitious idols blaze ; His wife, his babe, deny'd their little home, Stripp'd, starv'd, unfriended, and unpity'd roam. Savage to Sir Robert Wat pole. at the end of the aforesaid term of three years, the tolls shall cease utterly and be abolished. Witnessed by the King at Westminster, the fourth day of December. Anno 1281.

 

CHAPTER V. Association of the Church Missionary Society — Saint Georges' Chapel and Charities, Old Brentford— Places of Worship not Parochial — Baptist Chapel, Old Brentford — Chapel of Particular Baptists, Market Place — Boston Road Chapel — Albany Chapel — Brentford British Schools — British and Foreign Bible Society — Brentford Mechanic's Institution — Brentford Poor Law Union and Workhouse. An Association of the Church Missionary Society, was formed here in 1844, called the Brentford and South West Middlesex Church Missionary Auxiliary, under the presidency of Henry Pownall, Esq. of Spring Grove, Hounslow. St. George's Chapel, Old Brentford. — This Chapel was built in 1762, by Messrs. Trimmer, Clark, Newton, Fisher, and others, at their own expense. In the year 1824, it was made free by the aid of the copyholders, who sold some waste lands to the amount of ฃ1200. together with the sanction of the Bishop of London, and the aid of the parliamentary funds ; it was accordingly enlarged, re-opened and consecrated for divine service on the 28th of January, 1828, when also the baptisms were appointed to be there performed, instead of at Ealing, as heretofore. St. George's Chapel is in the form of an oblong square, built of brick with a slated roof, a belfry over the centre with a clock. It was built after a design of Mr. Kirby, and is a pleasing specimen of his skill. The south front consists of a projecting centre and two wings. The entrance is through a circular headed door way, with a square window on each side, over which are three smaller windows, the whole surmounted by a pedi- ment. In each wing is a large circular headed window. At the west side is a circular headed window similar to st. george's chapel. 129 those in the south front, and on the north are four similar windows ; and a square window lights the projecting building in this front. The interior is fitted up with galleries, on the north and south sides. At the west end are two galleries, called the upper and lower school (room) galleries, which are sup- ported by slender pillars. The organ is placed at the west end, between the gal- leries ; the former organ was placed over the great south door. On the front of the lower west gallery is the following inscription, and the king's arms, gilt : " This organ was erected by voluntary contributions, and the chapel was painted and embellished at the expense of the parish, in the year of our Lord 1833. " The Rev. F. E. Thompson, B.A. Minister. rr ?ป*? r Churchwardens" JLhomas Me acock J The Altar Piece, composed of wood, painted in imitation of marble, consists of a centre and two wings, surmounted with a pediment, and embellished with Ionic pilasters, and handsome carved work. The wings are terminated by Ionic pilasters supporting urns. In the centre is a large well executed painting of the Last Supper : in the upper part of which is represented an angel supporting a cross, and surrounded by cherubim. This Altar Piece, which is deserving of much admiration, was painted by and presented to the chapel by John ZofTani, Esq., when the chapel was first built. This eminent artist at that time resided at Strand-on-the-Green. Every head in the picture, (excepting that of Christ,) is a likeness. Here is a portrait of ZofTani himself. The others were taken from likenesses of living persons of Strand-on- the-Green, and Old Brentford. The Communion Table is plain, and on each side are painted in gold letters the Ten Commandments, on a white ground. The balustrades project in the middle in a semi- circular form. The whole of this elaborate Altar Piece has a beautiful effect. The pulpit stands in front of the 130 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. Communion Table. The Pews occupy the centre of trie Chapel, and the spaces under the Galleries. The Chapel is warmed by six gas stoves, three on the north, and three on the south side. The only monumental inscription in this Chapel is the following, on the north Avail near the west end, consisting of a plain marble tablet in shape of a sarcophagus : Sacred to the Memory of William Henry Drew, Whose remains are deposited in the vault of this Chapel. He departed this life on the 9th day of December, 1831, in the 20th year of his age. The following verses are inscribed by an attached friend as a tribute of affection to the deceased. Shall his merits or his faults declare, Not oui^s to judge the uncertain road he trod, Heav'n seem'd to sanction him with special care, And guide him in the path that leads to God. Few seem'd his failings, not to him the praise, 'Twas heav'n he bless'd for what in life was giv'n ; Grievous afflictions are his shorten'd days, He died, his parent's hope — his hope was heav'n. The building adjoining the north front of the Chapel, and a public vault beneath, capable of containing about forty coffins, and the two upper school galleries were erected out of the proceeds of a sale of waste land at Ealing appropriated to that purpose by the consent of the Bishop of London. The north and south galleries were erected by voluntary contributions. In 183-7, a licence was obtained for the solemnization of marriages in this Chapel, by virtue of the provisions of a certain Act of Parliament passed in the seventh year of King William the Fourth, entituled " An Act for Mar- riages in England." " Given at London under our hand and seal, this fifteenth day of August, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven, and in the ninth year of our translation, " C. J. London." The district of St. George's Chapel, is bounded on the THE INFANT SCHOOL. 131 north by a line commencing at, and including the house of G. Oliver, Esq. in Boston Road, and passes Windmill Lane, Drum Lane, and the Clay Ponds, to a point in Bollow Bridge Lane ; on the south it is bounded by the River Thames, the parish of Chiswick and Acton, and on the west, by the township of New Brentford. Mr. John Joshua Kirby, the talented Architect of this handsome Chapel, was a native of Pasham, in Suffolk, who, from the humble condition of a house painter, raised himself by his talents and industry to a respectable rank among the artists of his day, and was elected a fellow of both the Royal and Antiquarian Societies. He was born in 1716, and first attracted public notice by a series of drawings which he published, taken from the monumental and other antiquities of the county in which he lived. A Treatise on Perspective, which he edited in 1774, increased his reputation, and introduced him to the knowledge of the Earl of Bute, through whose interest he was appointed drawing master to Queen Charlotte, and Clerk of the Works at Kew Palace. His other writings are " The Perspective of Architecture," 2 vols, folio, 1761, printed at the expence of King George the Third. " A Map of Suffolk," 1766, originally drawn by his father. He is also known as the father of the celebrated Mrs. Trimmer. Mr. Kirby died June 21st, 1774, aged 58, and is buried in Kew churchyard.* On the west side of the Chapel stands the Girls' School, called the Green School, founded by Mrs. Trimmer, whose educational works have been so eminently useful in the instruction of the poor, a brick building with six windows on the east side, looking into the churchyard. The following is over the door on the south front ; — The Cliurcli School, Instituted in the year 1786, For religious instruction and industry. Supported by Annual Subscriptions, and Benefactions, and the produce of the Children's work. The Infant School. — This building, consisting of a * Chalmers's Biog. Diet. 132 HISTORY OF liRESTFORD. school-room and a commodious dwelling-house, was raised in 1887, by voluntary contributions, with the assistance of grants from the Treasury, and the National Society. The school-room is calculated to hold 170 infants ; and the income of the school arises from subscriptions and collections made at St. George's Chapel. The trustees of this school are, the Vicar of Ealing, and the Minister of Old Brentford (for the time being) J. Howard, Esq., G. "W. Andrews, Esq., and the Rev. E. Trimmer. The Sunday Schools. — A Sunday School was re-estab- lished in 1839, and the children assembled in the Infant School. In the autumn of 1844, however, the numbers had increased to such an extent as to render it inconvenient to have all the children meet in the School Room, there were two schools formed therefore ; the children of the upper school meeting in the girl's school, and those of the lower, in the infant school. The numbers on the books are about 300 ; those in attendance about 230 : the teachers are all voluntary, and exceed thirty in number. Visiting Society. — A Society for visiting and relieving the sick and lying-in poor, has been in operation for some years, having been established in 1832. It is supported entirely by voluntary contributions, and accomplishes a great amount of good, above 200 persons receiving relief and nourishment in the course of each year. Incumbents, or Ministers of this Chapel. 1795. Rev. H. Plimley. 1810. Rev. J. Nicholas, LL.D. Rev. W. Meyers. 1828. Rev. H. W. Simpson, M.A. 1830. Rev. F. E. Thomson, B.A. The Baptist Chapel, Old Brentford, was opened on January the 1st. 1819, the Church was formed at Mr. Upperdine's Chapel, at Hammersmith, often persons, on January 19th, 1820. Mr. David Jones of Hereford, BOSTON ROAD CHAPEL. 1-33 was ordained pastor, who continued with the people one year and then left, and the Church was destitute till February, 1825, when Mr. J. A Jones, of Ringstead, was settled as pastor among them, and continued about six years and a half, and then resigned his office, and was succeeded by Mr. C. Robinson of Hampstead, who laboured among them thirteen years. The Church is now destitute. The number of members uniting with each other during three years was 172, many of whom are fallen asleep. The present number is 71. The Church of the Particular Baptist's Deno- mination was formed in the year 1802, the Rev. Moses Fisher was the pastor. In the year 1808, the present Chapel Avas built, the erection of which devolved upon the late Rev. John Barter Pewtress, of London, and Mr. Alexander Wood, of Brentford. The Chapel was supplied by various ministers until the settlement of Mr. Groser, in the year 1820. Since his decease it has been supplied by various ministers. The Rev. Thomas Smith is the minister at the present time. The Sunday School consists of boys and girls. This Chapel is situated at the north- west corner of the Market place. Boston Road Chapel. — The foundation stone of this edifice was laid the 12th of August, 1782. The Rev. Matthew Bradshaw, whose remains are deposited in the burial ground of the Chapel, delivered an address on the occasion. The property was put in trust for the use of " Protest- ants dissenting from the Church of England." The Society, or Church and Congregation that occupied the Chapel had previously worshipped in a Meeting-house opposite Ferry Lane, long since pulled down ; and on the site of which, shops are now built. They had subsisted as a body regularly organized, having a settled pastor, and keeping a Church Book, which is continued to this time, from the year 1693. It is said traditionally that John Bunyan occasionallv ministered at Brentford. 134 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. The first pastor of the Church, Mr. John Walker, died 27th September, 1724, having been pastor thirty years. He was succeeded by Mr. Joseph Baker, whose last entry is dated October, 1760, making a pastoral of thirty-six years. Mr. Matthew Bradshaw succeeded — his first entry is in 1761, and his last is in 1791, he also having been pastor for thirty years. He was interred on the 9th of January, 1792, aged 63. Mr. Bradshaw continued pastor of the Church for nine years after the erection of the present edifice. After Mr. Bradshaw's decease the Society gradually underwent a change ; and in the close of the year 1840,the Church and Congregation, previously established in Albany Chapel, Brentford, being allowed the possession of the Butt's Chapel by the trustees, with unanimous consent removed thither ; and Albany Chapel, after an afternoon service had been held in it for a short time, was resigned to the trustees and remained closed for about two years. On the removal of the Society from Albany Chapel, the pastor (William Clarke Young,) printed an Address of which the following is an extract. " The Church and Congregation at Albany will bear in mind, that the resolution of the trustees, giving admission to the Chapel, has respect to them as the Church and Congregation of Albany Chapel, and that the principles avowed by them in past times are, so far as consistent with God's word, to be held still. The trust deed of Albany Chapel describes such principles by a reference to their designation as Independents, and to the Westminster Assembly of Divines. In common with all Protestants, Independents, or Congregationalists, they profess to hold that the Scriptures, and the Scriptures alone, contain the prin- ciples of their faith, the rule of their duty, and the law of their discipline ; and they profess to discover, in the lively oracles, a revelation of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, as the One Deity — holding the Unity of the divine nature as certainly as they hold the distinctions in it: a mystery to which they yield the assent of faith, but attempt mechanics' institution. 185 not to explain. They also profess to discover in them the atonement of the Lord Jesns Christ, and the work of the Holy Spirit in regeneration and sanctification : and it behoves us to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered unto the saints." The first service, by the present occupants, was held in the afternoon of Sunday, December 20, 1840, when the pastor preached from the 17th Chapter of Luke, 5th verse, "Increase our faith!" Albany Independent Chapel. — This Chapel was built by subscription in the year 1829, principally through the means of a lady then resident in the neighbourhood. There is a Sunday School held in the Chapel. The present number of Boys and Girls is ninety. The pulpit is at present supplied by occasional ministers. Brentford British Schools. — These schools, situated in Old Brentford, were established in 1834, in aid of which the Committee received from the Treasury the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, and by Donations and Subscriptions, two hundred and forty-two pounds ten shillings and sixpence, making together ฃ492. 10s. 6d. Treasurer,— THOMAS FARMER, Esq. Secretary?— Mb. S. T. WOOD. Managed by a Committee of Ladies and Gentlemen. Disbursements in 1844, ฃ202 10 | Receipts ฃ190 10 8 Mechanics' Institution. — This Institution was formed at the close of the year 1835, on the principle "of alio wing- all classes to subscribe at a moderate rate, and to receive in return the benefits of a reading-room well supplied with newspapers and periodicals; a library stocked with standard works, and lectures on scientific and entertaining subjects. After struggling sometime in a doubtful state of exist- ence it became firmly established. It has numbered among its lecturers some of the most eminent of the present day. Mr. Sheridan Knowles ; Mr. B. Smart ; Mr. Homing; Mr. R. Adams; Mr. C. H. Adams; Dr. 136 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. Vaughan ; Mr. Stroughton ; Mr. Hersee ; Mr. Rowton, and Mrs. Balfour may be mentioned as examples ; and local lecturers have not been backward in shewing their desire to instruct their neighbours. F. Bonney, Esq., the late John Farrell, Esq., Mr. Honeybone, Mr. Bontems, and the Rev. F- E. Thompson, have on many occasions exerted themselves to this end. The present subscription is, for members, at the rate of ten shillings per annum, payable quarterly; and for Ladies, eight shillings per annum, also payable quarterly. The Ladies attend Lectures and have books from the library, but have no vote or influence in the management of the institution. The library contains at present 1115 volumes, and besides this excellent col- lection, Messrs. Saunders and Ottley supply at intervals a selection of modern works for the amusement and instruction of the members. The Lectures are delivered once in each fortnight, except during the months of June, July, and August, when it is at the discretion of the Board of Managers whether there shall be any lectures at all. The Board itself consists of men of all parties and ranks. The present state of the institution. President,— THOMAS BERRY ROWE, Esq. Vice-Presidents,— GEORGE COOPER, Esq. JAMES MONTGOMERY, Esq. Rev. F. E. THOMPSON, B.A. Treasurer,— LAURENCE ROWE, Esq. Receipts ฃ141. Os. 3%d. \ Expenditure ..ฃ182. Is. r i\d. The South West Middlesex Auxiliary Bible Society, formed in the year 1833. President,— HENRY POWNALL, Esq. Spring Grove, Hounslow. Vice-Presidents. — Rev. J. BENSON, D.D- Incumbent of Hounslow, G. OLIVER, Esq. Boston Road. Rev. F. E. THOMPSON, B.A. Incumbent of Old Brentford. Treasurer,— THOMAS FARMER, Esq. Gunnersbury House. Receipts ฃ'110. Is. 2d. — Expenditure ฃ9(5. 12s. 9d. Including a grant of ฃ41. to the Parent Society. The Brentford New Poor Law Union. — In pur- suance of an Act of Parliament, passed in the fourth, and fifth years of the reign of King William the Fourth, entituled " An Act for the Amendment and better Admi- BRENTFORD UNION WORKHOUSE. Id i nistration of the Law relating to the Poor in England and Wales/' the Poor Law Commissioners ordered and declared that the following parishes should be formed into a Union, viz. : — New Brentford, Ealing, Hanwell, Chis- wick, Isleworth, and Acton. Brentford Union Workhouse, situate in the parish of Isleworth. This building, erected under the provisions of the New Poor Law Act, from the designs and under the superintendance of Lewis Vulliamy, Esq., architect, is in the style of architecture that prevailed about the time of Queen Elizabeth. The walls are faced with red brick, and dressed with stone heads, sills, jambs to the doors and windows, stone plinths, copings, string courses and quoins. The roofs are covered with slate, Avhich is not in strict conformity with the style, no other covering being used in the period to which the style of architecture refers but tile. The great superiority of slate rendered this deviation desirable. The house is intended to accommodate four hundred paupers, besides the master, mistress, and nurses. The paupers are divided into three classes, and each class into male and female, who have all separate yards, wards, and dormitories, viz. for aged and infirm poor, for able bodied persons who cannot find employment, and for children. There are also sick and infirm wards, and lying-in wards ; a surgery, water closets, work rooms, store and provision rooms. The Board-room where the Guardians meet once a week to transact the business of the poor, and an office for the clerk adjoining, are on the first floor over the entrance hall ; just behind is the School-room, which is also used as a Chapel on Sundays. The Dining-hall is on the ground floor, at the back part of the building, and serves also as a Chapel for the adults. The space occupied by the buildings and yards is 177 feet broad, and 180 feet deep, and the height of the building varies from one to three, and in the centre and wings four stories. The entire cost of the building was about ฃ7500. The wish 138 HISTORY OF J5RENTFORD. of the Guardians in this Union was to have a buildiii"- o which should not present any of the prison-like associations so usual in buildings of this description, this they con- sidered as desirable, not only as regarded the inmates, but also the inhabitants of the houses in the neighbourhood, to whom a building in the style in which workhouses are usually built would have been objectionable, and have deteriorated the value of property in the vicinity. They wished, too, that as a feature in the country, it should add to, rather than detract from the appearance of the scene, from whichever side it was viewed. The situation is central ; the level of the ground rather flat and low, but healthy, on account of the substratum of soil being principally composed of gravel for twelve or fourteen feet deep, under a very thin layer of vegetable mould. Chapel and Guild of All Angels. — In 1446, Henry the Sixth, by letters patent, granted license to Master John Somerseth, to found a certain hospital and fraternity, or guild, in a certain chapel likewise founded by him at Brentford, and in the parish of Isleworth, to be dedicated to the honour of the nine orders of Holy Angels. The immediate site of the chapel, near Brentford Bridge, and some adjoining houses, afterwards came into the possession of one Philip Godard, who, dying in 1762, bequeathed them to his nephew, Thomas Huggins, and his wife, afterwards to remain to the use of the charity school of Isleworth for ever. Elizabeth Huggins, the survivor, died in the course of the year 1794 ; but the bequest being contrary to the statute of mortmain, it became null and void. There were* no vestiges of All Angels' Chapel remaining when Glover made his survey in 1635 * * Aungier's Hist, of Isleworth, pp. 181, 225. BOUNDARY, 139 CHAPTER VI. New Brentford — Boundaries and Extent — Population and number of Houses — The Ham — The Butts and Market Place — The Brent — The Grand Junction Canal — Boston Road — The Half Acre — The County Court — The Petty Sessions — The Town, Houses, and Inns — Sir W. Noy's House, now Mr. Ronald's — The Great Floods — Arrival of Queen Victoria. The eastern boundary line of New Brentford commences in the Thames and runs up the head of the Town Meadow to the Lock-House, thence crosses the Grand Junction Canal, and passes through the premises occupied by Mr. Grainger, crossing the High Street into the Half Acre, and continuing directly up Boston Road, then following a small water course on the right hand, inclosing some fields of Colonel Clitherow's, being part of Boston Farm. The northern boundary continues from the eastern point, crossing the Hanwell Road to the Gospel Oak, down to the Grand Junction Canal, which it crosses to the River Brent. The southern boundary is formed by the old course of the River Brent, being the greatest part of it in the Grand Junction Canal, till it reaches the Town Meadow, where it encloses a portion of the Duke of Northumberland's lands, then falls again into the course of the Brent, and finishes in the Thames. It appears upon consulting the deed of commutation under the hand and seals of the Tithe Commissioners, that the large tithes were commuted for a rent charge of ฃ60. to the rector of Hanwell, subject to the parochial rates, which had on an average amounted to ฃ10.; the small 140 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. tithes were commuted for ฃ85., the average of the rates having amounted to ฃ15. The whole quantity not subject to tithe within the said parish is fifty-two acres, being the sites of houses, ware- houses, out-buildings, yards, wharfs, public roads, so much of the River Thames, as is within the said parish, portions of the old River Brent, and the Grand Junction Canal and Towing Path, also the Market Place, and two large open spaces not common, nor waste land, called the Ham and the Butts. The whole of the parish comprehends 220 acres, 162 acres subject to the payment of tithes. Of arable, garden, and nursery grounds, 121 acres : wood and ozier ground, 4 acres. Population and Land Tax. — An increasing, health- ful, and virtuous population, constituting an essential part of national wealth, is a proper subject of enquiry and investigation. Previously to the year 1801, the population of Great Britain had been estimated by ingenious calcula- tions only ; then for the first time, a census by parliamen- tary authority was taken throughout the kingdom, which has been four times repeated. The following returns relate to this parish: — namely, in 1841, New Brentford — Acres, 230 ; Houses inhabited, 384 ; Uninhabited, 22. Population — Males, 1,018 ; Females, 1,150 ; Total 2,174. Elthorne Hundred — The returns of the parish of New Brentford, includes ninety-eight persons in barges. The quota paid to the land-tax by this parish is ฃ433. 18s. ll^d.f being at the rate of about 2s. 4:\d. in the pound. The rateable value of New Brentford is ฃ6006. The omnibuses perforin 136 journies daily, or 2595 miles daily. The annual amount of fares is 50,000. The number of long coaches on the road previously to THE TOWN MEADOW. 141 the establishment of the railway was eighty-three daily, but they are now reduced to eight. The excise duties for Brentford amount annually to ฃ450,000. The Ham. — This is a detached part of the Manor of Boston, consisting of about two acres, upon which stands the Boy's school, which was conveyed by the Lord of the Manor for that purpose. It was formerly a place of recreation for the inhabitants, but the cutting of the Grand Junction Canal through it, and other local encroachments have much curtailed it. The walks down by the meadows towards the river are very agreeable in fine weather. The Butts and Market Place were originally a common or waste in the manor of Boston. In 1664, John Goldsmith, Esq. lord of the manor, conveyed it, consisting of nine acres and a half, and the soil thereof, to William Parish. This curious and uncommon grant was probably made to prevent any future grant of any part of the land, on which houses might be built to the injury of Mr. Parish, who bought the ground to build on, and he did imme- diately build. The trees are not the property of the lord of the manor ; the great row of elms were planted in 1700, by Richard Merewether, Esq., Mr. Lateward's grandfather. Every person has a right to come on the Butts and return with horses and carriages, but the way through the Castle Yard and the Market Place is private, the latter to be open on market days. There was a road to the mill formerly through the Pigeon's Yard, over a bridge there across the Brent, and through part of the Pigeon's Field. The owner of the mill has a right of passage through the market and bar without any acknow- ledgment, under the lease granted by Mr. Hawley, which allowed all " such ways and passages." The Town Meadow. — One acre belongs to the Duke of Northumberland, six acres to the Bishop of London, 142 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. which six acres arc included in a lease granted by the bishop of the manor farm of Greenford to Mr. Lateward, and six acres to Dr. Johnson. After Lammas-day, the whole is commonable for the inhabitants of New Brentford.* The River Brent rises near Finchley Common, and after forming in its winding course the western boundary of the parish, it falls into the Thames. " It was petitioned that the wears upon the river called Braint, in the county of Middlesex, parcel of the river Thames, may be taken away." To which it was replied, "that the Statutes thereof made shall be executed," 50 Edward the Third, AD. 1376. f Bishop Percy has observed, that in England, although the names of the towns and villages are almost universally of Anglo-Saxon derivation, yet the hills, forests, rivers, &c. have generally retained their old Celtic names. % The river Brent gave name to an ancient and opulent family of these parts. The most remarkable man of this name was Fulke de Brent, who, for matchless prowess and daring courage, was so beloved by King John that he gave him in marriage Margaret, the daughter of Warren Fitzgerald, his Chamberlain. This Fulke enjoyed the same favours with King Henry the Third, for by his great valour the king gained the victory at Lincoln against Lewis, son of the second Philip, king of France, and his rebellious barons. But not long after, boasting much upon his great prosperity and his former services to the state, and presuming upon his sovereign's lenity, he committed many horrible outrages, for which he was condemned to perpetual banishment, in which he ended * Colonel Clitlierow's Manorial Papers. + Under this (Sion House) the small river Brent issueth into the Thames, and springeth out of a pond, vulgarly called Brown's Well, for Brent Well, that is in old English, Frog Well, passes down between Hendon, which Arch- bishop Dunstan, born for the advancement of monks, purchased for some few Bizantines, which were imperial pieces of gold coined at Byzantium, or Con- stantinople, and gave tbem to the Monks of St. Peter of Westminster. Gibson's Camden's Middlesex, p. 810, 326, t Preface to Translation of Mallet's Northern Antiquities, vol. j. p 39. PETTY SESSIONS. 143 his days at Rome in extreme misery, and was there buried most ignobly, in the year 1226.* The Grand Junction Canal was cut under an Act obtained in the year 1793, and begins at Braunston, in Northamptonshire, were it joins the Oxford Canal, and falls into the Thames at Brentford. By this inland navi- gation, the metropolis is connected with all the different canals which have been made in the midland and north- western parts of England; and thus a cheap and easy conveyance is afforded for all the various articles of manu- facture, and the produce of the counties through which the line of the canal passes. The County Court. — Brentford is within the juris- diction of the county magistrates, and by an Act of Parliament passed in 1750, it is enacted, that the County Court of Middlesex, or such persons as are qualified to serve on juries, or in the superior courts in "Westminster, together with the County Clerk, may determine debts under forty shillings, in a summary way, and that the Sheriff of Middlesex, by his County Clerk, shall hold his Court for that purpose on the first Tuesday in every month, at some convenient place within the hundreds of Isleworth or Elthorne. This court is held constantly at Brentford, at the " Three Pigeons," by a barrister appointed for that purpose, who determines cases before a jury of three of the inhabitant householders of the town. The Petty Sessions for the division of New Brentford, comprising the parishes of Hanwell, Greenford, Perivalc, Norwood, Heston, Isleworth, and Twickenham, are held by the local magistrates at the Three Pigeons, and where the magistrates sit in Petty Sessions Court every Saturday, exercising the functions of Police Magistrates. The meetings of magistrates for public business has been held at this Inn for upwards of a century. * Weever's Fun. Mon. p. 532. 144 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. The Boston Road runs up to the Uxbridge Road, and about half way up is situate the ancient manor house ; on the south it joins the Half Acre, which it is supposed takes its name from the strip of land which here forms the eastern boundary of the parish of New Brentford.* The Town of Brentford extends a mile in length, the High-street at the western end makes a very respect- able and business like appearance, being lined on both sides with good shops, and the weekly recurrence of the market greatly adds to the traffic and convenience of the town. Several old inns also still exist to preserve the remem- brance of former times, though stripped by modern conveniences of much of their ancient utility and conse- quence. Among these, the most conspicuous is The Three Pigeons, called in ancient deeds, The Three Doves. This remarkable hostel, situated at the western corner of the Market-place, dates its origin from the days of Shakspeare and Ben Johnson. The house in the interior is still in its ancient state, having above twenty sitting and sleeping apartments, connected by a projecting gallery at the back, and communicating by several stair- cases to the attics, with numerous dark closets and passages. This very ancient inn is frequently mentioned by the early dramatists, and appears at one time to have been in some repute, and it is remarkable as having had for its landlord, the celebrated tragedian, John Lowin, a cotemporary of Shakspeare, and one of the original actors in his plays, who died in this house at a very advanced Thou art admirably suited for the Three Pigeons At Breutford, 1 swear I know thee not." Old Play. The Roaring Girl. See Page 62, ante. ANCIENT HOUSES. 145 " We will turn our courage to Braynford — westward, My bird of the night — to the Pigeons." Ben Johnson's Alchymist. Julian or Gillian of Brentford, was an old woman residing at Brentford, who had the credit of being a witch. She is frequently alluded to by Shakspeare, and the early dramatists, in no very creditable terms.* " I doubt that old hag Gillian of Brentford has bewitched me." Westward Hoe. " What can be made of Summer's Last Will and Testament Such another thing as Gillian of Brayneford's witch." Summer's Last Will. The Red Lion Inn, situated at the eastern corner of the Market Place, has existed here since the middle of the fifteenth century. It was in this house that King Henry the Sixth held a Chapter of the Order of the Garter in the year 1445.f This house has undergone such a renovation of late years, that little remains of its ancient state ; the interior and the outside walls have been stuccoed and white- washed. The White Horse Inn, situated in the Market Place, has existed ever since the time of Elizabeth, as appears by the parish books. % The Castle Inn, situated to the eastward, is also very ancient, and occupies a large space of ground facing the High Street ; it is the principal inn used by travellers. The most ancient private dwelling house, if we may judge from the exterior, is that inhabited for many years by Mr. Ronalds, and is undoubtedly of the Elizabethan period, as may be seen by the engraving. * See the preceding allusion to Shakspeare's " Merry Wives of Windsor," p. 86, ante. + See page 14, ante. j George Wood dwelinge at the signe of the White Horse, in the Market Place, the xxvii day of February, 1603. — Burial Parish Register. L 146 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. SIR WILLIAM NOY'S HOUSE. It is said by tradition to have been inhabited by Sir W. Noy, Attorney-General to Charles the First, whom we learn from various authorities to have lived near this spot. Noy " says Howell in his Italian Prospective/' a great cried up lawyer, put it into the head of King Charles to impose an old tax, called the " Ship Money,* upon the Subject," which the said lawyer did warrant upon his life to be legal, for he could produce divers records how many of his progenitors had done the same. * A writ was directed to the Sheriff of every county in England, to provide a ship of war for the King's service, and to send it amply provided and fitted, by such a day, to such a place, and with that writ were sent to each sheriff instruc- tions that, instead of a ship he should levy upon his country such a sum of money, and return the same to the treasurer of the navy, for his Majesty's use. Hence the denomination of ship money. — Clarendon's Hist. vol. ii. p. 04. THE FLOODS. 147 With infinite pains and indefatigable " says Howell in his Letters" he came to his knowledge of the law, but I never heard a more pertinent anagram than was made of his name William Noy, " I moyl in Law." He left an odd will, which is short, and in Latin. Having bequeathed a few legacies, and left his second son one hundred marks a year, and five hundred pounds in money to bring him up to his father's profession, he concludes, " Reliqua meorum omnia primogenito meo Edvardo, dis- sipanda (nee melius unquam speravi ego.)" I leave the rest of all my goods to my first born Edward, to be con- sumed or scattered ; for I never hoped better.* " Mr. Noy continues ill, and is retired to his house at Brentford, passing by with my Lord Collington to Han- worth, I saw him much fallen away in face and body, but as yellow as gold, peppered mightily with the jaundice. They apprehended him to be in much danger, for his waters continue, which drain his body." He died at Brent- ford, August 9, 1634,f and was buried in the church.J It is no wonder that we have so few old houses. Till about the year 1200, there were very few stone houses, and none tiled or slated ; they were built with wood, and thatched with straw or reeds. In the year 1189, Richard the First ordered that they should be built with stone to a certain height, and that they should be covered with slate or burnt tile. This order was repeated, but it was long before it was observed. A few of the old houses in Brentford afford good spe- cimens of the ancient style of building, called Elizabethan, but more usually pertaining to the period of James the First. Their pointed gables, and enriched verge boards, pierced in every variety of pattern, their finials and pen- dants, and pargetted fronts, give an air of the picturesque, contrasting broadly with the stiffness of the modern brick buildings. Great Flood in the Year 1682. — A very violent * Seeward's Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons, vol. iii. p. 283. t Strafforde Letters, vol. i. p. 262. J See page 56. L 2 148 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. storm of rain, accompanied with thunder and lightning, caused a sudden flood which did great damage to the town of Brentford. The whole place was overflown, boats rowed up and down the streets, and several houses and other buildings were carried away by the force of the waters. In the churchwardens' books are the following entries relating to this calamity. April 26, 1682. Paid the watermen in bread, beer, and brandy, that brought their boats to save the people from the flood this day . . ..ฃ060 Paid for clearing water out of the church, mops, &c. . . . . . . 9 It appears also, that the wall of the churchyard, and the pews in the church, received considerable damage. Mrs. Clitherow, of Boston House, has a printed copy of the Brief granted to the sufferers upon this occasion, by which it appears that their loss was estimated at ฃ718. It appears from the newspapers of the day, that storms and floods were general throughout the country, causing the most alarming accidents : — " Last night through the violence of the rain, the floods were so high npon the road between this and London, that a man on horseback was over- whelmed, whereby they were both drowned. The horse now lies upon the road, and the man at an adjoining house." — Loyal Protestant, April 26, 1682. " The great rain that fell on Tuesday night, hath done great mischief in many places in the countries, but the particulars we cannot yet have. The waters of the river are everywhere very high, a man and his horse were drowned between Croydon and Camberwell, and at Hockley-in-the-Hole, above .ฃ1000. damage was sustained among the brewers, and one child was washed out of its bed and found the next morning dead." The Protestant Mercury, April 27th, 1682. " By several letters we have advice that by reason of the great rain which has lately fallen, there is hardly any travelling in the country without great danger, for several passengers have lost their lives, and among others, the York stage coach missing the road was turned over, and all the passengers drowned, the coachman only escaping. Also in the west we hear a waggon, horses, and all the passengers miscarried." The Protestant Mercury, May 10th 1682. On Saturday night, January 1, 1841, another fearful inundation occurred at Brentford, occasioned by the THE FLOODS. 149 bursting of the banks of the reservoir of the Paddington canal, about eight miles to the north of Brentford. The water, it appears, was first observed to be rising about half-past twelve o'clock, but no fears of an inunda- tion being entertained by the persons residing near, they retired to rest. Towards two o'clock, Police constable Smith, who was on duty near the bridge, observing the water still increasing, awakened some of the boatmen belonging to what are called " monkey-boats," large numbers of which were moored off the different wharfs abutting on the canal, and cautioned them to be on the alert for their own security. At that time, and even up to half-past three o'clock, immediate danger was not apprehended, but a few minutes before four o'clock, a loud noise was heard to the north of the town, which every moment sounded nearer and nearer, and it was soon ascertained that the narrow stream of the Brent had over- flowed its banks, and was pouring itself into the already increased waters of the canal. Numbers of boats, barges, and lighters, were instantly torn from their moorings, and driven with great force through the bridge towards the Thames. At the same instant, also, the accumulated waters having overflowed all the premises north of the high road, burst through two avenues by the houses of Mr. Brasher, near the bridge, and Mr. Farrell directly opposite the church, filling the lower rooms. The police immediately alarmed the inhabitants to a sense of their danger, and where some who were too deeply buried in sleep to be aroused by the knocking, they forced their doors open. Men, women, and children — many of them in their night clothes — were soon seen running in all directions for shelter, while the roaring of the water and the screams of the wretched inhabitants of the monkey-boats, borne along on the stream, and of the individuals inhabiting the numerous cottages, were most appaling. In a very short time all the houses at that portion of the town were flooded, and the water rising rapidly, the occupiers of the houses near the Market Place commenced damming up their doors, and there is no doubt that the whole of New Brentford, 150 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. would shortly have become under water, had it not found itself an outlet at the bottom of Church Alley, adjoining the Church, by washing down the wall of the extensive nursery grounds of Messrs. Ronalds, and another wall at the southern extremity of the grounds, by which it joined the stream of the canal, near its outlet to the Thames. In the tan-yard of Mr. Norris the inundation did great mischief; the whole of a large quantity of tan, with which the warehouses were stored, was carried away by the stream. The escape of a man and his wife, of the name of Birch, who had the care of the premises, was most providential. They were awakened from their sleep by the water entering their bed, and they had only time to jump out, and, by climbing on some out-buildings, got upon a wall at the rear of the premises of Mr. Matthews, a cooper, near the Market-place, who was aroused by their screams for assistance, and who, by means of a ladder, got them down in safety. During the early part of the day fears were entertained that the whole of the crews of the boats, which had been wrecked were drowned, and much interest was excited to ascertain the fate of a family of seven children, who, with their father and mother, named Tolley, it was known were on Saturday evening on board one of the boats belonging to Messrs. Price and Sons, of Brierly-hill. It was, however, in the afternoon, ascertained that they had been saved as the boat was being driven along by the current, by the exertions of a family named Ayres, living in a cottage at the bottom of Boar's Head-yard, who, as the boat passed the window, succeeded in dragging in the seven children ; the father and mother were also saved. At the next cottage were also two sisters of the name of Foster, each with one child, who were rescued from another boat. No less than twenty-one men, women, and children, saved their lives by climbing over the wall of the Duke of Northum- berland's grounds, and taking refuge in a cow-house. Every possible assistance was immediately rendered by those of the inhabitants who had not been reached by the inundation. Amongst the most active was the Rev. Dr. THE FLOODS. 151 Stoddart, the vicar of New Brentford, Trho 5 although his own residence was partly under water, strenuously exerted himself in assisting all who needed it ; and the exertions of Inspector Macquard and the police of the T division will not be soon effaced from the memory of the inha- bitants. About four o'clock the water was at the highest, and the only means of communication between the houses near the bridge was by means of a boat. Towards six o'clock the water was gradually decreasing, and daylight was anxiously looked for that the extent of the mischief might be ascer- tained. Above the bridge, the damage was not so extensive as below it. Below the bridge, a short distance on the right were found five large barges, driven by the force of the water against the wharf of Mr. Fowler,* an exten- sive wharfinger at Brentford End and swamped — some lying over others. They belonged to Mr. Charles Saun- ders, lighterman, of Strand-on- the-green, KeAv-bridge ; and were laden with 1,300 quarters of corn, and 350 quarters of linseed ; but it was nearer to the mouth of the outlet to the Thames where the greatest damage was done, and where a scene of shipwreck unparalleled so far inland was to be seen. The spot in question is at the bottom of Boar's Head-yard, near the Old Workhouse, a turning leading from the high road nearly opposite the Market- place down to the canal. From this spot the canal passes through some meadows, and there is a foot bridge across it; and near that bridge were piled up craft of various descriptions, to the number of fifteen ; and the number, there is no doubt, would have been more had not the pressure of the water forced down a large portion of the wall of the grounds of his Grace the Duke of Northum- berland, by which the pent-up water obtained an outlet, carrying with it four or five barges. Some of these vessels were topsy-turvy, others on their sides, and portions of five could be distinctly seen peeping above the water, * This gentleman, being aged and infirm, was much, shocked at the occur- rence, and died suddenly the same evening. 152 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. piled on the top of each other. It was impossible at the time, from the great swell of the water, to ascertain to whom they belonged, the nature of their freight, or what had become of their crews ; and it was feared that several lives had been sacrificed. At other parts of the canal several barges and lighters foundered, and many sunk. The barge Susan, the pro- perty of Mr. Skeele, lighterman, of North Hyde, near Southall, went to pieces, and the body of one of the persons on board of her, named William Spruce, about seventeen years of age, was picked up about eleven o'clock, jammed between the rails at the bottom of Catherine-wheel-yard, covered by some tarpaulin. It was immediately conveyed by the police to the Catherine-wheel public-house, in the High-road, to await a coroner's inquest. In the course of the morning, Messrs. Hazard, Strange, and Layton, three of the Guardians of the Brentford Union, visited some of the indigent sufferers to afford them relief, and Dr. Stoddart, and Messrs. Bunting and Hopkins, Churchwardens, of New Brentford, visited others with the same object, and Dr. Stoddart procured two rooms to be prepared at the Infant School for their reception. Subscriptions were immediately opened in behalf of the sufferers by the flood, the receipts of which amounted to ฃ813. 17s. the whole amount of which was disbursed among the boatmen and their families, to the crews of fifteen barges, to the poor families of New Brentford, and to tradesmen and others of New Brentford, whose pro- perty was much damaged or destroyed. Rejoicings on the Arrival of the Queen. — The latest event of note in the History of New Brentford, was the celebration of Queen Victoria's marriage with His Royal Highness Prince Albert, and their arrival at Brentford on their wedding-day. The oldest inhabitant cannot remember such a spirit of loyalty, unity, and enthusiasm, as was mani- fested by all ranks on the joyful occasion of the Queen's marriage. It was determined to erect two triumphal arches in the High Street, and to give a dinner to the ARRIVAL OF THE QUEEN. 158 children of the national and all other schools in the parish. A committee had been appointed, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Stoddart, the Vicar ; the Parochial Officers, Messrs. Grainger, Hopkins, Ronalds, Bunting, and Mr. Joseph Hinge, to collect the subscriptions of the inhabitants, and to carry out the objects of the meeting. A handsome subscription was readily obtained, and all necessary arrangements expeditiously prepared. Early on Monday morning a merry peal of bells from the church, announced the arrival of the happy day, and a large union jack was hoisted on the tower. The arches being completed, were richly ornamented with evergreens of all kinds, and also with flags, white favours, devices, and variegated lamps. On the centre of the western arch, opposite the church, was placed a very large imperial crown, having the initials V. A. on each side of it, and underneath, the motto il United and Happy." Over the eastern arch, near the Castle Inn, were two largs stars, with the initials V. A., and underneath, the word " Welcome," all of which were illuminated in the evening, and presented a splendid appearance. Soon after twelve o'clock, the children of the various schools, in number exceeding two hundred, assembled in the boys' national school in the Ham, which was most tastefully decorated with laurel, &c. and each child was presented with a white bow, and a copy of the national anthem, " God save the Queen," having the two following stanzas added for the occasion by Dr. Stoddart : Welcome to Britain's coast Albert ! Victoria's boast, Noble and brave. Hail ! this their wedding day, Hail ! their united sway, Bridegroom and Bride, we pray God bless and save ! Henceforth may faction cease, Love, joy, and wealth increase, Guardian supreme ! May rich and poor rejoice ! Welcome with heart and voice ! Albert ! Victoria's choice ! God save the Queen ' 151 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. One o'clock announced to the young and anxious expectants, the arrival of an excellent dinner, prepared by Mr. Tinson, of the Pigeon's Inn, consisting of roast beef and plump pudding. After the cloth was drawn, Dr. Stoddart, in an appropriate address, proposed the health of the Royal Pair, which was drunk by the children and responded to by a numerous and respectable company, with as much enthusiasm as could possibly be expressed by long, loud, and often repeated huzzas. The national anthem was then sung by the singers of the New Brent- ford choir, with much spirit and effect, every stanza being repeated in full chorus by the whole assembly. Mr. Cooper afterwards proposed the healths of those who were subscribers to the National Schools, all of whom had contributed to the festivities of the day, particularly naming Colonel Clitherow and his family, who had for so many years deeply interested themselves in the welfare of the schools, and all other institutions in the place. The children were then conducted to the seats arranged for them in the front of the churchyard, where, with the committee, they waited the arrival of the Queen and her Royal Consort, and where their welcome and huzzas were most graciously acknowledged by the Royal party. The whole line of the road was densely thronged with people, and many very respectable persons from the neighbour- hood were to be seen on the pavement or in their carriages, waiting for the royal procession. In the evening, the Pigeons and the Castle Inns and several houses were illuminated, and large flags with devices, not forgetting the true lover's knot, were exhibited from the windows. Thus ended these joyous festivities, all persons expressing their entire satisfaction with the arrangements adopted by the committee, and declaring their conviction that neither old nor young could ever forget the various pleasing circumstances which occurred on this eventful occasion. THE HALF ACRE. 155 CHAPTER VII. Old Brentford — Boundaries and Extent — Population — Half Acre, Windmill Lane — Mrs. Trimmer — The High Street — Elver Ayts — The Ferry — Wharfs and Manufactories — Timber Yard, Saw Mills — Soap Manufactory — Police Station — Pottery — Brewery — Brentford Distillery — Gas Light Company — Grand Junction Water Works — Brick Kilns and Tilery — Kew Bridge. Old Brentford lies within the Kensington division of the hundred of Ossulstone, it is bounded on the north by Ealing, of which parish it is a hamlet, on the west by New Brentford, on the east by Chiswick, and on the south by the Thames,* and includes a population of two thousand four hundred and eleven males ; two thousand six hundred and forty-seven females, making a total of five thousand and fifty persons; with nine hundred and ninety-nine inhabited houses, forty-seven uninhabited, and twenty- three building. The Half Acre running north from the High Street, forms the western division, leading to Windmill Lane, in which resided for many years, the celebrated Mrs. Trimmer. The benefits conferred on the district by the exertions of this truly christian family were great, they mainly assisted in the erection of the chapel of St. George, and in the establishment of the Girls' and Infant Schools, and they were ever foremost and ready in every charitable and benevolent design. The mother of the family resided for many years at a cottage situate at the western extremity of Windmill Lane, of this house Mrs. Trimmer makes frequent mention in her entertaining Memoirs, but since her decease it has been pulled down, and two houses * See the boundary line expressed at page 131, in treating of the district, of St George's Chapel. 156 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. have been built on its site. There does not appear to be any public tribute better suited to perpetuate the respect due to the memory of the honoured dead, and to stimulate the exertions of the living, than a tablet or mural monu- ment to be placed in St. George's chapel, the centre of their labours, and the sacred edifice in which they attended public worship for so many years. This affectionate tribute of regard is proposed to be erected by subscription, without the participation of the members of her surviving family ; and from the approbation that has attended its announcement, no doubt need be entertained of its ultimate success and accomplishment. Mrs. Trimmer. — Among the points of dissimilitude between earlier and recent times, the advancement of female character is not the least remarkable. While with uncivilized man, the terms woman and slave, are almost identical, in the enlightened nations of modern Europe the star of female excellence has long arisen, and the pre- judice is now verging to extinction, that the one-half of the species is designed for household drudgery and pros- tration. In poetry, in epistolary, and dramatic excellence, in general literature, and even in the severer sciences, not a few are the productions of the female pen ; and while each has excelled in the path of her ambition, the name of Mrs. Trimmer, as public instructress, is almost without a competitor. Mrs. Trimmer was the daughter of Joshua and Sarah Kirby, and was born at Ipswich, on the 6th of January, 1741. Her father, Joshua Kirby, has distinguished him- self by some able writing on Perspective and Architecture, in which sciences he had the honor to instruct his Majesty King George the Third, when Prince of Wales, and after- wards his Royal Consort. Mr. Kirby was also President of the Society of Artists of Great Britain, previously to the establishment of the Royal Academy. It was the last desire of Gainsborough to be buried by the side of his old friend Kirby, and their tombs adjoin, in the church-yard, at Kew. MRS. TRIMMER. 157 His father, John Kirby, is known as the authoi of one of our earliest topographical works, as well as of a useful little volume called, the " Suffolk Traveller," 1735. Mr. Kirby married Sarah, the* daughter of Mr. Bull, of Framlingham, (Suffolk,) and the fruit of their union is the subject of this memoir. It has been said, that when we write unaffectedly and in earnest, a unity of sentiment will pervade our writings ; and the remark is, perhaps, exemplified in the following- letter, written by Mrs. Trimmer in her eleventh year, and which exhibits the child's first letter marked with the same character as her later productions. Ipswich, Dec. 4:th, 1751. Dear Grandpapa and Grandmama, As I now think myself capable of writing a letter, I do not know of any to whom I can address myself with more justness and propriety than yourselves ; for you are my parents in a double capacity, and, therefore, may reasonably claim my utmost duty and gratitude. By your indulgent care, under the gracious hand of Providence, you have blest me with the best of mothers. Let me, therefore, beg a continuance of your blessing and prayers, to enable me to set a right value on the privileges I enjoy by being a rational being, and to put in practice the duties I owe to God, my neighbour, and myself; and it shall be my daily prayer to the Almighty, that he will make the remainder of your lives happy, and receive you at last into everlasting felicity. My grandmama and grandpapa Kirby, and all my papa's family, join in suitable commen- dations with your most obedient and dutiful grand- daughter, Sarah Kirby." As a girl, Milton's Paradise Lost was her constant com- panion. It was this circumstance which so pleased t the great Dr. Johnson that he invited her to see him, and presented her with a copy of his Rambler. In early life she would naturally derive improvement from the intel- 158 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. lectual conversation of such men as Sir Joshua Reynolds, Dr. Gregory Sharp, Hogarth, Gainsborough, and others with all of whom her father was on terms of intimacy. In her twenty -first year she married Mr. Trimmer, a person of exemplary character and sound religious principles. From this period to her death, she continued to reside at Brent- ford. She had twelve children, and her only surviving child, the He v. H. S. Trimmer, of Heston, has kindly furnished the present documents. The latter half of the last century, the era of Mrs. Trimmer's public life, was, it need hardly be said, a period of transition and movement. Earlier modes of strength were breaking down, and opinions the wildest and most mischievous were floating on the disturbed elements of society. The propagandisnr of infidel and unsettled principles was actively at work, and charaterizes the period. In resistance to these tendencies were arrayed the wise and good ; and among these is to be enumerated Mrs. Trimmer. The unwearied object of her life was the improvement of the children of the poor, or in the later phraseology, the enlightenment of the masses. At the present day when education is so generally advocated, it is difficult without an effort of thought, to contemplate the ignorance which then prevailed, and the prejudices which opposed its removal. It was not a cloud that darkened the humbler classes only, but it cast its shadow over all. The success of Mrs. Trimmer's educational exertions may be estimated by the high reputation of her works, and their extensive circulation, which, after the lapse of half a century, are steadily gaining ground. Neither has their usefulness been limited to the United Kingdom ; it has extended to the colonies and slave population, and even to the United States of America. But the system of education advocated by Mrs. Trimmer, was not a system of mere intellectuality, but one based upon religion, and in connection with the Church : and her efforts were successfully directed against the latitudinarian views of Joseph Lancaster, at a time when they were most rapidly spreading, and had received the most powerful MRS. TRIMMER. 159 support. It was at Mrs. Trimmer's persuasion that Dr. Bell was induced to enter the field, and that the way was paved which eventually led to the ascendency of sounder views, and the establishment of the National Society. Mrs. Trimmer died in her seventieth year, on the 15th of December, 1810. Her death was sudden, and without previous illness, but full of calm and peace. Reading over at her writing table the letters of an esteemed friend, her head sunk upon her bosom and she " fell asleep ;" and so gentle was the wafting, that she wore for some hours the look of a refreshing slumber, which her family were unwilling to interrupt. Mrs. Trimmer was of a most cheerful and happy dispo- sition, devotedly attached to all her children and the object of their united affection. She was humble, diffident, and retiring. She was acute in her feelings, but without passion or excitement ; and presented in her daily life the absence of all selfishness, and an anxiety to oblige. She was a stranger to the thirst of literary renown, still more to the thirst of literary gain, and the proceeds of her numerous works were chiefly given to the poor. The education of the poor was her great aim, and her writings gave a well-directed impulse to education. She was habitually an early riser, and devoted the break of day to meditation and study. The benevolence of her character obtained the gracious condescension of her sovereign, George the Third, her Majesty Queen Charlotte, and the female branches of the Royal Family. She also received the sanction of the Church; and on the list of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, not only does she stand alone as a female writer, but her works are more numerous than those of any writer. Her works are well known ; they are remarkable for their piety, practical character, and plainness. In short, the character of Mrs. Trimmer presents the rare combination of talent without pride, and of piety without asceticism. From the numerous letters of condolence received by her family at her decease, the three following have been selected as bearing an honourable testimony to her worth ; 160 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. the first from Shutc Barring-ton., Bishop of Durham, the second from the author of the Madras System, and the the third from a distinguished foreigner. Cavendish Square, April 12, 1814. Madam, I sat down to the perusal of the two most interesting volumes which you had the goodness to send me, with the earnest wish to meet with few interruptions in my progress. That, however, has not been my lot ; my thanks, there- fore, have necessarily been delayed till the present moment. Accept them with an opinion that nothing can be more honourable to the memory of your most respect- able mother than such a picture of her heart, as she has drawn in her journal. That picture must be faithful, as it exhibits her intercourse with that Being to whom all hearts are open, all desires known, and which she meant should never be inspected by any human eye. Such an instance of piety and of the uniform discharge of every duty, is hardly to be met with in the history of the most distinguished early Christians. Her prayers are not to be equalled but by Bishop Taylor's. Her children are now enjoying the blessings of having been educated under such a mother, and are deriving the comforts which result from the principles which she instilled, and the example which she set. I am, Madam, with much regard, Your faithful Servant, From the Bishop of Durham, S. Dunelm. To Miss Trimmer. The next is from Dr. Bell, dated December, 31, 1810. My dear Friends, Deeply affected as I have been by the death of your inestimable mother, I have not ventured to break in upon the first effusions of your grief, and have refrained till now, the mingling of my sorrow with yours. The MRS. TRIMMER. 161 friend, the patroness, the exemplar of virtue and piety ! — she has left a blank in society which it were not easy to fill up otherwise than by those, who I verily believe, inherit her talents and virtues, and have been formed under her fostering hand, to that character which she held, and who, I trust, will tread in her steps, and follow up the pious works to which her life was devoted. If their grief be great as the loss they have sustained, they will not grieve as those who have no consolation, for surely theirs are no common consolations — arrived at an advanced age, she could look back on a life well spent — on a life spent in a manner the most meritorious and most exten- sively useful, in advancing the best interests and only real happiness of her fellow-creatures. Thousands who mourn her departure, revere her memory, and wish that they were as she now is — ten thousands educated in her school of virtue, formed by her instructions, and reclaimed by her admonitions, bear unerring testimony to the good which she has done, and generations yet to come will rise up and call her blessed ! How precious the legacy which she has left to all of us ! That knowing she will not return to us, it may be our study to go to her, and behold her encircled with that crown which so many gems unite to adorn. That you and your brothers and families, may also enjoy many happy years, and be in like manner useful in your generations is the sincere prayer of your most Affectionate Friend, A. Bell. The concluding letter is from M. Deluc. My dear Madam, I have already returned you my thanks for your welcome present, on seeing only the outside of it ; but I cannot express to you the gratification which I have received from the inside. I have been very long to acknowledge it, because I have been long in enjoying the whole. I am confined on a chair in my room, not being- able to move from it without help, but thank God, I am M 162 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. able to employ my time with my pen, as did your worthy mother ; and I have always a book by me to read while a page dries, which is also a relief to my head. For this purpose the two volumes you have been so good as to give me have been a treasure, much more surely than they can be to the common of readers, as I have had the happi- ness of knowing personally the respectable Author, and her so feelingly lamented consort. But her modesty prevented that a transitory intercourse could manifest her whole soul ; it could not be judged that every moment of her life was employed in a communion with our heavenly Father and our Saviour. Notwithstanding all her troubles, she has been one of the happiest of mortals, for during her stay upon earth, she was already in heaven; and she received an anticipated reward of the blessing her Journals would spread in society when published. In reading it, my daughter also felt happy to have seen her here. "We unite in best wishes for the happiness of you and all your family. There is a blessing that will never fail, the religious seeds which she has sown in the best ground cultivated by her. I am, with sincere gratitude and esteem, My dear Madam, Your faithful and humble Servant, To Miss Trimmer. J. A. Deltjc. The High Street in its course eastward, is lined along the north side with shops and private houses, and on the south side are situated the great wharfs and manufac- tories of the town. It is said that King George the Second was always much pleased with the outward appearance of the High Street, on his journies to Windsor, from its having so great a likeness to his German towns. Tradesmen's Tokens. — Connected with the trade of the town, is the subject of tradesmens' tokens. It appears that from and during the reign of Queen Elizabeth to that of Charles the Second, the victuallers and tradesmen in THE FERRY 163 general, that is, all that pleased, coined small money, or tokens, for the benefit and conve- Inience of trade. And for this, in a manner, there was a perfect necessity, since at that time there were but few brass half-pennies coined by authority, and no greater quantity of farthings, which likewise were very small. The traders continued to make them in this manner until the year 1672, when King- Charles the Second having struck a quantity of half-pence and farthings for the intention and exigencies of commerce, these nummorum famuli were superseded, and an end put to these shifts and practices of the victuallers and shop-keepers, as being no longer either necessary or useful.* Brentford Aytes. — There are two aytes near to Old Brentford, one of which is commonly called Brentford Ayte, a very pleasant spot of ground, on which is a public house, which of late years, has been greatly improved by making therein several fish ponds, and other ornaments for the more agreeable reception of those who should make use of this house : another ayte which nearly adjoins this, is planted with oziers. These aytes are not included within the boundary line of Ealing. The Ferry is the property of John Haverfield, Esq. the site and the produce being let upon lease, but no buildings are allowed to be erected. Near the ferry there formerly stood a public house on the banks of the river. It was much frequented by the most notorious highway- men, on account of the ease with which they could cross to the Surrey side, if pursued. And many of the inhabi- tants of Brentford used also to frequent the house from curiosity to see and converse with those men. This public house fell to pieces about thirty years ago. Mr. Montgomrey's Timber Yard. — These extensive * Numismatic Journal, vol. i. p. 273. M 2 164 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. premises have been occupied as a timber yard for more than a century. The present proprietor purchased them about forty years ago. Here is every kind of timber used in building, and mahogany, some specimens of which, at present to be seen here, are of extraordinary magnitude. The Steam Saw and Planeing Mills are in full activity, and give constant employment to a great number of hands. The premises extend along the water side, and command beautiful views of Kew Gardens, on the opposite side of the river, as well as extensive prospects upwards towards Isleworth, and downwards towards Kew. Close by the road side, are situated seven small alms- houses which have lately been repaired out of the Ealing Dean rents. The Police Station was established here in the year 1830, consisting of a division of the letter T. The Committee Room, Engine House, and Parish Cage is a substantial building, and was built in 1818, at the expence of ฃ600. The Soap Manufactory is carried on by Messrs. T. B. and L. Howe, since 1799. The premises had been previously occupied as a garden. A considerable number of men are employed; the concern is very pleasantly situated upon the banks of the river. Sir Felix Booth's Distillery, and Brewery annexed, are situated on the north and south sides of the High Street. The water-mill near the water side, by its height forms a conspicuous object from the Thames. The bullock house is the largest in this country, and is capable of holding three hundred head of cattle. Over this is the granary, which holds 15,000 quarters of corn, and is supported by seventy-two columns. The quantity of the spirit distilled is from 800,000 to 1,000,000 of gallons annually. The amount of duty annually paid is from SIR FELIX BOOTH. 165 ฃ320,000 to ฃ400,000. The whole of the premises occupy about eleven acres of land. The Second Voyage to the North Pole, the scheme of which was submitted in 1827, to Mr. Sheriff Booth, with whose liberality and spirit, Capt. Ross was well acquainted, but as at that time, the Parliamentary reward of ฃ20,000. was still held out to the discoverer of a north- west passage, he declined, therefore, undertaking, in what might be deemed by others, a mere mercantile specu- lation. In 1828, Capt. Ross again submitted his plan to the Admiralty, but the answer was unfavourable ; he then applied to Mr. Thornton, a well known London merchant, but after a delay of three months he experienced a refusal. Soon after a Bill was brought into Parliament, to repeal that reward which had been hitherto held out for the dis- covery of a north-west passage. These events had the advantage of at least removing the scruples of Mr. Sheriff Booth, and Captain Ross accordingly received from him, in the most liberal and disinterested manner, entire power to provide on his account, all that was deemed necessary for the expedition. On the 23rd of May, 1828, every arrangement having been made complete, Captain Ross arrived at Woolwich, and at three o'clock his deservedly esteemed friend Mr. Booth, with his nephew, and two more gentlemen, went on board with the intention of accompanying them to Margate, and they sailed at six, and arrived at Gravesend at eleven o'clock. They weighed anchor at six o'clock on the fol- lowing morning, and upon their arrival at Margate, they hailed a fishing boat, when his best friend and his com- panions took leave, little foreseeing at that time the length of their separation, and the doubts that would hereafter arise, whether they should ever meet again on this side of eternity. The subsequent discoveries and protracted duration of this remarkable voyage, are too well known to be animadverted on here ; but the princely spirit of muni- 166 HISTORY OF BRETFORD. licence and 'generosity which Sir Felix Booth exhibited on this occasion, deserve to be recorded on worthier and more lasting pages than these; they were, indeed, duly honoured and appreciated by his Sovereign, and have acquired him the admiration and esteem of the present age, and will assure him the gratitude of posterity.* Sir Felix Booth is son of the late Philip Booth, of Russell Square, and was created a baronet in 1834, with remainder, in default of male issue, to the male issue of his brother William Booth, Esq. of Roydon Lodge, Essex. Messrs. J. Hazard and Co.'s Brewery. — This concern was purchased by Sir Felix Booth, and the premises rebuilt in the present handsome form. The brewing of ale and beer is carried on to a great extent, and the large building extends near to the water side. The Royal Hotel adjoining, was also built by Sir Felix Booth, and is a capacious and agreeable house, the river front is very extensive and elegant, it is much frequented by gentlemen, and travellers on the western road. Saint George's Chapel which forms a pleasing and con- spicuous object on entering the town of Brentford, has already been described in pages 128, 129. The Brentford Gas Light Company, incorporated by Act of Parliament, was formed in the year 1821, the works having been previously erected by Messrs. Barlow. That Act authorized the raising of ฃ30,000. as a capital of the company, with power to raise a further capital of ฃ7,500. if necessary. The whole of the above capital was raised and expended in the course of a few years, and in consequence of the great extent of the dis- trict, and of the increasing demand for gas in its various parts, it was necessary to raise a further sum of money under an Act for that purpose obtained in 1842, which * See Captain Ross's Narrative of Second Voyage to the Arctic Regions, 1829, 1838. GRAND JUNCTION WATER WORKS. 167 authorized the Company to borrow on bonds, a sum not exceeding ฃ20,000. The Company have a very wide district, for they light Brentford, Isleworth, Hounslow, Twickenham, Richmond, Chiswick, Turnham Green, Hammersmith, Shepherd's Bush, and the principal parts of Kensington. The Grand Junction Water Works Company, is situate near Kew Bridge. The Premises belonging to this Company occupy altogether about 12 acres, new and extensive reservoirs are now being formed, and a new engine house erected. All these works will be hereafter fully described. It appears from the following affidavit, that bones and a skeleton had been found in the soil of this neighbourhood upwards of seventy years previous to the discoveries of Mr. Trimmer already described.* " George Armitage maketh oath, that about Michaelmas last was twelvemonth, as he and others were clearing a pit for tile clay for Mr. Thomas Barratt of Old Brentford, about twenty-two feet deep, he dug up the bones of a large beast of the bull kind. The strata of matter under which they found it were first about eight feet of brick earth, about twelve feet of gravel, and under sand of about three feet, in which lay this skeleton of a monstrous size, it seemed to be a perfect beast, but he took very little care to preserve any part of it entire. f The mark of George -\- Armitage." Sworn before me, this Fifteenth day of February, 1740, C. Lockyer. Near Green Dragon-lane north of the High-street, is the ground called the Dead Mans' Graves : tradition declares that it is so called from having been the burial * See page 0, ante. + Brit. Mus. Sloane MSS. No. 4437, ibl. 409. 168 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. ground for the bodies of those who died of the plague in the reign of Charles the Second. The new North-road is a new street so called, branching north from the High-street, towards the fields leading to Ealing. The following singular names occur in Old Brentford, north of the High-street, Poppet's Pardon — Troy Town — Cyrus Piece, (a field) ; Cole's Hole, a deep hole well filled with water, stocked with abundance of fish; but the natural food which they find there is [so good, that the most skilful angler, with the most tempting bait can rarely catch any. On the south side of the road are erected four alms houses with a circular open way in the centre, over which is the following inscription. Erected In the year of our Lord, 1794. GEORGE UNDERWOOD, ) ni , . ' I Churchwardens. JAMES MILLEE, } Kew Bridge. — A wooden bridge was built over the Thames at Kew, by Mr. John Barnard, in pursuance of an Act of Parliament obtained in the thirtieth year of George the Second, and it was finished in 1739. The first stone of the present bridge, of which Mr. Payne was the architect, was laid June 4th, 1783, and it was opened September 22, 1789 ; this bridge, which is of free stone, is 400 feet in length, exclusive of the abut- ments, and consists of seven arches, the central one of which is sixty-six feet wide, and twenty-two feet high. It was originally the private property of Robert Tunstall, Esq. ; having been built at his expence, as the former was at the expence of his father, who was proprietor of the ferry. It is now the private property of T. Robinson, Esq. who purchased it of the representatives of the late owner in the year 1819, and who is now the proprietor of the adjoining brick and tile kilns formerly carried on by the late Mr. Trimmer. HEALTH OF BRENTFORD. 169 Kew Ferry. — Grant to Basill Nicholl, and of the ferry called Kew Ferry, in the tenure of Walter Hickman, parcel of the Manor of Hampton Court.* Of all that passage of the water over the Thames called Kew Ferry, situate in the counties of Surrey and Middlesex, or in one of them, with all its rights, liberties, profits, and appur- tenances whatever to the said passage or ferry belonging or appertaining, late in the tenure or occupation of Walter Hickman, Esq. or his assigns, by the particular whereof mentioned to have been assigned to him at the yearly rent of 13s. 4d. parcel of the possessions of Hampton Court. To hold to them and their assigns for ever. Health of Brentford. — On a cursory view of the circumstances of this town, one might be disposed to con- sider it unhealthy. Several large factories are continually tainting the air and the river, with their emanations and refuse materials. There is no uniform or efficient system of street drainage or sewerage, and many of the smaller class of houses are so ill constructed, and so deficient in the supply of water and other conveniences, as to be quite unfit for human habitation. Add to this, the previous livelihood of the tramps and garden labourers who abound here, and- the dirt and intemperance by which poverty is too generally accompanied, and we have little apparent cause to expect any great degree of healthiness. But in fact, the mortality of Brentford is by no means high, nor are its epidemics frequent or severe. Typhus is rare; and cholera, when at the worst, was far less formidable than in many other towns. The lowest rate of mortality in England is that of the south-western counties, which have one death per year in about fifty-two of population. In London about one in thirty-eight dies annually ; in Brentford and the parish of Ealing, nearly one in forty-four. This county town, therefore, holds a middle place in point of salubrity between the metropolis and the agricultural districts. * Pat. 7 Car. p. 4, Nov. 28. n. 1. 170 HISTORY OF BRENTFORD. That the sanatory condition of Brentford is thus far satisfactory, may probably be due to its situation on the bank of the tidal river, to the inclined surface and porous quality of its soil, and to the fact that the houses of the alleys and back lanes, where disease might be expected to originate, are not so high as to impede ventilation, and are seldom provided with cellars, the inhabiting of which is in so many towns, as in Liverpool especially, a fertile source of disease. It is, no doubt, favourable to the air of Brentford, that it is surrounded by market gardens, which are invariably kept clean and well drained. The total number of births and deaths in the districts of Brentford, comprising New Brentford and Ealing, at the end of the seventh year of the operation of the New Registration Act, was, births 2154, deaths 1673. The average being 307 f births in each year, and 239 deaths in the same period. The excess of births over deaths being; 481. THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF EALING THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF EALING. CHAPTER I. Name — Situation — Boundaries and Extent — Roads and Highways — Popu- lation — Agriculture and Soil — Land Tax — Parochial Eates. Name. — This parish is not mentioned in Domesday book, but it is supposed to be included in the Manor of Fulham. The manner of spelling its name varies much in ancient records, viz. Yelling, Yealinge, Zelling, and Ealing ; though Newcourt does not mention the last, it is certain that it has ever been most prevalent, and is now universally adopted. Ealing is in the Hundred of Ossulstone, in the county of Middlesex, and in the Diocese of London, and is situated about seven miles west of London. It is bounded on the east by Chiswick, Acton, and Twyford ; on the west by New Brentford, Hanwell, and Greenford; on the north by the river Brent, Harrow, and Perivale ; and on the south by the Thames. The parish is about three miles and a half from north to south, and two miles one furlong from east to west, and about thirteen miles in circumference, being nearly an oblong square. It contains about three thousand eight hundred acres according to the late parochial survey. There are also twenty-six acres of land lying in the parish of Chiswick, which belong to Ealing. The parish is nominally divided into upper and lower 174 HISTORY OF EALING. sides ; the parochial business of the upper or Ealing side, is superintended by an upper side churchwarden and two overseers; that of the lower or Brentford side, by the same number of officers as the upper side. But the rate- payers of the entire parish constitute one vestry, and the parochial rates and expences are brought to one general account. The poor rates are much reduced, being on an average of three shillings in the pound. This parish is included in the Brentford Poor Law Union, and sends five guardians to the board. The parish pays the sum of ฃ981. 2s. to the Land Tax, which in the year 1844, was at the rate of one shilling in the pound. Ealing has about sixteen miles of private roads sup- ported by the parish, under an Act of Parliament passed in the year 1767, called " An Act for the more effectual Repairing and Widening the Highways within this Parish, and for Lighting the Street in Old Brentford, from KeAv Bridge to the Half Acre." This Act is under the manage- ment of sixteen trustees, and the annual amount of rate is generally about nine pence in the pound, one shilling is the full extent allowed by the Act. The soil is various, viz. clay, gravel, and loam, or brick earth. In a stratum of gravel in this parish as before related, have been found many bones, and horns of deer, and below these strata lies the great body of blue clay, in which are abundance of nautili and other marine shells. The village of Ealing is situated on the north and south side of Uxbridge-road, at the distance of about seven miles from Tyburn Turnpike. The Population within the two last centuries, appears to have increased in a proportion of more than five to one. In 1795, there were about seven hundred houses in the parish ; about five hundred of which were within the hamlet of Old Brentford; according to the returns made to Parliament, under the Population Act passed in 1811, there were then 922 inhabited, and 2\ uninhabited houses in the parish ; the population at that time was 5361 ; POPULATION. 175 the present number is, according to the last official returns, as follows : — Population, Males 1,590 Females 1,630 EALING. Houses Inhabited ป588 „ Uninhabited 49 „ Building 9 Total 3,220 Total.... 646 LITTLE EALING. Population, Males 49 Females 80 Total.... 129 Houses Inhabited 20 OLD BEENTFOED. Population, Males 2,411 Females 2,647 Total 5058 Houses Inhabited 999 „ Uninhabited 47 „ Building 23 Total.... 1069 The entire parish of Ealing, (including 71 haymakers temporally employed, and 17 persons in barges) contains 8,407 Inhabitants. Yearly averages of Poor Rates. Expenditure. s. d. ฃ. s. d. On the nine years previously to the introduction of the New Police -3 4 4278 On the six years from the New Police to the forma- tion of the Union 4 1 5134 6 8 On the eight years since the formation of the Union 2 10 3978 13 3 Shewing an annual average Increase in the former period of 9 .... . 856 6 8 Decrease of the latter of 1 3 1155 13 5 Assessed by House Duty. — Eeceived by Taxes <ฃl,280. Ditto in Window Duty 2,166 Ditto in other duties 2,754 Parochial Eental of buildings ฃl 9,532. Land 12,627. Empty 1,089. Vestry Votes, Ealing and Brentford, 778. The above includes pluralities. 58 Geo. 3, cap. 69, clause III. 176 HISTORY OF EALING. CHAPTER II. Rectory and Vicarage — Vicars — Ancient Inventory of Church Goods — Monu- ments and Inscriptions — Charities and Benefactions — Charity Schools — Extracts from the Parish Books — Church Bells — Parochial Perambulations. The Old Church having fallen down on the &7th of March, 1729, an Act of Parliament was passed for rebuilding it, and a brief was obtained for that purpose, but it was more than ten years before the new church was completed. It is a brick building, forming an oblong square, of which the chancel occupies a certain portion. At the west end is a square embattled tower. The church is 40 feet high, 95 feet long, and 50 feet wide, and paved with stone ; the pews are grained, and painted white inside. The pulpit is octagonal and grained, as well as the reading and clerk's desks, which are quadrangular. The cieling is white, ornamented in the centre with a large rosette from which is suspended a handsome brass chandelier, there are also rosettes at the four corners. The three galleries are supported by 12 pillars; in the front are painted in gold letters the parochial charities. At the west end is placed the organ in a plain mahogany case. The east end or chancel, is occupied by a large Venetian window with pilasters, underneath the centre space is covered with crimson cloth, on which is embroi- dered the monogram I. H. S. On either side is written in black letters, the Decalogue on a variegated marble painted ground. Two antique carved oak chairs are placed on each side of the Communion Table, and the rails are of mahogany. The Parish Church of Ealing is dedicated to St. Mary, and is subject to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, or his Commissary. Robert de Balmeis, Bishop ST. MARY'S CHURCH, EALINC. ST. GEORGE'S CHAPEL, OLD BRENTFORD. PARISH CHURCH. 17 i of London, in the reign of Henry the First, gave the tithes of Ealing to angment the salary of an officer in the church of St. Paul's, called the Master of the Schools. But this officer or Master of the Schools, being afterwards changed into Cancellarius, or Chancellor of the Church, it is not unlikely, but these tithes of Yeling, upon that or upon some other occasion, reverted to the Bishops of London, for it appears, that in the year 1308, the church of Ealing was appropriated by Bishop Baldock to the Chancellor, on certain conditions, viz. to pay the sum of ฃ10. per annum to the Vicar of Ealing, and to read lectures in divinity, either in his own person, or by a sufficient deputy, on penalty of forfeiting the whole profits of the rectory, a third of which in that case, was allotted to a lecturer, a third to the repairs of St. Paul's Cathedral, and a third for the maintenance of the greater and lesser Canons of the Church.* In the taxation of 1327, the church of Ealing was rated at twenty-five marks. In the reign of Edward the Sixth, the rectory was valued at ฃ22., the vicarage at ฃ13. 65. Self The parsonage of Ealing, valued at ฃ84. 85. per annum over and above the reserved rent, was sold in the year 1650 to Thomas Lycott, Esq., the lessee, for the sum of ฃ524. 12s. The vicarage with its glebe, was then valued at ฃ60. per annum. The late Dr. William King was lessee of the rectory, the lease of which was purchased of his representatives by the late Thomas Bramley, Esq., of East Acton, and the late Mr. Thomas Harrington, of Old Brentford. The lease is now the property of Thomas Smith, Esq. and the Rev. Thomas Jennins Bramley. The rectory house is in the tenure of Dr. Francis Nicholas. The vicarage is in the patronage of the Bishop of London; the present vicar is the Rev. John Smith, B.D. * The rectorial property upon the death of the late Chancellor Dr. Richardson passed to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. They have refused to pay the ฃ10. per annum to the Vicar. + See the Endowment of the Vicarage, London Registers Baudake, f. 19. Curt. Antiq. St. Paul's, No. 1422, 1423. Grant of a Vicarage House, No. 1420. Rot. Pat. 2 Edw. II. p. 2. m. 15. Inq. ad quod damn. 1 Edw. II. No. 40. N 178 HISTORY OF EALING. VICARS OF EALING. Rog. de Thorlaston. 1372, April 8. Robert cle Haytncld. Resig. 1386, Nov. 12. William Semley. Death. 1386, Feb. 11. John Dames. Death. 1390, Oct. 25. David Bagator. Resig. 1398, Dec. 7. Nic. Bourne. Resig. 1399, Oct. 18. Will. Wright, Resig. 1400, Sept. 15. John Dumeld. Resig. 1407, Dec. 21. Baldwin Bagatour. 1437, Aug. 2. Joh. Mallony. Resig, 1443, July 18. Joh. Smith. Ric. Burton. Resig. 1451, Nov. 26. Thos. Curteys, L.L .B. Resig. 1478, Maii 28. Will. Tournour, A.M. Death. 1503, Sept. 15. Thos. Everard. 1513, Dec. 9. Sim. King. Resig. 1537, Jan. 19. Will. Havard. Death. 1566, Feb. 1. Oliver Stoning, S.T.B. Death. 1571, Nov. 26. Thos. Ry croft. Death. 1582, April 7. Thos. Knight, A.M. Death. 1591, Nov. 26. Ric. Smart. Resig. 1602, Oct. Joh. Bromneld, A.M. Death. 1610, Jan. 29. Edw. Abbot, A.M. Death. 1615, Jan. 19. Ric. Tavernor, A.M. Resig. 1638, Oct. 13. Rob. Cooper, LL. B. Death. 1660, Jan. 4. Will. Beveridge, A.M. Death. 1673, Apr. 29. Seth Lamb, A.M. Resig. 1702, Jan. 26. William Hall, A.M. Death. 1719, Feb. 9. Thomas Mangey, LL.D William Hall. prom. 1754, Sept. 26. John Botham, M.A. Resig. 1773, Dec. 10. Charles Sturgess, M.A. Death. 1797, Sept. 21. Colston Carr, LL.B. Resig. 1822, June 1. Herbert Oakeley, Clerk. Death C. Carr. 1834, Mar. 19. John Smith, B.D. per Resig. Sir Herbert Oakeley, Clerk, Bart. VICARS OF EALING. 179 LECTURESHIP. John Bowman, B.D. chancellor of St. Paxil's, who died in 1629, founded a lectureship, and endowed it with forty pounds per annum. Robert Cooper, who had been collated to the vicarage of Ealing in 1638, was ejected by the puritans, and his place supplied by Daniel Carmarthen. Thomas Gilbert was presented in 1654, by Francis Albin, Esq. who it is probable, was then in possession of the manor. It happened, that upon the Restoration, this Gilbert was the first person who was deprived of his benefice, on which account he desidered that it might be inscribed upon his tomb, that he was the proto-martyr to the cause of non-conformity. Robert Cooper was reinstated in the vicarge of Ealing, which he enjoyed but a few months, being succeeded in the month of January, 1660-1, by William Beveridge, one of the most learned prelates of the English church, who was born in 1638, and educated at St. John's College, Cambridge. Here he applied himself with such intense application to the study of Eastern Literature, as to publish in his twentieth year a Latin " Treatise on the excellence and use of the Oriental Languages," in which he reviews the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and Samaritan tongues. About the same time also, he produced a Syriac- Grammar. Being ordained in 1661, he obtained this vicarage on the collation of Dr. Sheldon, Bishop of London ; but in 1672, being presented to the rectory of St. Peter's, Cornhill, by the Corporation of London, he resigned this piece of preferment, and removed to the metropolis. In 1681, he was raised to the archdeaconry of Colchester, with a prebendal stall in St. Paul's Cathedral. On the depriva- tion of Dr. Kenn in 1691, the See of Bath and Wells was offered to his acceptance, which, however, he declined, from n2 180 HISTORY OF EALING. conscientious motives ; nor was it till 1704 that he took his seat on the bench as Bishop of St. Asaph. This new dignity, however, was enjoyed by him little more than three years, his death taking place at Westminster in 1708, in his 71st year. He was a voluminous writer on theological and philological subjects. All parties have united in bearing testimony to the piety and simplicity of his character. He left the principal part of his property to charitable uses, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.* Dr. Mangey. — Thomas Mangey, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, B.A. there 1707; M.A., 1711; LL.D., 1719; D.D., 1725 ; Rector of St. Nicholas, Guild- ford, 1717; Rector of St. Mildred's, Bread-street, and Chaplain at Whitehall, was early distinguished by his " Practical Discourses upon the Lord's Prayer," first printed by Mr. Bowyer in 1716 ; as were also the second and third editions in 1717 and 1721 ; and in 1718, " Remarks on Nazarenus." In January, 1719, he published " Plain Notions of our Lord's Divinity, a Sermon preached on Christmas-day." In June, 1719, " The Eternal Exist- ence of our Lord Jesus Christ, a Visitation Sermon." In October that year, " The Holiness of Christian Churches, a Sermon preached at Sunderland, on Consecrating a new church there;" and the " Providential Sufferings of Good Men, a Thirtieth of January Sermon before the House of Commons, 1720." " A Defence of the Bishop of London's Letter, 1719, 8vo. ;" and besides the sermons already mentioned, he printed five single ones in 1716, 1726, 1729, 1730, and 1733. May 11th, 1721, he was presented to a Prebend, (the 5th stall), in the Cathedral Church at Durham, being at that time styled, LL.D. Chaplain to Dr. Robinson, Bishop of London, and Vicar of Ealing, in the county of Middlesex. He was advanced to the first stall of Durham, Dec. 22, 1722, and was one of the seven doctors in divinity, created July 6, 1725, when Dr. Bentley delivered the famous * Biog. Britan. VICARS OF EALING. 181 oration prefixed to his " Terence ;" and at the end of the year 1726, he circulated proposals for an edition of " Philo-Judseus," which he completed in 1742. Dr. Mangey died, March 11, 1755; his "Manuscript Remarks on the New Testament," came into the possession of Mr. Bowyer, who extracted from them many short notes, which are inserted in his " Conjectures," under the signature of " Anonym." Dr. Mangey married Dorothy, daughter of Archbishop Sharp ; by whom he had one son, John, Vicar of Dunmow, in Essex, 1754 ; and a Prebendary of St. Paul's. Mrs. Mangey, the doctor's widow, died in July, 1780, and his son in November, 1782.* Dr. Mangey who was universally allowed to be a man of great learning, said, " that he always thought he could sit as long at his studies as any man, till he came to live in the same house as Mr Carte, who used to write or read from early in the morning till night, only allowing him- self time to take a dish of tea or something of that kind, so that," adds the Doctor, " I could not keep pace with him at all." When his studies of the day were over, he would eat heartily ; and when he was in company, was very cheerful and entertaining, without the least tincture of moroseness or reserve, but extremely negligent of propriety or neatness in externals. f The Rev. Charles Sturgess, was the son of the Rev. Charles Sturgess, and Sarah, sister of Ambrose Isted, Esq. of Eston, in the county of Northumberland. He was nearly forty-two years vicar of St. Mary's, Reading ; Pre- bendary of the Cathedrals of St. Paul and Salisbury, and chaplain to Earl Cadogan, formerly fellow of King's College, Cambridge; B.A. 1762; A.M. 1765; he was vicar for a short time of Kenton, Devon, 1763, and of Ealing from 1775 to 1797. The Rectory of Chelsea was offered to Mr. Sturgess, not merely because he stood in the clerical line, the nearest in family connection with the heirs of Sir Hans Sloane ; but, because they had known him * Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes, vol. i. p. 134. Gent. Mag. 1780-2. t Nichols, vol. ii. p. 515. 182 HISTORY OF EALING. for more than twenty years past in their neighbourhood of Reading; the Bishop of Durham collated him to a prebend in his Church at Salisbury, expressly on account of his character and conduct being so well known to his lordship when his diocesan, indeed, his patron. Bishop Terrick said, he was one of the best parish priests he ever knew. He has a copy of Latin verses in the Musse Etonenses, and another in the Academiae Cantabrigiensis Luctus, on the death of King George the Second. Mr. Sturgess also printed some papers on Confirmation, with a Prayer. Religion and Loyalty, a Sermon, preached at Reading, 1792,which was published at the request of the parishioners. He expired on the 22nd of April, 1805, after only half an hour's illness, from an apoplectic seizure, immediately before the hour of dinner, at the Rectory of Loddington, Northamptonshire, and his remains were interred in the chancel of that church, on the 2nd of May following. By his surviving wife Penelope, daughter of James Walter, Esq. of Hurst, Berkshire, and niece to Bishop Terrick, he left six daughters. His son the Rev. Charles Sturgess, A.M. a Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, died at Worthing, in 1802, at the age of twenty-seven. In the church of St. Mary's, at Reading, are tablets in memory of Dr. Sturgess and his son.* In the Memoirs of Mrs. Trimmer is the following respectful mention of him. " The Rev. Mr. Sturgess was many years Vicar of Ealing, during the time that Mrs. Trimmer was a resident in the parish ; and seldom docs it fall to the lot of any place to enjoy the blessing of a more conscientious minister, or a more affectionate pastor. In every part of his duty he was indefatigable, admonishing in season and out of season, persuading, exhorting his flock to walk in the path of duty, or to return to it if they had unhappily strayed. The sick were visited, the igno- rant instructed, the distressed relieved, and. all watched over with a regard almost paternal." * Gentleman's Magazine. L805 CHURCH INVENTORY. 183 Amongst other objects of his paternal care, Sunday- Schools engrossed much of the attention of this excellent parish priest. No sooner did he hear of the plan suggested by Mr. Raikes, of Gloucester, for collecting the children of the poor on the Sabbath-day, than he was desirous of having Schools of that description in the parish of Ealing. He communicated his wishes to Mrs. Trimmer, and found in her a most ready assistant. By their united efforts Schools were established, and though the faithful pastor of his nock who first projected them, and his zealous and active coadjutor are now no more, the Schools con- tinue to exist, and to be productive of essential benefit amongst the rising generation.* The Rev. Colston Carr, LL.B. was of St. John's Col- lege, Cambridge, LL.B. in 1772, and was presented to this Vicarage in 1797, by Dr. Porteus, Bishop of London. He died Jury 6th, 1822, aged eighty-three years. Church Inventory. — In the year 1552, by command of Edward the Sixth, surveys and inventories of Church goods were taken by Commissioners, which from their exactness, and their contents, are very interesting docu- ments, for they furnish us with complete notions of the furniture of our Churches, and the value of each article mentioned. A book in the Augmentation Office exhibits the following inventory relative to this Parish Church. Yelinge. — We, the Jury doo present and testify the goods, plate, ornaments, Jewells, and bells, belongynge and apertaynynge to the Church of Yelinge, in the comptye of Middlesex, as well as w th in the inventory takyn by r the Kyng's Majysty's commessyoners, as well as also the goods belonyng to the same Churche and paiysh, not beyinge in the inventory w th rerages and other depts belongynge to the same Churche as apereth hereafter most playnly testyfyed by us the same jury, the fyth daye of Awgoost, in the yere our Lorde God, a thousande fyve * Life of Mrs. Trimmer, vol. ii. p. 05. 184 HISTOKY OF EALINซ. hundredtlie fifthy and two, and in the sixth yerc of the regne of our Sovereign Lord Kynge Edwarde the Sexte, by the grace of God, of Inglande, Fraunce, and Ierlande, Kynge Defcndour of the Faithe, and of the Church of England and Ierlande, the supreme head emedyately under God. This inventory made the tenthe day of March, in the thyrde yeare of the reyne of our mooste dreade Sovereigne Kynge Edward the Sexth, by the grace of God, of Inglande, Fraunce, and Ierlande, Kinge Defendor of the Faithe, and of England and Ierlande, the supreme hede emedyately under God, of all such goods as ar in the parysshe Churche of Yelynge, in the comptye of Myddle- sex, by the consent of William Harwoode Clarke, vicar of the same parysshe, William Page and Robert Baldock, churchwardens of the same ; Symond Harmiger, Symonde Cooke, Richard Aytworthe, and Thomas Camon, of the said parysshe, was witnesse to the same.* BSttpVtttttSu — Three Chalicesf w th patents of sylver, and gylte thother two sylwer parsell gylte. Item. — A pyxe of sylver parsell gylte. Item. — A pyxe of copper* gylt, and a clothe to the same pyke. Item. — A crosse of copper and gylte. Item. — A cross of Latten gylte. * Item. — That ye and every of you do instructe and teach your parishioners the King's Majestie to he the only supreme head under Chryst in erthe of this his Churche of Englande, unto whom all potentates and powers of the same owen to obey, being thereto obliged and bounde by Goddes worde. — Tnjunct. by Bishop of Coventry ondLychefielde. Burnet's Hist. Reform, vol. iii. p. 162. + Chalices. — They were to have in every Church one or two chalices of silver. — Burnet's Hist. Reform, vol. i. p. 7-L I A pyke of copper, &c. — Pyx, or little chest, from the Latin word pyxis a box, in which the consecrated host was kept; that a pix and a pax were different things, may be seen from the following passage in the " History of our blessed Lady of Loretto, p. 595." A cup, and a sprinkle of holy water, a pix and a pax, all of excellent chrystal. Again, in Stowe's Chronicle, p. 077, " palmes, chalices, crones, vestments, pixes, paxes, and such like." CHURCH INVENTORY. 185 Item. — A cross of Latten gylte,* and a poste to the same. Item. — VIII. copperas cases,f and stoles for the same. Item. — Two pair hangyngs to high aultor, one payr of black vellett thother payr of whytt satten and redd, one payr of hangings for a sycle aultor, one pair of black vellet damask. Item. — One hole sewte of redd vellett, and one cope of the same sorte. Item. — One vestment of redd, and a coope of the same. Item. — One sewte of whyte damask, and a coope to the same.J Item. — A sewte of black vellett, and a coope to the same. Item. — One other sewte of damask, and a coope to the same. Item. — Six other vests of sondrye coulers for every daye. Item. — Twoe other oulde coopes for the Sondayes. Item. — One crosse of sylke, and two streamers of sylke. Item. — Two streamers of lynen. Item. — Eyght aultor clothes of lynen to lay upon the aultor s. Item. — Four to wells of dyeper, and two payre of clothes. Item. — Six Gospelles corplesscs for the preast and clarkc. Item. — One camary, and one cope of satten. * A crosse of Latten gylte. — Latten is still a common name for tin in the north: so Tuberville in Ms book of Falconry, p. 1575. "You must set her latten bason, or a vessel of stone or earth." So, in the old metrical romance of Sir Bevis of Hampton, b. 9. Windows of latten set with glasse. + Eight Corporas Cases. — So called from their being used to cover the wafer, which was called Christ's corpse or body, these were usually made of very rich materials, sometimes they are made of cloth of gold. J A coope of the same. — A sacerdotal cloak or vestment, worn in sacred ministration, from the Saxon coppe, the height or top of a thing, cop, head, from the British word koppa, the top or highest part. The capa was so called a capiendo, because it contained or covered the whole man. It was anciently covered with gold fringe, (Fimbria aurese Matt. Paris, 2 Hen. III. sub. anno Dni 1246,) and Linwood, p. 252. This ancient habiliment is frequently alluded to by the father of English poesy : — " Alass ! why werest thou so wide a cope ? Gold give me sorwe, but, and I were Pope." The Monkes' Prologue, 1895. 186 HISTORY OF EALING. MORE OF THE CHURCHE. Item. — Four* antiphoners, two of them parchment, the other paper ; and iiii grayles, f three of parch- ment, the other paper; and fyve mass books, three of parchment, and two of paper ; and one Legent* booke and two m.anuells.ง Item. — A Byble and a Paraphrase of Erasmus, and S Psahlter bookes, and a booke of Omeleys, and a bowk of hymnalles. Item. — A payre of orgayns,^! and three great standards, and four small standards of Latten, and xv Candlestycks of Latten for the Roode Lyght, and two basons, and two ewers, and two sensors of latten, and two latten baskets for two tapars to stand in, and one holly water stock of latten. Item. — In Steple five great bels,** and a small bell. • * Four Antiphonars. — An Antiphonar, from avri, contra, and (fccvvj, sonus, so called from the alternate repetition of the Psalm, one part being sung by one part of the choir, and the other by the other part of the choir, and contained not only the antiphony, as the word barely signifies, but also the invitations, hymns, responsories, verses, collects, and whatever was said or sung in the choir, called the Seven hours, or Breviary, except the lessons. f And iiii. grayles, graduals. The Gradual takes its name from the prayer chaunted gradatim, after the Epistle. It is the choir book used for singing mass. \ And one Legent booke. It contains the Lessons to be read in the Matin Office, taken from the Old and New Testament, or the Homilies and Saints' Lives. ง And two Manuells. The Ritual containing all things belonging to the Sacramentals and Benedictions. ^[ A payre of organs, was the term at that time, when there were two kinds of organs, the one fixed and the other portable ; adapted, perhaps, to the size of the Church, or to its revenues. The portable organs were probably divisible into two parts, and hence obtained the name of a pair. This con- tinued to be the term so late as the reign of James the First. They were usually placed in the rood loft, between the nave and chancel of the church. ** In the steeple, Jive great bells. The Catholics baptize bells in the name of the Father, Son, and tloly Ghost, and dedicate them to saints, using holy water, holy oil, incense and prayers in the ceremony, and according to the Missal of Salisbury, there were godfathers and godmothers to the bells, who CHURCH INVENTORY. 1ST Item. — Two hand bells,* and two sakaryne bells. Item. — The chauncell kevered in with leade, and a chest with three locks. Item. — Two lether Quesshions stuffed with fethers. Item. — A Church Howse two tables and formes, a carpet stole, three table clothes, two spy ttes, seven platters of pewter, seven pewter dyshes, and sawspons, and two quart potts of pewter, and two small cobhards, two brass potts, and a cauldron, and a kettyl, and two sault sellers of pewter. ฉertgtt ฉOO&g gOfol&e as aperethe hereafter. Imprimis. — Sowlde to Nycholas Mann, goldsmyth, dwel- lynge in Chepesyd, 2 challis being no pastell of the forsyde inventory taken by the kyngs Commessioners in whych two challis wear sowlde the fVrst vere of this reisme of our sovereign Lord King Edwarde the Sixth:— .... viii 11 - MORE SOWLDE. Item. — Sowlde to Bryan Evans, founder, dwelling in Lothbury, a pyxe of copper and gylte and a cross of latten gylte, and a foote to the same crosse. Item. — Eour great standards and four small standards, and on lyttelcandlestyck,and xv candlesticks belong- ing to the Rode lyte, and two basens, and two ewers of latten, and two sensers, and a holly water stock of latten, and two basens of latten gave them their names. Durandus, the great Catholic authority for the Mysterious Services of his Church, explains at large, the allegorical signification of bells. — See Ration. Divin. Offic. lib. i. cap. 4. * Two hand bells and a sakaring bell. The little bell, which is rung to give notice of the Host approaching, when it is earned in procession, as also in other offices of the Eomish Church, is called sacring, or consecrating bell, from the French word mere. — Theobald. Annotat. Hen. VIII. 188 HISTORY OF EALING. for two tapers to stand in, and two hand bels and sakyreyne bels all latten and copper the pound s d. wyenge iii xxviii. iii xviii. Item. — Sowlde to Margarett Buckmaster, for a tabernacle viiis. Item. — Thomas Longe for the sign picture and old bason vs. Yiiid. Item. — Received of James Steyn for a presse xiis. Yiiid. Item. — Margaret Lyggon, for a basen of latten ys. Item. — Received for waxe iiis. iiiie?. Received for images iiii^?. The forseyde Churchwardens and Paryshioners do declare that they have bestowed in repayringe and mayn- taynynge their Church, alterations of necessary ornaments for the mayntenance of these devyne servyces according to their bownden dewties during the tyme of syx yeares passed they have bestowed and layd owt to the some of xiii 1L ii s - parcel of the foresayd some of depts, rerages, and other goods solde. S. M. xiii 11, ii 8. And so remaynyth to the Church in Reddy money in the custody of the Churchwardens with the depts remaynyth in Edmond Cooks hand mentioned here before iii 11 * xi s * ob. Yelling. — One Nedler gave unto the said Churche for the finding a lampe continually to burne in the said Churche, one acre of arrable lande lyinge in Braynford fielde in tholding of Richard Belvm bv him XX d ' Whereof to the Bishop of London in quit rent viid. William Nedler kepethe* yerely in the said Churche an obite accordyng to the will and tenor of a coppy to him made and granted by William Nedler Chantry Koll Augment. OfTicr CHURCH INVENTORY. 189 his father, of the rent yerely going out of one cottage w th a curtylage and ii acres of lande lyeing in Weste Yeling, in the occupation of the said Willm. Nedler, whiche lands are by yere xiiii 3. Whereof spent at the obite with 5s. to the pore vis. \iiid. There is Houslyng people w in the said pyshe, the number of ccclx.* Doctor Baughe he is pson ther, and the benefys is worthe by the yere xxii 11 - and that Sir Willyam Hayward is Vicar ther and his vycarage is by yere xiii IL vi s - viii d - and sarveth the Cure himself. There is belongyng to the sayd Churche a tent, called the Church House, which was of the gifte of Master Frowyck, for to kepe a drynkyng for the relyefth of the pore. Richard Bynorthe doth yerely kepe an obit in the same Churche, for who, it is not certyfyed nor what landes or tents, were given for the mayntenance of the same. Willm. Ingram gave a certain cottage to Symon Coke, to thentente, as it is said, the said Symon should bestowe yerely upon an obite for the soule of Willm. Ingram iiii 8 - and the residue towards the reparacyon of the said cottage, which cottage was solde by Symon Coke to Robert Ingram, and ther hathe no obite ben kepte nor the proftttes thereof by the space of two yeres past. In the year 1681, the Right Reverend Father in God, Dr. Henry Compton, bishop of London, consecrated a piece of ground containing ten or twelve rods adjoining, as an addition to the Church-yard, which ground was given by Dr. Humphry Henchman, his immediate prede- cessor in that see. * Chantry Eoll Augment. Office. 190 HISTORY OF EALING MONUMENTS AND MONUMENTAL INSCRIP- TIONS INSIDE THE CHURCH. On the wall of the north aisle, at the west end, is a circular marble tablet, surrounded with a curled serpent, the emblem of eternity — Sacred to the Memory of Eobert Orme, A Man endeared to his Friends, By the gentleness of his Manners, And respected by the Public As the elegant Historian of the Military Transactions Of the British Nation in India Obit. 13th January, 1801, JEt. 73. On a tablet with an urn and drapery — In Memory of Barnabas Blake, Esq. Formerly of Gunnersbury Lodge, In this Parish, Who died on 15th day of April, 1841, aged 77. And of Sarah, his Wife, who died on the 27th of June, 1835, aged 77. Their mortal remains are deposited in a Vault under tbe Middle Aisle of the Church. A tablet in form of a sarcophagus, on the front is the following inscription : — Near this spot are deposited the remains of Henry Beaufoy, Esq. Late of Castle Hill, in this Parish, But descended from an ancient family of Warwickshire, His integrity was unblemished, His talents were of the highest class, And he dedicated them in three successive Parliaments to the service of his country. Ob. 17th May, 1795, anno ^Etat. 44. On an oval tablet with drapery — Near this place lies the body of John Crofts, Esq. Of this parish, who closed a well spent life June 9th, Anno Dom. 1793, Aged 09, most truly and deservedly regretted. To the pious Memory of the best of Parents, Whose indulgent affection, and enlightened judgment, Makes his loss irreparable. This mournful tribute of love and duty is most gratefully dedicated by his afflicted children. How blest to die — when suffering faith makes sure : At life's high fount an everlasting cure. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 191 On a large tablet surmounted with an urn and drapery — In the family vault beneath Are deposited the remains of Peter Thorn, Esq. Of the Manor House, Gunnersbury, Who departed this life the 4th day of November, 1825, Aged 71 years. Also of Mary his beloved wife, who died the 25th of October, 1821, aged 45 years Leaving a numerous family to regret their loss. Also of Amelia, their daughter, who died the 9th of September, 1826. Aged 21 years. A marble tablet with a pediment — Sacred to the Memory of Alexander Love Gordon, Esquire, R.N. Formerly of this parish, But late of Gorleston, in the county of Suffolk, Who departed this life May 28th, 1828, aged 71 years, Beloved and regretted by all who knew him. On a marble tablet — Sacred to the Memory of Richard Gray, Esq, Obiit 10th October, 1825, aged 71. Also of Jane Gray, relict of Richard Gray, Esq. Ob. 8th March, 182G, aged 70. On a marble tablet — Sacred to the Memory of the Rev. Thomas Warry, B.D. Rector of Barwick, Somersetshire, Vicar of Glasbury, In the counties of Brecon and Radnor, Formerly Fellow of Wadham College, Oxon; And who for nearly forty years officiated successively as Curate, And Bowman's Lecturer in this parish. Esteemed aud respected by all who knew him. He died the 7th of November, 1823, aged 68 years. On the east end of the north aisle is placed an ancient brass plate, to the memory of Richard Amondesham, alias Aunsham, merchant of the staple of Calais, and Katherine his wife, the inscription is now partially defaced, but the brass figures are represented in dresses which were worn in the fifteenth century. On the east wall north of the Communion, on a tablet, with a pediment — In the Vault beneath this Monument are deposited the remains of Ann the beloved wife of Mr. Thomas Wood, of Castle Bar, in this parish, Who departed this life the 18th December, 1837, in the 50th year of her age. She was an affectionate wife, a sincere friend, and a good christian, and died universally respected and lamented. 192 HISTORY OF EALING- On a marble tablet surmounted with an urn and dra- pery— " In the midst of life we are in death." Sacred to the Memory of Sir Jonathan Miles, Knt. Of Castlehar Park in this county, who departed this life On the 15th of July, 1821, in the 52nd year of his age. Requiescat in Pace. On a small marble tablet — Sacred to the Memory of Elizabeth Garratt, Who died June 8th, 1818, and whose remains are deposited near this Tablet. East wall, south side — Sacred to the Memory of Alexander Copland, Esq. Of Gunnersbury Park, in this parish, Who died at his house in Great George Street, Westminster, The 12th of July, 1834, aged 61. His remains are deposited in the Church of St. Martin-in- the -Field, In which parish he was born, and for many years of his early life he was a resident. He will long be remembered and lamented by many who were aided by his active beneficence ; By those, who in private life, experienced the warmth of his kindness, And the value of his friendship ; and most of all, By his Widow and Family, Now bereft of his devoted care, and affectionate guidance. On a small marble tablet — Sacred to the Memory of Mary Wood, The affectionate wife of George Wood, of Hanger Hill, in this parish. Died 5th March, 1830, aged 32, Most deservedly beloved and sincerely lamented. Also six of their children who died at an early age. A large marble tablet surmounted with an urn — Sacred to the Memory of Thomas Smith, Esq. of Brentford Butts, in this parish, who departed this life on the 10th of November, 1823, in the 74th year of his age ; and also to the memory of Susannah, his wife, who died March 23, 1840, aged 70. On a marble slab — In the family Vault of this Church-yard are deposited the remains of John Palmer Winter, Esq. Of this place, and of Fitzroy Square, London, Eldest Son of John Winter, Esq. of Heathfield Lodge, In the parish of Acton, who died on the 23rd of November, 1838, aged 57, Universally esteemed and regretted. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 193 On a marble slab — To the Memory of John Winter, of Luis Parish, And of Heathfield Lodge, Acton, Esq. Who died February 5th, 1843, aged 87 years. Mary Elizabeth his wife, who died December 18, 1813, aged 57. And Anna Maria, fourth daughter of the above-named, who died March 4, 1838, Whose remains are interred in the adjoining Church-yard ; And also Roger Winter, Esq. Barrister-at-Law, fourth Son of the above-named, Who died at Calcutta, May 21, 1828 ; And of several children and grand children of the above who died when infants. In the south aisle, on a marble slab — Sacred to the Memory of Mr. Thomas Caldwall, Of Old Brentford, who departed this life on the 2nd of May, 1825, Aged 55 years. Also of Mrs. Sarah Caldwall, relict of the above, Who departed this life on the 5th of July. 1834, aged 70 years. On a marble slab surmounted with arms, at the bottom a sword and helmet— Snored to the Memory of Major Alexander Morrison Of Gunnersbury Park, in this parish, Who was employed for twenty-eight years in the Bengal military service, With distinguished honor, Placed by those great commanders, the Marquis Cornwallis and Lord Lake In offices of high responsbility. His energy, judgment, and firm integrity, proved the wisdom of their choice. Driven by illness from this path of public honor, He was beloved in private life For his christian benevolence, and that beautiful union of mildness and sincerity Which characterises the brave and good, the remembrance of these virtues, Is the sweet consolation of his widow, By whom this tablet is erected. He died May 2'L 1827, aged 60 years. On a small circular monument surmounted with a cherub — • Sacred to the Memory of Oliver de Lacey Stapleton, The beloved son of Lieut. Col. John Stapleton, inspector of Barracks, And of Katherine, daughter and Co-heiress of John Beale, Esq. Of Charleston, South Carolina, Who departed this life the 10th day of January, 1811, In the 12th year of his age. A youth of the most amiable disposition, and of great promise. O 194 HISTORY OF EALING. On an oval tablet — Iu the adjoining Church-yard Lie the remains of George Oldmixon, Esq. of Oldmixon, In the county of Somerset, Who died the 15th of May, 1779, aged 08. Also Jane his widow, who died the 31st of October, 1781, Aged 57. And of George their only child, who died the 15th of October, 1771, Aged 17. John Oldmixon, his father, was an author of some note, who, like most party writers, has been too much extolled, and too much depreciated ; Pope has treated him with great severity. — In naked majesty Oldmixon stands, And Milo-like surveys his arms and hands ; Then sighing thus, " and am I now threescore, Ah, why, ye Gods ! should two and two make four ?" Dunciad, b. ii. 1. 283. His principal work was a History of England, in three volumes ; but he certainly was not possessed of sufficient impartiality to make a good historian. He had a principal concern in a political paper called " the Medley," and was author of a few Poems and Dramatic pieces. He is said to have left behind him in MS. a work called " the His- tory of Christianity," and some Satires. Mr. Oldmixon was of an ancient family in Somersetshire. He died at his house in Great Pulteney-street, in the 69th year of his age, and was buried near his son and daughter. One of his daughters sung at Mr. Hickford's Rooms in 1746, his daughter Hannah died at Newland, in Glouces- tershire, in 1789, aged 84.* On a marble slab — This Monument is erected in Memory of Rebecca, Wife of John Ward, resident of Gibraltar, Born A.D. 1733, Married January, 1749, Died the 18th August, 1708. Here rests a woman, good without pretence, Blest with plain reason, and with sober sense, + Gentleman's Magazine. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 195 To whom related, or by whom begot, Avails not, Reader! Death has been her lot; Peaceful now rests my best beloved wife, Removed beyond the miseries of life, These little rites, a verse, a stone receive, 'Tis all a husband, all a friend can give. Also of Elizabeth, daughter of John and Rebecca Ward, who died 8th of May, 1832. Aged 76 years. On a marble slab — In a Grave underneath, Are deposited all that remains of a man Not so much distinguished for length of clays, as in employments of labour and trust, For perseverance unremitting, and for honour unblemished. To the Memory of John Ward, Esq. long time a faithful servant of the crown, of Gibraltar, This Monument is erected, the last sad duty of his mourning children. " Just of his word, in every thought sincere, A He knew no wish, but what the world might hear ; He broke no promise, served no private end, He gain'd no riches, and he lost no friend." Pope. He was born at Gibraltar, of which garrison he was many years Paymaster, And died in England in April, 1791, aged 01 years. On a square marble tablet — Sacred to the Memory of Susannah, the wife of Thomas Aston, Esq. of this Parish, who died the 4th of May, 1827, in her 71st year. Also of the above named Thomas Aston, Esq. who died at Wood Stanway, Gloucestershire, on the 27th July, 1836. Aged 79 years. " We know that our Redeemer liveth." A marble slab with a variegated marble border, with an urn — In the Middle Aisle of the Church, Are deposited the Remains of John Morgan, Esq. Late of Charlotte Street, Bloomsbury, London, Who departed this life, January 24th, 1808. Aged 53 years. Also of Mary Morgan, first wife of the above John Morgan, who died April 19th, 1800. Aged 43 years. o2 196 HISTORY OF EALING. On a black marble tablet with gilt letters — In the Aisle of this Church, Are interred the remains of Martha, wife Of James Smyth, Esq., of Upper Grosvenor Street, London, and of Ealing, in this Parish, Who died December 21st, 1709, aged 60 years. Also of the said James Smyth, Esq. who died December 10th, 1780, aged 70 years. James Paul Smyth, of New Bond Street, London, Nephew of the above James Smyth, Died September 23rd, 1797, aged 62 years. Also, Mary, his wife, died January the 7th, 1800, aged 66 years. Anne, wife of Sir Frederick Morton Eden, Bart. Of Truier, in the county of Durham, And daughter of the said James Paul And Mary Smyth, died July the 14th, 1808, Aged 34 years. Also, the said Sir Frederick Morton Eden, Bart., who Died November the 14th, 1809, aged 43 years William Henry Eden, Son of the above Sir Frederick Morton and Anne Eden, Died November the 18th, 1793, aged 5 months. And James, his brother, died February the 6th, 1800, aged 3 years. George Watson Smyth, formerly of New Bond Street, Nephew of the above James Paul Smyth, Died June the 8th, 1835, aged 81 years. A large handsome marble slab , with a veined marble border, with arms — In a Vault near this spot are deposited the Remains of Mrs. Marian Mackenzie, wife of Thomas Mackenzie, Esq. Who died July 30th, 1799, aged 30 years. Also, Mrs. Jesse Frazer, wife of Duncan Frazer, Esq. Late of Brentford Butts, sister to the above, Who died September 9th, 1800, aged 59 years. Likewise Two of her Children, viz. James Frazer, who died June 8th, 1800, aged 3 years, and Magdalen Mackenzie Frazer, who died September 9th, 1800, aged 5 years. A small antique square tablet, ornamented in the centre with an hour glass, with a death's head and cross bones — I had rather be a doore keeper in the hovse of my God, than to dwell in ye tents of wickednesse. — Psalm lxxxiv. 10. On a Wreath. I stand by the doore and knock, and it shall be opened unto me. Under the Wreath. I will waite till mv change cometh. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 197 This Monument was erected by Eliz. Taverner, in memory of her busband, Richard Taverner, Esq. wch dyed y e 13 of Sept. 1638, having lived Vicar of this Par. 25 yeres and was maryed to his wife 23. On a plain marble tablet surmounted with a serpent entwined — Sacred to the Memory of Charles Hutchinson, Rsq. of this parish, Who died October 31st, 1828, aged 29 years. Against the western wall on a marble slab — In the Church are deposited the remains of Joseph Fletcher, Esq., who died 14th February, 1833, aged 70 years, after a long residence in this parish. To his memory this Tablet is gratefully inscribed by his affectionate children. A Monument to the Memory of Barre Charles Roberts — Infra Sepvltvs Est Barre Carolvs Roberts. Filivs Natv minimus Edvardi Roberts armigeri, aedis Christi Oxoniae alvmnvs. Adolescens turn ob svmmvm iugenivm, et doctrinam, tvm ob eximias aninii virtutes, perillvstris ; fvit enim modestvs, probvs, liberalis in moribvs, et natvra, mansvetissimvs : immo etiam in variis studiis eruditvs, prae- sertim in rebvs antiqvis, et nvmismatibvs ; adeoqve chhgenti Uteris. Tarn reconditis qvam elegautioribvs, vt nemo in vtraqve parte esset ornatior, caetervm qvo magis animi vigv T ere vires, eo parvm finno corpori absit valetvdo, ex qvo proh dolor, phthisi polmonali langvet ivenis carissimvs nondum annos vnvm et viginti natvs kalendas ianvariis. Anno Domini, MDCCCX, Mortalis esse desiit ; Div diuqve lvgendvs, et desiderandvs. A handsome tablet in form of a sarcophagus, on the top, a child resting on an urn — i.H. s. Consecrated As a tribute of an affectionate family, to the Memory of Mrs. Sibella Davison, Who died July 24th, 1807, aged 70. Inheriting an ample fortune. Her liberality was universally esteemed ; The sufferings of humanity never pleaded before her in vain. On a marble tablet — Near this place are interred the remains of Ann Goodenough, Eldest daughter of Anthony Addington, M.D. And Mary, his wife, and Widow of William Goodenough, M.D. Of the City and University of Oxford, Whom she survived thirtv-six vears. 198 HISTORY OF EALING. She was born on the 2nd of November, in the year 1747, And died on the 12th of June, in the year 1806, aged fifty-nine. To the Memory of a sister, Admired for the endowments of her mind, Respected for her piety, and beloved for her benevolence, This Tablet is inscribed by her affectionate brother. On a marble slab with an ornamented border sur- mounted with an urn — In Memory of Elizabeth, widow of James Senior, Esq. Of Broughton House, Bucks, Who departed this life March 13, 1832, in the 70th year of her age. And also of Mary Senior, the infant daughter of William and Louisa Laurence, and grand- daughter of the above, Who departed this life, February 28, 1835, aged one year and six months. A small handsome tablet with arms — To the Memory of Joseph Gulston, of Derwydd, Esq. In the principality of Wales, and of Knuston Hall, Northamptonshire. Born 17th of March, 1788. Lied 24th of March, 1841. On a large marble table in the form of a pyramid with arms and inscriptions : — In a Vault underneath Lie the remains of Joseph Gulston, Esq. who died December 13, 1757. Aged 75. Joseph Gulston, Esq. of Ealing-grove, Middlesex, One of the Representatives for Poole, in Dorset, In five successive Parliaments, And a South Sea Director, who died August Gth, 1700, aged 72. Maria De Silvse his wife, a native of the kiugdom of Portugal, who died November 19, 1799, aged 84. John Gulston their son, who died at Eton School, 1764, aged 14. Joseph Gulston, Esq. their son, of Ealing Grove, Middlesex, And Member of Parliament for Poole, in the county of Dorset. Who died July 14, 1786, aged 41. And of Elizabeth Bridgetta, his wife, Daughter of Sir Thomas Stepney, Bart, who died March 9, 1780, aged 30. Sacred to the Memory of Joseph Gulston, Esq. Their son, who died at Lausanne, in Switzerland, And was buried there in 1790, aged 22. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 199 On a large stone tablet — Near this place lies the body of Edward Vaughan, Esq. of Little Ealing, who died October 10, 1612, and by his will gave four acres of land, now Garden ground, lying in New Brentford field, in this parish, abutting east on the road from Brentford to Little Ealing, and west on the house of Jonathan Knevett, in Boston-lane, to the poor of this parish for ever, the yearly profits to be dis • tributed by the vicar and churchwardens. To perpetuate his memory, the memorial at the finishing of this Church (in the room of an ancient monument in the old Church) was put up, Anno Dom. 1710, by Thomas Mangey, D.D. Vicar. Samuel Anderson, } ~, . , _ )? Churchwardens, Thomas Barrett, J A beautiful monument of white marble, surmounted with, an urn, and supported by two cherubs, with arms — Near this place in a Vault lyeth the body of John Loving, Esq. late of Place House, in Little Ealing, He was one of the Tellers of the Exchequer in the reign of King Charles the Second. King James the Second, And King William the Third, He departed this life, July 9th, 1693, aged 82. In the same Vault also lyeth the body of Ann his wife, Who died the 2nd of Jaunary, 1718 : As they were truly endowed with all Christian virtues when living, So they were the greatly lamented, by all who knew them, when dead. They left issue, one only son, John Loving, Esq. who departed this life the 19th day of January, 1731, Aged 69, and is buried in Twickenham Church, In a Vault there with Dame Mary Humble, The relict of Sir William Humble, Bart. Who died June 13th, 1752, with whom he intermarried, He was an obedient son, a true and faithful friend, A loyal subject, and the most kind and indulgent husband, And had he not by a modest opinion Of his own abilities been mostly inclined to a private life, Would have been useful to the Commonwealth, - And a bright ornament to his country. On a large handsome marble monument in form of a pyramid, in front of which is a large urn, underneath is the following inscription — Dame Ann Edwards, obiit 16th of April, 1785, aged 50. " The memory of the just is blessed." Prov. chap. 10, v. 7. Sir Thomas Edwards, Bart, obiit. November 13, 1793, aged 59. " The righteous hath hope in his death." Prov. 14, chap, xxxii. v. 1. Ellen Hester Mary Hope, their only issue, Wife of John Hope, Esq. died June 4, 1837, aged 76. " Her children arise up, and call ber blessed." Prov. chap. xxxi. v. 28. 200 HISTORY OF EALING. A small marble tablet surmounted with a helmet — Sacred to the Memory of Major General Sir James Lemond, C.B. Of the Madras Artillery, who after forty-six years Of meritorious service, died deeply lamented at Boulogue-Sur-Mer, on the 13th of August, ls40, aged 04 years. A large slab surmounted with a handsome urn — To the Memory of Isabella Mary, wife of Thomas Packenham, Esq. of the Honourable East India Company's Civil Service, Bengal, Who died at Lans Le Bourg Savoy, on her way to Rome, On the 8th of November, 1827, in the 33rd year of her age. Also to the Memory of Captain Edward Wetherall, Of the First Royal Regiment of Infantry, Who gallantly fell at the storming of Bergen-op-Zoom, On the 8th of March, 1814, in the 23rd year of his age. Also General Sir Frederick Wetherall, G.C.H. of Castlebar Hill, Who departed this life December 18, 1842, in the 88th year of his age, deeply lamented. On a large handsome tablet supported by pillars and ornamented with drapery and foliage, over the top is a fan-like ornament — To the Memory of Thomas Pearce, Esq. of Little Ealing, Who lieth buried in the Middle Aisle of this Church, During forty years he was a constant inhabitant of this parish, To which he had retired from business, he died on August 14, 1752, aged 85 years, Having the character (which he well deserved) of an honest man and a sincere Christian. A large splendid architectural monument, about ten feet high, by six feet wide, supported by two pilasters of the Doric order, with an architrave, surmounted with a large central naming urn, and two smaller similar ones. In pious Memory of Dame Jane Rawlinson, widow, A lady whose natural wit and sound judgment, Improved by an extraordinary education, and much reading, rendered her very accomplished In herself, and most agreeable in conversation; but an ill state of health, Which for more than eighteen of her latter years deprived her of many enjoyments of common life, Gave her far greater, by a full exercise Of the two chief inclinations of her soul, devotion, and charity; For these she laid hold of every opportunity, And as neither of these fruits of faith can bo forgotten before God, MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 201 And as her charity will be long remembered By many a grateful heart, So it is hoped, her legacy of five hundred pounds Given for teaching twenty poor girls of this parish of Ealing, Will have a long continuance, by being carefully preserved, and well employed, For the benefit of posterity, 1713. On a large square antique tablet — John Bowman, Bachelor of Divinity, Chancelor of ye Cathedral Chvrch of St. Pawle, and Parson of this Parish, lyeth hereunder, who in his lyfe tyme was a sincere and paynfvl preacher of God' s word, and a bowntifvl and charitable releever of the poore, and at his deceasse gave 60 L a yeare for ever to the good of this Pailsh, ovt of ye rent of a Fayre Howse, one east syde of Salis- bury-court, in London, viz. ฑ0 L - a year for a preaching Minister, and 20^ a yeare to ye poore, he deceased y e loth of October, Anฐ Dni. 1629. IN THE CHURCH OX THE FLOOR. In the Vault beneath are deposited the remains of Cuthbert Fisher, Esq. late of Ealing-park, who departed this life, September 2-1, 1798, aged 58 years. Elizabeth, wife of John Maynard, Serjeant-at-Law, was bvryed here ye -1th day of January, 1654. In Memory of Hugh Owen> late Master of the Welsh School, who departed this life March 28, 1797, aged 48 years. Beneath this stone are deposited the remains of Robert Wynne, Esq. of this parish, late President of the Council of the Island of St. Vincents, who died the 20th of February, 1 795, aged 56 years. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS IN THE CHURCH YARD. A Marble tomb enclosed with iron railing — In a vault are deposited the remains of Thomas Skinner, Esq. alderman of the City of London, who served the office of sheriff in 1783, and was Lord Mayor in 1794 ; he lived respected by the great, and most sincerely beloved by the poor, to whom he was a constant friend and liberal benefactor. Obiit January 30, 1806, aged 69 years. 202 HISTORY OF EALING. A marble tomb enclosed with iron railing — In a Vault underneath are deposited the remains of James Baillie, Esq. of Ealing Grove, in this parish, one of the representatives for the borough of Horsham, in Sussex. He departed this life on the 7th day of September, 1793, aged 56 years. Also Collen Campbell his wife, who died on the 29th of April, 1831, in the 79th year of her age. Collen Campbell Lloyd, their youngest daughter, who died on the 8th day of November, 1830, in the 49th year of her age. The family vault enclosed with iron railing, of George Robinson, of Richmond and Brentford — In Memory of Catherine Robinson, the beloved wife of George Robinson, who died July 5, 1841, aged 57 years. In a vault — Here lieth deposited the remains of George Hopewell Stephens, Esq. (Rear Admiral of the Red,) who departed this life December 25, 1819, a most worthy man, and a sincere christian. A marble tomb enclosed with iron railing — To the Memory of General Sir Frederick Wetherall, G.C.H. of Castlebar Hill, who departed this life December 18, 1842, in the 88th year of his age. In a vault with rails- — John Home Tooke, late of Wimbledon, author of the Diversions of Purley, was born June 1736, and died March 18, 1812, contented and grateful. The health of this singular character had been a long time before his decease in a declining state, but his humour and eccentricity remained in full force to the last, and even in the gripe of death, the serenity of his countenance never forsook him. While he was speechless, and con- sidered insensible, Sir Francis Burdett, who was present with a few more friends, prepared a cordial for him, which the medical attendants declared to be of no avail, but which the baronet persisted in offering, and raising up the patient for that purpose, when the latter perceiving who offered the draught, drank it off with a smile, and in a few minutes after he expired. A tomb had long been prepared for Mr. Tooke in his garden at MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 203 Wimbledon ; in which it was his firm purpose to have been buried ; but this after his decease, being opposed by his daughters and an aunt of theirs, his remains were trans- ferred to this Church-yard, where they were interred according to the rites and ceremonies of the Church of England, otherwise it was his desire that no funeral cere- mony should be read over his body, but six poor men should have a guinea each to bear him to the vault in his garden. His funeral was attended by Sir Frances Burdett and many other political and literary friends.* In a vault — Mr. Thomas Juliou, thirty-eight years Vestry Clerk of this parish, died July 13, 1838, aged 70 years. Beneath this Stone lies the remains of Richard Atlee, nineteen years Clerk of this parish, died February 1, 1790, aged 52 years. William, Son and succeeding Clerk of the above, died March 12, 17!)7, Aged 31 years. Richard, succeeding Clerk, died January 11, 1802, aged 37 years. On a stone in the Church-yard — Thomas Page, nephew of Mr. John Rogers, who was unfortunately drowned the 4th of March, 1818, aged 25 years. Here in the silent stillness of the tomb, Rests a young man who perished in his bloom ; Belov'd and mourn' tl in vain, no act could save, The will of heaven doomed him a watery grave. Vault in the Church-yard — Mr. John Trimmer, citizen of London, died 22nd July, 1772, aged 04 years. Also, Mrs. Ann Trimmer, his widow, who died August 10, 1770. Likewise Mrs. Ann Trimmer, their daughter, who died May 5, 1824, aged 82 years. Vault in the Church-yard — In Memory of Mary Elizabeth Winter, the wife of John Winter, Esq. who departed this life, on the 18th of December, 1813, aged 57 years. In her character were united the excellences of the wife, the mother, the friend, and the christian. Also, John Winter, Esq. husband of the above, of this parish, and of Heathfleld Lodge, Acton, died February 5, 1843, aged 87 years. * Nightingale's and Brayley's London, vol. iii. p. 07. 204 HISTORY OF EALING. Ill a vault in the Church-yard — Here lieth the body of Richard Wood, Esq. of Hanger-hill, in this parish, who departed this life, January 6, 1783, aged 76 years. Also, Catherine Wood, wife of Richard Wood, who departed this life, May 5, aged 79. Also, the body of Mary Wood, daughter of the said Richard and Catherine Wood,who departed this life the 5th of August, 1829, in the 90th year of her age. Also, of Mary Wood, wife of George Wood, Esq. of Hanger-hill, in this parish, Born April 30, 1803, died March 5, 1836. Also, Francis, Ellen, and Katherine, three of their children who died in their infancy. In a vault in the Church-yard — Here lieth the body of Elizabeth Belcher Butlin, the daughter of John and Mary Butlin, of Westfield-house, in this parish, who was born the 14th of January, 1839, and died the 19th day of June, 1843. Sacred to the Memory of Richard Piatt, professor of music, and organist of this parish, who died June 11, 1842, aged 58 years. Respected and regretted by all who knew him. Also, of Lydia, his wife, who died October 12, 1843, aged 24 years. In the Church-yard is a Vestry-room where the parish affairs are settled, and a stone is placed over the doorway, of which the following is a copy. A. D. 1840. This Vestry-room was erected by the churchwardens, with the sanction of the Bishop of London, and the Vicar of Ealing, in lieu of the old Cross-house, or Vestry-room, a sum of money having been set apart expressly for this purpose, by the Poor Law Commissioners, out of the proceeds of the sale of the old Cross-house. Rev. John Smith, B.D. Vicar. Samuel Knevett,) „_ m T \ Churchwardens. Thomas Layton, CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS. 205 CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS FOE GENERAL PURPOSES. 1612. Edward Vaughan, Esq. gave by will, Four Acres of Land, by Boston Lane, to the use of the best living and deserving poor of the parish, the yearly profits thereof, to be distributed in Coals, by the Minister and Churchwardens ; and Twenty Pounds in money, to be laid out at interest, for the benefit of the poor. 1630. John Bowman, of Ealing, in the County of Middlesex, B.D. gave a messuage or tenement, situate in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, upon trust, to pay Forty Pounds per annum to an Afternoon Lecturer, in the Parish Church of Ealing ; and Twenty Pounds annually to poor persons of the said parish ; and the overplus of rents and profits to be applied to such godly and charitable uses as the officers for the time being should deem meet and convenient. These premises were burnt down in the Great Fire of London, 1666. The property is now held under lease, which expires in 1867, at a rent charge of ฃ70. John Bowman gave also a rent charge (to the same trust,) of Forty Shillings per annum, out of premises situate on the Green, at Ealing. Here is also a sum of Four Hundred and Fifty Pounds, Consols, belonging to the same trust, arising from accumulation of profits, and a bequest of two Turnpike Roads, to the charity, by Sir Charles Morgan, Bart, in 1807. The present Trustees are Sir Charles Morgan, Bart. ; Archdeacon Pott ; the Rev. "W*. Antrobus ; the Rev. John Smith; and George Wood, Esq. 206 HISTORY OF EALING. 1633. Richard Need, and Mary his wife, gave a house or tenement, for the profit and only use of the poor of Old Brentford, for ever. Richard and Mary Need's Charity. — The property now considered to have been derived from this bequest, consists of several tenements, which are particularly described in three leases, bearing date the 29th March, 1814. In the first lease is demised by John Thorn, to John Simpson, a house or tenement, situate on the south side of the High Street, of Old Brentford, and small tenements in Pump Alley, for 21 years, from lady-day 1814, at the yearly rent of ฃ40. In another of the leases, the said John Thorn demised to John Bond, a messuage on the south side of the High Street, Old Brentford, for 21 years, from lady-day, 1814, at the yearly rent of ฃ26. By the third lease, the said John Thorn demised to John How, two new-built messuages, situate on the south side of the town of New Brentford, at the yearly rent of ฃ12. 12s. The previous rent of the whole of these premises, was ฃ30. 1685. John Taylor, Gent, gave to the poor of the parish for ever, a piece of ground, abutting east, on land belonging to the Fox and Hounds ; west, on Nathanial Vincuff's ; north, on the King's Highway ; south, on the River Thames, and which the inhabitants in 1685 first let on lease, and on which is a tenement now let to Thomas Gore, at ฃ22. John Taylor's Charity. — A house appears to have been built many years ago on this ground, which was demised by the Churchwardens, with the approbation of the Vestry, to Thomas Gore, for 32 years, from lady-day 1738, at the yearly rent of ฃ I., with a covenant by the lessee to lay out CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS 207 ฃ50. within three months, in repairing the premises, and to keep them in repair. The Countess of Derby's Gift. — Elizabeth Countess of Derby, by her will, dated 24th July, 1714, devised a messuage &c. situate at Kew. There is now standing in the name of the Accountant general a sum of ฃ500. three per cent, consolidated annuities, the annual dividend of which being ฃ15. is distributed by trustees nominated by the parish of Ealing, and appointed by the Court of Chancery, to fifty poor widows of the lower side, in sums of fifteen shillings each. The same persons receive the annuity during their lives, and when a vacancy by death takes place, it is filled up bv the churchwarden of the time bein^. The names of the present trustees are Thomas Caldwell, George Osborne, and John Newton. 1715. Richard Taylor, gave by will, a house and premises in Great Ealing, near the Green, for the purchase of coals for eight poor families, whom the vicar shall think fit, on each side of the parish, not receiving alms of the parish. The present tenant, (1845,) is Mr. Nye, at the yearly rent of fifty pounds. 1753. Jonathan Gurnell, Sen. Esq. gave by will seven hundred pounds, three per cent, annuities, two- sevenths of the interest thereof for .the use of the Boys' School, and the remainder to be laid out in coal or firing for housekeepers of the upper side of the parish, at the discretion of the executors. The dividends of this stock are paid at the house of Messrs. Harmer and Co. Old Broad-street. 1752. Jonathan Gurnell, Jun. Esq. gave by will five hundred pounds in trust for the use of the same schools, to be invested in securitv. 208 HISTORY OF EALING. 1759. Mrs. Elizabeth Barnes, who died in 1759, gave by will four hundred pounds, the interest thereof to be paid to four poor widows annually for ever. 1759. Mrs. Elizabeth Barnes' Gift — This stock, being now three per cent, consolidated long annuities, stands at present in the names of Rev. John Smith, James Hemmings, Robert Clark, and Thomas Meacock. The dividends amount to thirteen pounds and six-pence. 1783. William Adair, Esq. in 1788, gave by will one hundred pounds, three per cent, annuities, the interest thereof to be applied for the benefit of poor widows of this parish, whom the vicar and churchwardens shall think fit. 1793. Henry York bequeathed the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds South Sea annuities, half the dividends of which is given to the poor of Ealing, and half to his descendants. 1794. Mr. Edward Payne's Gift. — Edward Payne, Esq. by his will, dated the 26th April, 1794, bequeathed to the vicar of Ealing, the sum of one hundred pounds, to be by him invested in the three per cent, consolidated annuities, and the dividends to be laid out in coals to be dis- tributed at his discretion. This legacy was invested as directed, and the stock purchased was afterwards increased by the investment of another bequest of one hundred pounds, given by the late Sir Charles Morgan, three hundred and eleven pounds, six shillings, and eleven-pence ; and was further increased in 1843, by a bequest of one hundred pounds, from General Sir Frederic TTetherall, G.C.H. The stock now amounts to four CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS. 209 hundred and fourteen pounds, sixteen shillings, and nine-pence, and now stands in the names of the Rev. J. Smith, J. Tattersal, Esq. M.D. and G. Wood, Esq. ; and now produces an annual dividend of twelve pounds, eight shil- lings, and ten-pence. The Boys' National School at Ealing — Contains at the present time 115 scholars, of whom 28 are clothed. The income arises from Lady Capell's bequest, about ฃ80. Mrs. Stafford's legacy ฃ30. Mr. Gurvele's ditto ฃ 6. And the dividends on ฃ2700. three per cents ฃ81. Arising from sundry bequests and donations. There is a residence for the Master to the School trust. The School premises are situate in Ealing-lane, leading to Brentford. Lady Capell's Will — By this will the Right Hon. Dorothy Dowager Lady Capell, of Tewkesbury, in the year 1721, by will gave one-twelfth part of the income of an estate in Kent, called Perry-court Farm, towards the support of the Charity School, at Ealing. The estate is vested in four trustees for the purposes aforesaid. The estate is most advantageously situate, adjoining the turnpike-road, from London to Canterbury, and within one mile from the town of Faversham. It is composed principally of arable land, and contains a large house, gardens, and offices, and is fit for the reception of a genteel family. The present tenant, Mr. John Walter, whose family has rented the farm 150 years, has kept the buildings and fences in good repair. Except about twenty small elms, there is no timber on the estate ; the whole of which is titheable, and the grain taken in kind, bv the different tithe owners. 210 HISTORY OF EALING Perry-court Farm, in the parishes of Preston, Lucl- denham, and Orpringe, surveyed November, 1807. A. P. R. Great field contains 81 15 Chapel field 18 1 34 Martin's field 25 2 (> Cut Thorn field 9 2 5 Meadow 5 37 The Six acres 6 35 Orchard 2 2 34 Yard, offices, and gardens 1 1 27 Total 150 33 Girls' Charity School. — This school was founded by Dame Jane Rawlinson, who, by her will, dated 7th of October, 1712, gave five hundred pounds to Timothy Bolton, and others, upon trust, with such sum to purchase in fee the sum of twenty pounds per annum, or so much more yearly rent as the said sum of five hundred pounds would purchase in freehold lands, within twenty-five miles of Ealing, and out of the rents and profits yearly to pay for the maintenance of a school mistress within the said parish, to teach twenty poor girls of the said parish to read English and to work plain work. There is a Girls' National School at Ealing, to which in 1837, an Infant School was added. There are now in the girls' school about fifty scholars, and in the infant school about seventy-five. The girls are clothed. The school premises are situate on the Green at Ealing, and contain school rooms, with a residence for the mistress of each school. The income arises from Kent of land purchased with Lady Rawlinson's bequest and other monies ฃ 52. Mrs. Stafford's legacy ฃ830. The dividends on ฃ1900. three per cents, reduced, arising from sundry bequests and donations ฃ 37. CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS. ฃ11 Chronological List of Charitiei DATE NAME. BENEFACTIOX5 ป. APPROPRIATIONS. 1012. Edward Vaughan, Esq .... ฃ20. ... To the Poor. 1620. John Bowman, B.D .... ฃ60 Ditto 16.38. Richard Need, and Mary his Wife 1605. John Taylor, Gent 1713. Lady Jane Rawlinson .... ฃ500 To the Girls' School. 1714. Lady Derby .... ฃ500 To the Poor. 1715. Richard Taylor 1721. .... ฃ11 To the Boys' School. Ditto. 1725. Elizabeth Colleton .... ฃ100 1750. John Rogers, Gent .... ฃ100 Ditto. 1752. Jonathan Gurnell, Jun. Esq.. . .... ฃ1000. .. To the Poor. 1753. Jonathan Gurnell, Sen. Esq. . . .... ฃ200 To the Boys' School. Mr. Thomas Pearce .... ฃ10 Ditto. 1756. Mrs. Sarah Gurnell .... ฃ100 Ditto. 1758. William Wogan, Esq .... ฃ5 Ditto. 1750. Mrs. Elizabeth Barnes .... ฃ400.... To the Poor. 1770. Matthew Fairless .... ฃ50. ... To the Boys' School. 1774. Mrs. Mary Bertand .... ฃ21. ... . Ditto. 1777 Rev. P. F. Le Couravcr .... ฃ200. . . . To the Girls' School. 1779. Mrs. Francis Cole .... ฃ50. ... Ditto. Jeremiah Harman .... ฃ20. ... To the Boys' School. To the Girl's School. 1783. Mrs. Martha Sparrow .... ฃ21. 13s. William Adair, Esq .... ฃ100 . To the Poor. 1788. John Ayton .... ฃ21 To the Boys' School. James Taylor .... ฃ75. . . . To the Sunday Schools 1704. Edward Payne, Esq .... ฃ100 To the Poor. 1705. Mrs. Hannah Harman .... ....ฃ62 To the Girls' School. 1700. Thomas Fletcher, Esq .... ฃ40 To the Boys' School. 1800. Anu, Wife of Francis Stephens Esq. ฃ35 To the Girls' School. 1802. Brentford Armed Association .... ฃ20 To the Boys' School. PARISH REGISTER. Average of Baptisms and Burials. The parish registry , which begins in the year 1582, is imperfect during the seventeenth century, that no satis- p2 ge of Baptisms. Average of Burials 29f 29 98* ? 110i 3 139J . . 185} 156 162 173 ? • 166 T V 184f . . 159f 225 . 153* 175 162 212 HISTORY OF EALING, factory average of baptisms or burials can be procured ; but it was kept with much accuracy during the succeeding century, and great pains have been taken to preserve what remains of the more ancient records, some of which are in a mutilated condition. 1 1583—1592 1730—1739 1780—1784 1785—1789 1790—1799 1800—1808 1813—1822 1823—1836 Form of Publication of Marriages during the Commonwealth . 1653. A publication of an intent of marriage betweene John Holliday, the sonne of Jo. Holliday, water- man, and Sarah Walker, spinster, and daughter of Richard Walker, of Old Brentford, mealman, was published in Yling church three several days, viz. Nov. 6, 13, &c. 1653. By me, Joseph Wade, Register. Burials during the plague in Old Brentford and Ealing, in the years 1665, and 1666. It appears from the parish register "that this dreadful calamity was first brought into this parish by two soldiers who were quartered at the Half-way House, at Old Brentford, and that from that period it continued to rage for more than twelve months, during which time there were not less than two hundred and fifty funerals. June 24. "A souldier dyed at the Half-way House at Old Brentford, at Don's. EALING CHURCH BELLS. 213 July 1. "A souldier that dyed at James Garraways. 10. John White and a son of Richard were buried of the plague, from Don's. 12. Richard Don the master of the house. 13. Two children of Richard Don, a maid, and a maid of James Garraway's, all buried in one grave, in Old Brentford-field, of the plague. 22 , Sarah, a child of James Garraway's dyed of the plague. 26. One that dyed in the Burrow at Old Brentford, of the plague. One that wrought at Robert Monday's, of the plague. The wife of Joseph Grant, of the plague. 31. A child of Ben Wallis, of the plague. Aug. 23. Anne, wife of Robert Randell, of the plague. 24. A girl buried of the plague, from Walters' house in the towne. 26. Three children from Brentford, of the plague. 27. Two from Mr. Walter's house. 28. Robert Randall. 28. Francis Potter. 29. A child named John Mason. 29. Goodman Carter's wife. Nov. 10. Robert Cromwell's maid. Barbarietta, the daughter John Welbro, Gent." The burials continued increasing during the months of November and December, sometimes seven in a" day, and from June, to the end of January following, not less than 250 persons were buried of this disorder, most of whom were placed in holes dug in the fields to the south of the village, and to this very day they have retained the name of " Dead Man's Graves." Ealing Church Bells. — This peal consists of eight bells, on each of which are inscribed the founder's name, the date of the year, and the names of the Churchwardens ; 214 HISTORY OF EALING. the earliest of which appears to be 1789, and the latest 1795. The origin of Church Bells is of remote antiquity. It appears they were used by the Greeks and Romans, both for sacred and profane purposes. Whitakcr informs us, that bells were in frequent use among the Romans ; and were, probably, introduced by them to the Britons during their sway over this island.* Even since the introduction of bells into the service of the Church, in the fifth century, the English have been distinguished for their proficiency in the art of ringing, and for their partiality for this amusement. Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, is generally considered as the first person who introduced bells into ecclesiastical service, about the year 400 ; and we are told by an ancient histo- rian that, in the year 610, Lupus, Bishop of Orleans, being at Sens, then besieged by the army of Clothaire II., fright- ened away the besiegers by ringing the bells of St. Stephen's Church, which is a clear proof that they were not, at that time, generally known in France. f The first large bells are, however, mentioned by Bedc, in the year 680 ; before that period, the early British Christians made use of wooden rattles (sacra lignaj to call the congregation of the faithful together. Hand bells, probably, first appeared at religious processions, and were afterwards used by the secular musicians. The small bells were not always held in the hand ; they were sometimes suspended on a stand, and struck with hammers. The annexed figure, which affords a curious example of this kind, is taken from a manuscript of the fourteenth century ; it is intended as a representation of King David, and is affixed to one of his psalms. + * Catli. Hist, of Cornwall, vol. ii. p. 140. Durand. Rational, lib. i. c. 4. Allen's Hist, of Lambeth, p. 40 — 53. + Vide Gregor Tur. lib. vi. c. 2. Du Cange, torn. ii. p. 95. Is pulsando campanas in Templo Stephani apud Siuonas (quo signo con- vocare solebatpopulum) exercitum Clotharii, qui muros obsidione cinxerat adeo terruit, ut omnes sese fugam verterunt. — Vincent, in Sjk'c. Hist. 1. 23, c. 9. I Manuscript in the Royal Library, now in the British Museum, marked B. XL*— Strath Sports and Pastimes, p. ^59. EALING CHURCH BELLS. 215 Six different names have been applied to bells used in church service. Ingulphus, Abbot of Croyland, who died about 1109, speaks of them as being well known in his time, and says, that " Turketullus, the first Abbot of Croy- land, gave six bells to that Monastery, that is to say, two great ones, which he named Bartholomew and Beladine ; two of a middling size, called Turketullum and Beterine ; two small ones, denominated Pega and Bega; he also caused the great bell to be made, called Gudla, which was tuned to the other bells, and produced an admirable harmony, not to be equalled in England."* Of these, * Spelman Glos. Yoc. Camp. Du Cange Voc. 216 HISTORY OF EALING. Durandus writes many things ; and he mentions six kinds of small bells, that were rung in the church. Squilum was rung in the refectory, Cymbalum in the cloister, Nola in the quire, Nolula in the clock-house, Campana in the belfry, and Lignum in the steeple or the tower. In the Romish church, these bells were anointed Oleo Chrismatis ; they were exorcised, the Bishop blessed them, baptized them, and gave them the name of some Saint ; and when these ceremonies were performed, it was verily believed that they had the power to drive the devil out of the air — to make him quake and tremble — to make him fly at the sound thereof. Tanquam ante crucis vexil- lum, that they had power to calm storms and tempests — to make fair weather — to extinguish sudden Arcs — to recreate the dead — to restrain the power of the devil over the corpse whilst they rung, Avhich was the reason of ringing bells at funerals. But since the time of the reformation, it has been the usual course, in the churches of England, and it is a very laudable one, that when any sick person lay draw- ing on, a bell tolled, to give notice to the neighbours that they might pray for the dying party, which was commonly called a passing bell, because the sick person was passing hence to another world ; and when his breath was expired, the bell rung out, that the neighbours might cease their prayers, for that the party was dead. The Jews used trumpets for bells. The Greek church, under them, still follow their old custom of using wooden boards, or iron plates full of holes, which they hold in their hands, and knock with a hammer or mallet, to call the people together to church. China has been remarkably famous for its bells. Father le Compte tells us, that at Pekin there are seven bells, each of which weighs 120,000 pounds. Baronius says, that Pope John XIII. A.D. 968, conse- crated a very large neAV-cast bell, in the Lateran church, which was probably the first instance of what has been since called the baptising of bells, a superstition Avhich is rediculed in the " Romish Beehive." The vestiges of this custom may vet be traced in England in Tom of Lincoln, EALING CHURCH BELLS. 217 and great Tom, the " mighty Tom/' at Christ church, Oxford. " Bells/' says Dr. Fuller, " are no effectual charm against lightning ; the frequent firing of abbey churches by light- ning, confuteth the proud motto, commonly written on the bells in their steeples, wherein each bell entitleth itself to a six-fold efficacy, viz. — Men's death I tell, by doleful knell, Li gli tiling and thunder I break asunder, On Sabbath all, to church I call, The sleepy head I raise from bed, The winds so fierce I do disperse, Men's cruel rage I do assuage. The dislike of spirits to bells is thus mentioned in the Golden Legend, by Wynken de Worde : — " It is said, the evil spirytes, that been in the regon of thayne, dowt much whan they here the bells rongen, an this is the cause why the belles ben rongen when it thonclreth, and whanne grete tempests and outrages of wether happen, to the ende that the feinds and wyched spirytes shod be abashed and flee, and cease of the movynge of tempeste." The custom of rejoicing the bells on high festivals, Christmas-day, &c. is derived from the early ages. The ringing of bells, also, on the arrivals of Sovereign Princes or Bishops, at places under their jurisdiction, was also a very ancient custom, whence we seem to have derived the modern compliment of welcoming persons of consequence by a cheerful peal.* There is a curious passage in Fuller's History of Wal- tham Abbey, A.D. 1542, 34 of Henry VII. relative to the wages of bell ringers. It is preserved in the church- wardens' accounts — " Item, paid for ringing at the Prince his coming, a penny" It was customary to put the following lines within the * Et est assavoir que en la dite ville, et semblablement par toutes les autres villes, ou il a ete, tant en venant a Paris, comme en son retour, il n'a ete receu en quelque Eglise a procession, ni cloches sonnees a son venir. Campa- narum pulsatio episcoporum et abbatum in ecclesias quae iis subditse sunt, antiquus mos. — See Du Cange. Gloss. Verb. Campaiia. 218 HISTORY OF EALING. steeple, or others to the same import, declaratory of their various uses — We praise the true God, call the people, convene the clergy, Lament the dead, dispel pestilence, and grace festivals. The use of bells in churches gave rise to that singular edifice the campanile, or bell-tower, an addition which is more susceptible of the grander beauties of architecture than any other part of the church. It was the constant appendage to every parish church of the Saxons, and is actually mentioned as such in the laws of Athelstan. The practice of ringing bells is said to be peculiar to this country, whence Britain has been called the ringing island. This peculiarity is noticed by an ancient traveller, who observes, that " the English are vastly fond of great noises that fill the air, and particularly of ringing of bells, so that it is common," says he, " for a number of them to go up into some belfry, and ring the bells for hours together for the sake of exercise."* This custom seems to have begun with the Saxons, and was common before the Con- quest. Bell ringing, though a recreation chiefly of the lower classes, is not in itself incurious, or unworthy of notice. Musical composers, however, seem to have written but little upon the subject. The treatise at present in high repute upon this subject is entitled " Campanalogia Improved ; or, the Art of Ringing made easy," which will be found to explain all the terms made use of in ringing of peals, with all their regular formations. The church tower is about eighty feet high. In the belfry are recorded several remarkable peals rung here at various times, viz. 1798. Sunday, January 28. — The Society of College Youths did ring on the bells in this tower 6048 changes of bob major, in three hours and forty-five * Hentznefs Itin. published by Lord Orford, Straw. Hill, p. 88. See the subject of bells further treated on in Faulkner's Hist, of Chelsea, vol. i. p. 194; Hist. ofFulham, p. 51— 53; Hist, of Kensington, p. 301; Hist, of Hammer- smith, p. 151. EALING CHURCH BELLS. 219 minutes, with the sixth at home, twelve times wrong and twelve times right. Mr. Richard Hickman, \ ^ . _ Ar rp ri r Churchwardens. Mr. ihomas Cracknell, ) 1809. Sunday, October 1. — The Company of Isleworth Youth performed the complete peal of 5040 grand- sire tripples, in two hours and forty-five minutes. 1841. Sunday, May 2. — There was rung in this steeple, by a Friendly Society, a true and complete peal of grandsire tripples, consisting of 5040 changes, which was performed in three hours and one minute, by nine persons. Mr. Samuel Knevett, ) nr rp T (Churchwardens. Mr. Thomas Layton, i Of Ringing the Church Bells. — There have been some doubts as to the right of the minister and church- wardens, individually, to order or refuse the ringing of the church bells ; and the subject having recently engaged some attention in the counties of Devon and Somerset, the following opinions of Dr. Lushington, upon cases laid before him, are referred to for the information of those it may concern : — Case I. — I am of opinion that all the church bells are subject to the same regulations. The bells ought not to be rung without the joint consent of the minister and churchwardens. The minister alone has not authority to order them to be rung, neither have the churchwardens alone. If the minister refuse his consent, they ought not to be rung ; but I am of opinion that the minister and one churchwarden would, in ordinary cases, be considered sufficient authority for ringing. In strictness, the previous consent of the minister and both churchwardens' is necessary. The minister cannot lawfully direct the ringing of bells until the consent of the churchwardens has been obtained ; nor the churchwardens, until the minister's permission has been granted. (Signed) Stephen Lushington. Case II. — That the consent of the minister, whether incumbent or curate, is necessary to authorise the ringing of the bells of the church ; and that the consent of either, or both the churchwardens, without the minister's consent, is not sufficient : the consent of the minister to the ringing of the bells must always be had. If the two churchwardens differ, the consent of the minister and one of the churchwardens would be sufficient . but the consent of the minister against both the church- 220 HISTORY OF EALING. wardens would not justify the ringing ; nor would the consent of both the churchwardens against the minister authorise it. The minister has authority to limit the time of ringing, and the ringers are hound to obey him ; and no person has a right, without the consent of the minister (whether incumbent or curate), to place flags or garlands, or any thing else, either in or upon the church, or in the church-yard. Stephen Lushington. The Parish of Dawlish, Devon. The Parish of Charlton, Macknel, Somersetshire. PAROCHIAL PERAMBULATIONS. That every man might keep his own possessions, Our fathers used, in reverend processions, With zealous prayers, and with praiseful cheere, To walk their parish limits once a year. And well-known marks (which sacrilegious hands Now cut or breathe), so bord'red out their lands, That every one distinctly knew his owne, And many broils, now rife, were then unknowne. Withefs Emblems (10)35.) The origin of the custom of perambulating the bounds of parishes goes as far back as the Romans, for, from the days of Numa Pompilius they worshipped the god Ter- minus whom they looked upon to be the guardian of fields and land marks, and the bond of friendship and peace among them, upon this account the feast called Terminilia was dedicated to him ; instead of which we have substituted perambulations which are of great use in order to preserve the boundaries of parishes, for by the injunctions of Queen Elizabeth it was ordained that the people should once a year, at the time accustomed, walk about the parish with the curate and the substantial men, and at their return to the church make their common prayers. And the curate of their said common perambu- lations was requested, at certain convenient places, to admonish the people to give thanks to God for the increase and abundance of his fruits upon the face of the earth, accompanied with the singing of the 103rd psalm. Agree- ably to this we read in the Life of the inous Hooker, that he would bv " no means omit the customary time of PEROCHIAL PERAMBULATIONS. 221 procession, persuading all both rich and poor, if they desired the preservation of home, and their parish rights and liberties to accompany him in his perambulation, when he would usually express more pleasant discourse than at other times, and then would always drop some loving and facetious observations to be remembered against the next year, especially by the boys and young people, still inclining them and all his present parishioners to meek- ness, mutual kindness and love."* The particular office ordered by the Church of England for Rogation Sunday is exactly suited for the nature of the season ; the three following days are appointed fasts, and one of the Homi- lies is composed particularly for the parochial perambu- lation. The word parochia, or parish, anciently signified what we now call the diocese of a bishop. In the early ages of the Christian Church, as kings founded Cathedrals, so great men founded parochial churches for the use of themselves and their dependants, the bounds of the paro- chial division being commonly the same with those of the founder's jurisdiction, some foundations similar to this are mentioned by Bede about the year 700. f Camden says, that this kingdom was first divided into parishes by Honorius, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the year 636, and reckons 2984 parishes. But the division of a diocese into rural parishes, and the foundation of Churches adequate to them cannot be ascribed to any one act, nor indeed to any one single age. Blount says, that Rogation week is always the next week but one before Whitsunday, and so called, because as Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of that week, Rogations and Litinies were used, and fasting, at least abstinence, then enjoined by the Church to all persons, not only for a devout pre- paration to the feast of Christ's ascension, and descent of the Holy Ghost shortly after, but also to request and supplicate the blessing of God upon the fruits of the earth. The Dutch call it Cruss Week, i. e. Cross Week, and * See Walton's Life of Hooker, p. 72. + Collier's Eccl. Hist. vol. i. p. 231. 222 HISTORY OF EALING. so it is called in some parts of England, because of old, when the priests went in procession, the cross was carried before them. It was formerly among the enquiries of the archdeacons whether the practice was duly observed in the several parishes, and Herbert mentions the pious and sociable uses of this custom.* There does not appear to exist any law by which this custom can be enforced, nor can the Ecclesiastical Judges oblige the churchwardens to go their bounds ; this is a growing evil, which can only be remedied by an Act of Parliament. f * See Herbert's Country Parson. f See Faulkner's Hist, of Kensington, p. 5. THE VILLAGE OF EALING. 223 CHAPTER III. Village of Ealing — Ealing and Brentford Volunteers — Ealing Manor — Par- sonage House — Manor of Cold-hall — Goodenough House — Ealing House, Lady Noel Byron's Industrial School — Elm Grove — Ealing Grove — Ealing Green — Little Ealing — Ealing Park — Ealing Dean — Manor of Gunnersbury — Ancient Houses — Eminent Inhabitants. The Village of Ealing is situated as already observed, principally on the south side of the Uxbridge road; it consists of many detached gentlemen's seats, which it is the purport of this chapter to describe ; but a remarkable event, which occurred in the modern history of the parish, demands, from its importance, apriority of notice, namely, the formation and establishment of the Ealing and Brent- ford Armed Association and Volunteer Corps. When the country was menaced by foreign enemies and domestic agitators, the inhabitants of Ealing and Brentford nobly answered the call of honour, when they formed themselves into a military association in 1797. The corps consisted of a regiment of infantry, com- manded by T. Harrington, Esq. whom they unanimously chose for their major. Their arms and accoutrements were furnished by government, but all other requisites were provided at their own expense. The corps, Avithin a short time after it was embodied, consisted of near 200 members. The colours were deposited in Ealing church at the end of the war. After the short interval of peace (1808) subsequent to the treaty of Amiens, the threat of invasion being renewed, the inhabitants resolved upon the formation of a volunteer corps. At a numerous and respectable meeting of the inhabitants of the parish of Ealing, and the township of New Brent- ford, convened by public notice, at the chapel in Old Brentford, on Monday, the 8th of August, 1803, Lieut. - Col. Drinkwater in the chair, it was resolved unanimously — " That at this momentous crisis, when an ambitious and 29A HISTORY OF EALING. implacable foe threatens the invasion and destruction of this kingdom, it is the duty and interest of every man, who wishes to preserve the blessings we enjoy under our free and happy constitution, to stand forward in defence of his king and country. — That it is the opinion of this meeting, that the most effectual mode of strengthening the arm of government, and of testifying our loyalty and zeal, is to form a volunteer corps of the inhabitants of the said parish and township. — That a declaration, conformable to the general provisions of the act of parliament lately passed, to enable His Majesty more effectually to provide for the defence and the security of the realm, be drawn up, to be signed by those inhabitants who are willing to enroll them- selves to serve in this corps of volunteers. — That every person so enrolling himself, do subscribe three guineas towards defraying the expences of his military uniform. — That the corps be distinguished by the name of the Ealing and Brentford volunteers. — That those persons enrolling themselves, who are possessed of arms and accoutrements used by the late Brentford armed association, be invited to produce them on this occasion; and that application be made to government to furnish arms for the remainder of the corps. — That a general committee be appointed to take measures for carrying the above resolutions into effect. — That the said committee consist of seven gentlemen of the upper side, and seven of the lower side of Ealing parish, and six of the township of New Brentford, together with a treasurer, and two auditors.

THE VILLAGE OF EALING. That the said committee be empowered to conduct all proceedings preparatory to the final constitution of the corps, and also to adopt such further regulations as may appear to them expedient. — That such inhabitants as from age or other circumstances are prevented enrolling them- selves on this occasion, be requested to promote the purposes of this meeting by their pecuniary subscriptions, which will be received by the treasurer, or any member of the committee. — That books for enrollment be left at the vicarage, Ealing ; at Mr. Jullien's, Old Brentford ; and at Mr. Norbury's, New Brentford, until Thursday evening, when the books will be closed. — That the thanks of this meeting be given to Thomas M'Donald, Esq. for the very eloquent and impressive address now delivered, and for his zeal and attention on many former occasions. — That the thanks of this meeting be given to Lieut.-Col. Drink- water, for his very able and impartial conduct in the chair." The speech of Thomas McDonald, Esq. at the general meeting of the inhabitants of Ealing and Brentford, on Monday, the 8th of August, 1803, to consider the most effectual means of forming a volunteer corps : — After stating in detail the proceedings of the vestry, held at Ealing, on the 28th of July, of the committee appointed at that vestry, and the sub-committee by them chosen, in the course of which detail he took occasion to do justice to the zeal and known merits of the officers and gentlemen of the late Brentford armed association, and after reading the resolutions of the committee for the imme- diate formation of a strong volunteer corps, conformably to the act lately passed for the defence of the realm, Mr. McDonald proceeded nearly as follows : — " These, Sir, are the proceedings and resolutions I have undertaken to submit to the consideration of this general meeting of the parish of Ealing and township of New Brentford, which it gratifies me to see so very respectably and nume- rously attended ; and in executing the duty with which I have been honoured, I feel the most sensible satisfaction, not only because these resolutions have met with my own cordial approbation, but because I am thus enabled to bear public testimony to the zeal, the steady spirit, and unani- mity which have distinguished all our public meetings on this momentous business. The same unanimity I hope will prevail on the present occasion ; and I do not hesitate to say, with perfect confidence, that if the same spirit pre- vails, as we have reason to belive that it does, throughout the kingdom at large, the country is safe. The conduct of the people here is anxiously observed in France, and speedy preparation, with the determined purpose of a brave resistance, will enable us, under Heaven, to surmount the threatened evil. I have said that in every instance we have been unanimous, and indeed were we not unanimous at the present crisis, I would ask on what occasion is una- nimity to be looked for? Is not the cause a common cause ? What rank or station can claim exemption from the impending danger ? the rich man would be robbed of his wealth, the earnings perhaps of a life of industry, or the inheritance of his fathers, but would the poor man be protected by his poverty ? If such were his thoughts he would quickly find himself greatly disappointed. The prince would be drawn from his palace ; but would not the peasant be dragged from his cottage, from his helpless family, to be the tortured drudge of a ruffian foreigner? to be kept alive for the base uses to which his remaining strength might be applied ; to be fed in the bondage of a slave, from the offals of a Frenchman's table ? his body wasting under oppression, his mind would feel all the agony of despair, while he thought, full many a thankless and unprofitable hour of labour, on the family he had lost, the cottage he once could call his own, the security of which, under the cherishing care of a good and gracious sovereign, he had possessed — the liberty of equal law he had enjoyed. Perhaps to complete his woe, he might feel, with bitter remorse, that he had but ill estimated the value of those gifts of Heaven when they were in his possession, that when called upon to defend his country, he had kept back, and thus, alas ! deserved the dreadful punishment he suffered. These are not the paintings of imagination. In those wretched countries which, from weakness, for want of preparation, from internal dissention, or from treachery, have submitted to the iron power of that fierce usurper, who now, with insolence unparalleled, dares to think of assaulting this mighty empire. In those wretched countries there are thousands now pining under the mise- ries I have described. They hear the threats against England, but not without hope. The glories of British liberty have long shone brightly through the gloom. The renown of British valour pervades the world. The world looks on, and hopes for deliverance and relief; and that world shall see, that if the mad attempt is made, the fierce invader and his hordes of slaves will perish in the tempest which they themselves have raised. But that our vengeance may be sure, one must not forget that courage, however strong, will not avail without order and controul; our indignation to be dreadful must receive its aim from skill and system. Spirit, without precaution, would lead to destruction — would plunge us into danger, without the means of safety. It is the characteristic of English courage to bear down with the collected force of steady movement — to be firm, and so invincible. Let us maintain this character ; and while we suffer not an hour to elapse with- out advancing in preparation, let all our preparations have the quality of order, and instruction in the use of arms. Who that reflects for one moment, can refuse to sacrifice some small portion of personal ease for permanent security — the glorious security of old English independence. Stand forward, then, my friends, and rally round the pillar of your country's safety. Our sovereign calls ; and who can brook the thought of one moment's delay. What! are we prepared to see this fair land, the seat of our fore- fathers, the scene of so many glorious acts of patriotism and courage, torn from our possession, and made the haunt of Frenchmen ? or despoiled of all that the worth of ages has produced, and by rancourous desolation reduced to that dreary waste which would effectually prevent the revival of our former greatness ? Are we prepared to suffer our sacred constitution — our pure religion — our just laws — our charities — and all our institutions to be at once thrown down ? to see the remains of life in our aged and infirm parents extinguished under the pressure of con- tumely and abuse ? and scenes of bloodshed and rapine practised with cruelty proportioned to the envy which our former happiness produced ? Shall we submit to this ? Shall we pause one instant in providing for the means of sure resistance ? It cannot be. We will ever bear in mind those royal mottos, so nobly expressive of the just and vigorous spirit which distinguish the southern and northern parts of this happy island ; the one, ' God and my right ;' the other, ' None shall injure us and go un- punished.' We will stand forth, without fear. There is no cause for fear. Every circumstance is propitious. No internal discontents divide us. Here all is tranquil ; and an abundant harvest, with favourable skies, augurs plenty to the land. The God of nature smiles upon our purpose." The resolutions proposed were ably seconded by Edward Roberts, Esq. and unanimously passed, with every ex- pression of ardent approbation and zeal. The corps of the Ealing and Brentford volunteers, which was subsequently formed agreeably to the foregoing regulations, was divided into five companies, under the com- mand of Col. Drinkwater and Major Harrington; and the following gentlemen were also chosen as officers, viz. : CAPTAINS. LIEUTS. ENSIGNS. Osborn Caldwell John Clarke Drinkwater Roberts, jun. G. Julion Andrews Paddon Essex, of Acton Essex, jun. J. P. Rowe Newton. This corps continued their exercises till October, 1806, when it was finally dissolved, and the colours were deposited in Ealing church. EALING MANOR. There are two general courts held for this manor, viz. on Easter Monday, and in the middle or end of November, in each year ; the former of which is a court leet and baron, when constables, headboroughs, ale- conners, and a common driver are appointed. The manner and ceremonies used at the courts leet and courts haron of the manor of Ealing, held at Hammersmith. Proclamation. — All manner of persons that owe suit and service to our sovereign lady the Queen, or the court leet and court baron of Charles James, Lord Bishop of London, lord of the manor of Ealing, held this day for the said manor, may give attendance here, and come into court, and take their admission. Juryman's Oath. — You shall truly presentment make of all such matters or things, as shall come before you, relative to the court leet and court baron held this day, for the manor of Ealing ; you shall present no man out of malice nor ill-will, nor leave any unpresented out of favour, but present the truth so far as shall come to your knowledge. Surrender. — You do by me, and by this rod, surrender into the hands of the lord of the manor of Ealing, all that copyhold messuage, and by this surrender you make to the use and behove of A. B. according to the custom of the manor. Admission. — The lord of the manor of Ealing does, by me, and by this rod, grant you seizen and possession of all that copyhold messuage, surrendered to you by A. B. to have and to hold. Surrender to Will. — You do by me, and by this rod, surrender into the hands of the lord of the manor of Ealing, all your copyhold lands ; and this surrender you make to the use and behove of such persons, or to such use or uses, as you shall, by your last will and testament, declare and appoint. 1. Copyholds descend in the nature of borough English to the males and females, and to the heirs lineal and collateral. 2. On death or alienation, one year's quit rent to be paid, and for heriotable lands, three shillings and four pence, in the name of a heriot. 3. The widow of a copyholder, if a spinster at the time of her marriage, hath one-third of his lands for her dower during life. 4. Tenant by courtesy is allowed by the custom of this manor. 5. A tenant may fell timber, or take down buildings on his copyhold lands, without obtaining the lord's license for the above purposes. Lands within the manor of Ealing descend to the youngest son, but in default of male issue, are divided among daughters equally. The manor of Ealing has belonged from time imme- morial to the See of London. The demesne lands, con- sisting of about 660 acres, were leased by Bishop Bonner, under the name of Ealing-bury, to Edward, Duke of Somerset, for a term of 200 years ; after his attainder they came into the hands of the crown, and were granted, anno 1601, for the unexpired term, to Simon Willis, who assigned one moiety to Thomas Fisher, and the other to Sir Thomas Penruddock. At the time of the parliamentary survey, A.D. 1650, the manor-house was in the possession of John Pen- ruddock, the same, it is probable, who was executed at Exeter, in 1655, for an insurrection against Cromwell. It is described in the Survey as " ruinated, and lying open since the first plundering thereof in the beginning of the last troubles." I have not had an opportunity of learning through what hands this estate passed afterwards till 1757, when Bonner's grant being expired, it was leased in the usual manner to Richard Long, Esq. and is now held under a new lease by his daughters and co-heiresses, one of whom is married to William Vachell, Esq. and the PARSONAGE HOUSE. 231 other to George Harding, Esq. one of the justices of the grand sessions for Brecon, &c. Mr. Hardinge has alie- nated his interest in the lease to Mr. Peter Thornton. Royalties. — The manor is in the Bishop's own hands, and the courts are held by his steward. The royalties, or the right of fishing, hunting, &c. were leased to the late Jonathan Gurnell, Esq. and are now held by Jacob Jeddere, Esq. The Parsonage House, is a respectable and commo- dious building, and was greatly improved by the late vicar. The premises consist of about four acres. In ad- dition to which, there is a glebe land of about five acres and a half. The poor house was situated opposite to the church; after the completion of the Brentford Poor Law Union it was pulled down and houses have been built upon its site, which are the property of T. Butlin, Esq. who resides in the adjoining mansion, called West-field House. Robert Orme, Esq. — This distinguished historian was born at Anjingo, in the East Indies, in 1728, and was educated at Harrow. He afterwards obtained a civil appointment at Calcutta, and was created a member of the council at Fort St. George. After being elected com- missary and accountant-general in 1753, he embarked for England for the recovery of his health, but the ship in which he sailed being captured by the French, he did not reach his destination until the spring of 1760. The first volume of his celebrated work, " History of the Mili- tary Transactions of the British Nation in Indostan, from the year 1745," appeared in 1763, and the second in 1778. The elegance and perspicuity of the narrative, with its great fidelity and impartiality, entitle the author to rank with the best Historical writers of his time. In the beginning of January 1801, Mr. Orme fell into a state of general debility that prognosticated a speedy dissolution of his frame, and on the thirteenth of the same month he expired, in the seventy-third year of his age. His remains were interred by his friends, in a vault that had been previously prepared for that purpose in the church-yard at Ealing, and soon after, a neat marble cenotaph was erected in the said church, in honour of his memory, by his Mend and executor Mr. Roberts, with an appropriate inscription composed by General Richard Smith. His personal habits were not marked by any very striking peculiarities, and his general manner of address was at once easy, sensible, and polite. The liberal and ingenious qualities of his heart, no less than of his mind, merited the highest commendation. His powers of conversation were very considerable, and such was the variety and extent of his knowledge, such the promptitude of his perceptions, and the versitality of his expressions, that he seldom failed to illustrate in a pleasing, and fre- quently in a forcible manner, whatever subject came under his discussion. Ancient literature was ever one of his favourite topics, and he conversed on it without evincing the slightest symptom of affectation or pedantry. In delineating Mr. Orme's intellectual character, it may be pronounced, that the principal features in it were an excellent understanding, good sense, innate sagacity, and sound judgment. These qualities were assisted in their exercise by the force of an active spirit, the researches of a solicitous curiosity, and the direction of a well cultivated taste. To a mind thus constituted, it was no difficult task to combine and adjust multifarious circumstances in a lucid and apposite arrangement, and to narrate them with that precision, and that comprehensive pointedncss which so strongly distinguish the writings of Mr. Orme. Few historians have connected the events of their story with more perspicuity, or described them with more conciseness. If his narrative appear sometimes minute, it is never unreasonably tedious, never redundant. Every incident is so distinctly stated, and placed in so perspicuous a point of view, every new nation, or individual is introduced on the stage of action, with, so compendious an explanation, all his general remarks and observations arise from the facts with so much ease and natural propriety, and are in themselves so just, con- vincing, and conclusive, and the style throughout so replete with terseness and general simplicity, that every reader of discernment and penetration must feel a lively interest in perusing his history. It is not, indeed, illu- mined with philosophical views of society, national man- ners, civil institutions, the polite arts, or a wide spread of commerce, nor is it decorated with any delicate delineation of character ; but, it is nevertheless, a work of extra- ordinary merit, and must ever continue to hold a high rank in the class of historical compositions. Mr. Orme possessed a correct taste for the arts of painting and sculpture ; an admirable picture formerly in his possession, representing the dreadful Storm of Pondi- cherry, which happened during Colonel Coote's blockade of that fortress in the year 1761, and which is pathetically described by our author in the second volume of his history, was principally designed by himself, acting, how- ever, in concert with the celebrated Athenian Stewart. This was painted by Wilkins, from a small sketch made on the spot by Major Rennell, and it has ever been con- sidered by artists as a truly excellent production. It is well known that Sir Joshua Reynolds condescended occa- sionally to receive hints from Mr. Orme, on the subject of some of his most beautiful and delicate touches, both in figures and drapery. For many years after the establish- ment of the Royal Academy, Mr. Orme never failed to be a regular attendant at the exhibitions ; and was frequently heard to express a high sense of gratified feelings, on con- templating the gradual progress of the fine arts in England. Mr. Orme was also an excellent judge of music, to which he was very much attached ; this led him to fre- quent the Opera, where he more especially admired the most sublime compositions of the immortal Handel. That he was also a poet, hand crassa Minerva. Destitute of some genius and talent, the following specimen sufficiently attests. It was set to music, and was justly and greatly admired on its first appearance and introduction to the public : — ADDRESS TO THE MOON. Written on the Terrace, at Madras, in the year 1757. Stay, silver moon, nor hasten down the skies, I seek the how'r where lovely Chloe lies. No midnight felon asks thy trembling ray To guide his footsteps to the dang'rous prey. No murderer, lurking for his hated foe, Asks thy pale light to guide the vengeful blow The breast with love possest, no furies move ; No vi'lence arms the gentle hand of love. I meditate no theft ; the willing fair Shall yield her beauties to my well-fraught prayer. Stay, silver moon, nor hasten down the skies, I seek the bow'r where lovely Chloe lies. The following letter from the learned Sir William Jones, expressive of his high opinion of Mr. Orme's talents as an historitan, must have been truly gratifying and satisfactory. It is impossible for me to describe the delight and admiration I have felt from the perusal of your History of the War in India. The plans, circumstances, and events of it, are so clearly described by you, that I felt an interest in them rather as an actor than a reader. I was particularly pleased with your deli- neation of the lives and characters of those who had distinguished themselves by their actions or wisdom ; nor was I less delighted with the elegance of your topogra- phical descriptions : that of the Ganges particularly pleased me — it is absolutely a picture. I have remarked, that the more polished historians of all ages, as well as the poets, have been fond of displaying their talents in describing rivers. Thus Thucydides describes the Achelous, and Xenophon the Teleboas, and both admirably, though in a different manner ; the latter with his usual brevity and elegance, the former with a degree of roughness and magni- ficence not common to him. With respect to your style, if elegance consist in the choice and collocation of words, you have a most indubitable title to it ; for you have, on all occasions, selected the most appropriate expressions, and have given to them the most beautiful arrangement : this is almost the greatest praise which a composition can claim. The publication of the second part of your history, which has been so long and so earnestly looked for, will be highly acceptable to those whose opinions you respect ; and I need not say, that will add to your reputation. Indeed it is not just that the Coromandel coast only should receive the ornament of your pen, to the neglect of Bengal, which an Indian monarch pronounced the delight of the world." It should be observed in passing, that Mr. Orme was peculiarly felicitous in the composition of monumental inscriptions, of which he wrote a great number for his friends at different periods, and on various occasions. At the time of his death he held the office of historio- grapher to the East India company. The successful studies and commendable industry of a few gentlemen in the most difficult and abstruse parts of Oriental literature, and particularly in acquiring a knowledge of the Sanscrit language ; the establishment of an Oriental library and museum at the India house; the formation of the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, with a view to promote researches of every kind into the history, languages, and antiquities of eastern nations ; and finally, the institution of a college in this country, as likewise of another at Calcutta, for the instruction of cadets, intended for the civil service of the East India company abroad, promise and prognosticate the most important and incalculable services, not only to the British nation, but to the whole civilized world. Although Mr. Orme was not profoundly versed in the Oriental tongues, yet the influence of his active spirit, keen enquiry, and sagacious observation, had no small * Sir W. Jones's Letters, vol. i. p. 72. London, 1821= 2S6 HISTORY OF EALING. share in projecting and recommending establishments preg- nant with such singular benefits to this country and to mankind.* In conclusion, it may be truly said that never had liberal and honourable masters a more zealous, faithful, and disinterested servant ; and never had the country, and the public at large, a more firm, ardent, and sincere friend, than the late ingenious, learned, candid, and amiable Robert Orme. Manor of Coldshawe. — The manor of Coldshawe, or Coldhall, belonged, in the early part of the seventeenth century, to Gideon Aunsham, Esq. ; in the year 1667, it was alienated by Jane, wife of Henry Mildmay, Esq., and Margaret Aunsham, sisters and co-heirs of Robert Aunsham, Esq. to William Denington, Esq. who dying intestate in 1686, his estates were divided between his three sisters. It seems probable that this manor fell to the share of Anne, wife of Thomas Watts, who had the manor of Coldshawe, in 1690; and Richard Watts died seized of a freehold estate at Ealing, in 1710. In 1728, Charles Lockyer paid a fine of alienation to the Bishop of London, for having purchased the manor of Coldshawe of John Loving, Esq. It is now the property of Henry Burgoyne Sharp, Esq. of Hammersmith, who married one of the Lockyer family. The Manor House, now called Goodenough House, is occupied by Mr. Gilbert, as a school for young gentlemen. In the year 1776 these premises were occupied by the celebrated and unfortunate Dr. Dodd, as a boarding school for young gentlemen ; and in the beginning of the month of February, in the following year, he was here taken prisoner, and carried to Newgate, for the crime of forgery. Perhaps no similar circumstance in modern times has ex- cited so much of the public sympathy. On Saturday, Feb. 22, soon after two o'clock, Dr. Dodd was brought to the bar of the Old Bailey, led in by the Rev. Mr. Butler ; the indictment being read, Lord Ches terfield was the first person examined, and said, that neither the signature to the bond, nor the receipt for the money, were of his signing. Mr. Manley gave a substantial detail of the whole transaction, from the time the bond came into his hands, to the time of the commitment of the prisoner. He said that he went to Dr. Dodd's house, and that on seeing the Doctor he told him his business, and asked him how he could be guilty of such an act; that the Doctor seemed much shocked ; and, as soon as he could recover himself, said, that urgent necessity was the cause. Mr. Nield, treasurer to the society for the relief of small debts, was next called, who swore that the signatures both in the bond and receipt were the hand-writing of the prisoner ; he said he was quite positive, by being so long acquainted with Dr. Dodd's writing, and having so often seen him write. No witnesses being produced in favour of the Doctor, he was called upon for his defence. He said he was fully sensible of the heniousness of the crime of forgery ; but he called God to witness that he meant no injury to any one ; and that he should have been able to reinstate the money in a few months; that this was a most cruel prosecution, as Mr. Manley had given him hopes, if he made restitution, that no further notice would be taken; that he considered a person committed as prin- cipal, and being admitted evidence against him, an entire new case, and therefore affected him the more; that life to him, after being exposed to shame, was of no value, he would willingly resign it; but he had a wife, with whom he had lived seven and twenty years in the most perfect conjugal felicity, for he felt, his creditors must likewise, he said be sufferers, should he now suffer ; and as restitution had been made, he hoped the court and jury would consider all these circumstances, and acquit him. Mr. Baron Perryn summed up the evidence very fully, and then the jury went out, and after staying about twenty minutes, brought in their verdict of guilty. The jury afterwards drew up a memorial in recommendation of the Doctor to His Majesty for the royal mercy, and presented it to the court. The sheriffs, on the 12th of June, attended by the city remembrancer, presented to His Majesty the petition from the city of London, in favour of Dr. Dodd, another peti tion, from the Magdalen charity, was presented to the Queen, as was one from Mrs. Dodd, delivered by herself. Another petition was afterwards presented by Lord Percy, signed by upwards of twenty thousand of the inhabitants of Westminster. Dr. Dodd was carried, on the 27th day of June, in a mourning coach, attended by the Rev. W. Willette, the ordinary of Newgate, and the Rev. Mr. Dobey, from Newgate to the place of execution. The rev. gentlemen got out of the carriage, and went with Dr. Dodd into the cart, where they prayed by him ; and after some further time spent in prayer, by himself, he took an affectionate leave of the above clergymen ; he then put on a cap, and pulled it over his eyes, and, with the other convict, was turned off. The time the Doctor was in the cart was about half an hour. He behaved throughout the whole with great fortitude. He was born in 1729, at Bourne, in Lincolnshire, of which parish his father was vicar ; after receiving a gram- matical education, he was entered as a sizer at Clare Hall, Cambridge, where, in 1750, he took the degree of B.A. The following year he married a lady of many accomplish- ments, but very little fortune. In 1753 he was admitted into orders, and repaired to London, where his eloquence and impressive oratory in the pulpit rapidly rendered him one of the most admired and popular preachers of the day. He successively obtained several lectureships, and pub- lished several sermons, which met with a very favourable reception. Rendered vain by the attentions paid to him, which very much resembled those excited by a favourite actor, although his income was handsome, his expences far exceeded it, and the very considerable sums which he received as author, proved altogether inadequate to ex- pences to which an opulent private fortune would alone have been adequate. He took an active part in the institution of the Magdalen Hospital. For his services in this situation he received a handsome annual stipend, and in 1762, Dr. Squires, bishop of St. David's, who had pre- viously made him his chaplain, collated him to the prebend of Brecon. By the friendship of the same prelate, the celebrated Earl of Chesterfield appointed him tutor to his godson. In the following year he was made one of the king's chaplains. His extravagance, however, was such, that he was involved in debts, which he could not discharge, and in 1774, he had recourse to a miserable expedient to procure the rich living of St. George's, Hanover Square, by means of an anonymous application to the Lord Chancellor's lady, to whom an offer of three thousand pounds was made for her interest to procure the living. The letter being traced to its author, he was ignominiously struck out of the list of royal chaplains. He now deemed it prudent to retire to Geneva, where his pupil then was, who received him with kindness, and procured for him the living of Winge, in Buckinghamshire. His embarrassment, however, continued as great as ever, and at length they tempted him to the crime of forgery which brought him to an untimely death.* He published abridgements of Grotius on " Peace and War," and Locke on the " Human Under- standing," various Sermons, " Reflections on Death," a " Commentary on the Bible," the " Visitor, 2 vols. 12mo. and many other works which it is not necessary to detail. In his " Prison Toughts" published after his death, he was assisted by Dr. Johnson, once the property and residence of Colonel Douglas, belonged to the family of Bonfoy, in the year 1691 ; in 1715 to Sir James Montague, Baron of the Exchequer, and afterwards successively to Sir Thomas Grey, Knight, 1724; Nathaniel Oldham, Esq. 1728; Slingsby Bethele, Esq. 1748 ; General John Huske, Wil- liam Adair, Esq. Edward Payne, Esq. and the late Earl of Galloway. * Life prefixed to Prison Thoughts. Here resided William Melmoth, son of the author of a pious and well known work entitled, " The great Importance of a Religious Life," who was born in 1710. He received a liberal education, but does not appear to have studied at either of the Universities. He was bred to the law, and in 1756, received the appointment of commissioner of bankrupts, but passed the chief part of his life in retirement at Ealing, He first appeared as a writer about 1742, in a volume of letters under the name of Fitzosborne, which have been much admired for the elegance of their stile, and their calm and liberal, if not profound remarks on various topics, moral and literary. In 1747, he followed this pro- duction with a translation of the " Letters of Pliny the Younger," which has been regarded as one of the happiest versions of a latin author in the English language, although somewhat enfeebled by a desire to obliterate every trace of a latin style. He was also the translator of Cicero's treatises, " De Amicitia" and " De Senectute." His last work was Memoirs of his Father, under the title of " Memoirs of a late eminent advocate, and member of the honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn." In 1754, he accepted the office of joint treasurer of the Ealing charity school. In 1755, he took the office solely upon himself, which he continued to hold till the year 1760, when he resigned.* He died in 1799, aged eighty-nine. f These premises are now occupied by Ealing Grove School, under the patronage of Lady Noel Byron, which was established in 1833, and now consists of fifty boarders, and thirty day scholars. The boys work in the garden about three hours in the day — two of which are for the school, the other for the cultivation of their own ground, the produce of which they dispose of on their own account. The course of in-door instruction includes Reading, "Writing, Arithmetic, English Grammar, Geography, Scriptural and General History, and the Elements of Geometry. Lessons in Drawing and Singing are also * See Vestry Miuutes, April 20, 1700. + Gentleman's Mag. 1799. ELM GROTE 241 given, and occasional Lectures on Elementary Chemistry. No boys are admitted under nine years of age, unless for very special reasons. The formation of a class of useful village schoolmasters being one main object for which the school was appointed, every assistance is afforded to boys who show a decided turn for teaching. The boarders pay fifteen pounds per annum, paid in advance, in quarterly payments, and the day boys pay sixpence per week. Head Master, — Mr. Charles Nelson Atlee. Elm Grove, formerly called Hickes-upon-the-Heath, is detached from the village, and situated on the edge of Ealing Common. This house was, in the latter part of the seventeeth cen- tury, the property and residence of Sir William Trumbull, the early friend of Pope, and afterwards secretary of state to King William. Sir William Trumbull, an English statesman, was born at East Hempstead, in Berkshire, in 1636. He studied at Oxford, and having taken the degree of Batchelor of Laws in 1659, he travelled into France and Italy. On his return home he finished his legal studies, and became a barrister in the Court of Chancery. In 1682, he obtained the office of Clerk of the Signet, and after having occupied various posts, diplomatic and political, he was at length made secretary of state. He resigned this office after holding it two years, in 1697, and retired to his estate at East Hempstead, where he died, December 14, 1716. Burnet describes him as an able civilian, and a most virtuous man; but he is chiefly known as the friend of Pope, who wrote his epitaph, and has preserved some of his letters.* A pleasing form, a firm, yet cautious mind ; Sincere, though prudent; constant, yet resign'd, Honour unchang'd, a principle profest, Fix'd to one side, but mod'rate to the rest, * Biog. Univ. R 242 HISTORY or ealing. An honest courtier, yet a patriot too ; Just to his prince, and to his country true ; Fill'd with the sense of age, the fire of youth, A scorn of wrangling, yet a zeal for truth, A gen'rous faith, from superstition free, A love to peace, and hate of tyranny ; Such this man was, who now, from earth remov'd, At length enjoys that liberty he lov'd. At subsequent periods it was possessed by Charles Hedges, LL.D. secretary to Queen Anne, and Dr. John Egerton, bishop of Durham. The premises were enlarged and improved by Frederick Barnard, Esq. and the late lord Kinnard afterwards resided here. Of the heirs of this nobleman the estate was pur- chased by the late Right Hon. Spencer Perceval, Chancellor of the Exchequer. Many improvements were bestowed on the house and grounds of Elm Grove, by the lamented hand of their late possessor, and the building now consti- tutes a commodious family residence of a plain but desirable character. The most pleasing front is on the garden side, towards the south, and in this portion of the building are introduced some few simple and judicious embellishments. The grounds contain about thirty-six acres, ten of which are in the pleasure grounds, and the remainder used as meadow or pasture, but each division is rendered orna- mental by the good taste with which it is disposed. A broad walk, edged with a thick plantation of shrubs leads round the chief part of the premises. It is with the deepest regret that we sully our pages by recording one of those atrocious events, which to the honour of the British nation, rarely occur, and which deprived the country of the services of the right honour- able Spencer Perceval, chancellor of the exchequer, and prime minister of England, a man, who, in his personal intercourse, gave offence to none — in his private life was an example to all, and who, however firm and unbending in his principles, yet conducted political conflicts in a way that seemed to disarm them of their characteristic bitter- ness. About a quarter past five on the 11th of May, 1812, as Mr. Perceval was entering the lobby of the RIGHT HON. SPENCER PERCEVAL. 24:3 House of Commons, a man who had a short time pre- viously placed himself in the recess of the door-way within the lobby, drew out a small pistol, and shot him in the lower part of the left breast. The ball is supposed to have entered his heart. Mr. Perceval moved forward a few faultering steps, nearly half way up the lobby, and was in the act of falling, when some persons stepped for- ward and caught him. He was immediately carried to the room of the speaker's secretary. Mr. Lynn the surgeon of Parliament-street was immediately sent for, but on examining the wound, he considered the case hopeless. All that escaped Mr. Perceval's lips previously to falling in the lobby was " murder, or murdered." He expired in about ten minutes. A person passing by seized the pistol from the hand of the assassin, who surrendered it without any resistance. An officer took hold of him, and asked if he were the villain who shot the minister. He replied, " I am the unhappy man," but appeared quite undisturbed. On searching him some printed papers were found, copies of which he had previously distributed among members. He was taken to the bar of the House of Commons and identified as the assassin. Another pistol was taken from his pocket ; he was conveyed to the prison over the committee rooms, where he underwent an examination before several magistrates, and was fully committed for trial. He was afterwards conveyed to Newgate. His name was Bcllingham, and he had been engaged in mercantile concerns at Liverpool. During most part of the proceedings he preserved an air perfectly calm, and seemed under no sort of agitation, but had deliberately and fully made up his mind to the atrocious act ; this wretched man was a native of St. Neot's, in Huntingdonshire, and aged forty-two years. He was brought up in a counting house in London, and then went to Archangel, where he lived with a Russian merchant, in whose employment as clerk, he continued three years. Having formed a connection with a merchant in the timber line, he returned to England r2 241 HISTORY OF EALIX and entered into considerable mercantile engagements. His friend having become bankrupt he was thrown into prison by the merchants, and upon recovering his liberty he proceeded again to Archangel where he became re-in- volved in yet more numerous difficulties, and he claimed in vain the assistance of the British minister, who would render him no assistance, but the term of his confine- ment having expired, he returned to England full of complaints against the Russian government. He subse- quently continued to present memorials to the ministry on the subject of his claims, but these were concerns with which our government would not interfere. For the last few weeks he had been in attendance about the House of Commons, and had addressed to several members a printed statement of his grievances, requesting their interference, and on his last application he received a repulsive answer, which it is supposed, confirmed him in his dark and fatal purpose. Bellingham was brought to his trial ; the courts being- sitting, on the 15th, there being no difficulty in proving the fact, he was without hesitation brought in guilty. There was a slight attempt to prove him insane, but except his persuasion that what he had committed was perfectly justifiable, and an apparent expectation that the fact would be so considered on his trial, no other marks of an alienated mind could be adduced. In delivering his defence, his manner was warm but unimpassioned, his delivery fluent, and though he was occasionally much affected, and wept, he betrayed no embarrassment. Upon receiving the final sentence of the court, he appeared deeply sensible of his dreadful situation. His execution took place on the 18th, before Newgate. He prepared for his fate with great composure by the several religious exercises, and during the whole scene manifested an extraordinary degree of firmness and self-possession. He denied that he had any accomplices in the deed, (as, indeed, there could be no suspicions of this kind,) and persisted to the very last in refusing to express any contrition for his crime. His RIGHT HON. SPENCER PERCEVAL. 24:0 behaviour on the whole was such as apparently to render him in his last moments, rather an object of interest than of detestation. The right honourable Spencer Perceval, Chancellor of the Exchequer, whose melancholy fate has just been recorded, was the second son of the late Earl of Egmont, of the kingdom of Ireland, and Baron Lovel and Holland in England, by Catherine Compton, sister to Lord Nor- thampton, and was born at his father's house in Audley- square, November 1, 1762. He was named after his uncle Spencer, the eighth earl of Northampton, and as his father enjoyed the friendship of Lord Bute, the premier, during whose administration he presided at the admiralty, his lordship doubtless entertained well founded hopes that his sons might aspire to the highest offices of the state. He died, however, when he of whom we now treat, was only eight years of age ; and, consequently, at a period when instead of beino- included in the " Lives and Cha- o racters of eminent men in England," a work in which his father was actually engaged at the time of his demise, young Spencer was probably reading the " Histories of the illustrious men of Greece and Rome." He was brought up at Charlton in Kent, and at a proper time was removed to Harrow school, whence he repaired to Trinity College, Cambridge. Here he obtained the degree of M.A. which shortened his road to the bar, and was entered of Lincoln's Inn. He commenced his career by accompanying the judges through the Midland circuit, and was soon considered as a rising man, for he Avas appointed counsel to the admiralty, and in 1799, he obtained a silk gown. His own university paid him a high compliment, by nominating him as one of its two counsel.* From this period his professional preferments were rapid; in 1801, he became attorney-general, which office he held till Mr. Fox and Lord Grenville came into power in 1806. In 1790, Mr. Perceval married Miss Jane Wilson, the youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Spencer Wilson, of Charlton, in the county of Kent. * Gent. Mag. 246 HISTORY OF EALING. Meanwhile, being partly propelled by his own ambition, and partly by the spirit of his original destination, he determined on a public parliamentary life. At length an event occurred in consequence of which he had an oppor- tunity of entering the political arena, and exhibiting his powers in St. Stephen's chapel ; for on the demise of his maternal uncle April 7, 1796, a vacancy for the repre- sentation of the borough of Northampton took place, as his first cousin, Lord Compton, by succeeding to the earldom, vacated his seat. The Earl of Northampton suc- ceeded his father as recorder, while his friend and relative Mr. Perceval, who had been nominated deputy recorder, was also returned one of the members. Mr. Perceval rose in the House of Commons for the first time on June 2, 1797, at a very critical period, for the express purpose of supporting Mr. Pitt, who in consequence of the com- motions at the Nore, had brought in a bill " for the better Prevention and Punishment of all traiterous attempts to excite Sedition and Mutiny in his Majesties Service." On this occasion he suggested a mode for avoiding delay, by denominating the offence felony; he also proposed that there should be a discretionary power, either of transpor- tation or imprisonment. On the 4 th of January, 1807, he supported, in an able speech, the " Assessed Tax Bill," he was well attended to by the House and was followed by Mr. Sheridan who observed, " that this was a speech of great talent and ingenuity." From this period Mr. Perceval appears to have paid a particular attention to matters of finance. Soon after this he attained the first grand step in his profession, having been appointed solicitor-general at the age of thirty -nine. He became afterwards attorney- general. In 1807, he was appointed chancellor of the exchequei and first commissioner of the treasury, which offices it is well known constitute the premiership, and he then took the lead in the House of Commons, and was considered as not only the titular, but the efficient minister of the government. As a man of business Mr. Perceval was affable, quick, and ready, either at starting or answering objections. As an orator, he was fluent, perspicuous, and LITTLE EALING. 247 conclusive, though without possessing the good naturecl humour of his predecessor, Lord North ; the argumentative decision of his rival, Charles Fox; or the bold and com- manding eloquence of his friend and predecessor, William Pitt; yet he found means to engage, to wield, and to convince the House of Commons. While a young man at the bar, he is said to have spoken of all those who differed with him in politics, with a cer- tain degree of asperity ; but a more mature age dulcified his expressions, and convinced him that power is not to be retained by the same means by which it was acquired. Ealing Grove was in 1722, the property of the Earl of Rochford, who was admitted to it in right of his wife Bessy, daughter of Richard Earl Rivers ; it afterwards belonged to Dr. Peters, whose widow brought it in mar- riage to Captain, (afterwards Sir Edward) Hughes. In in 1755 it was purchased by Joseph Gulston, Esq. well known for his valuable collection of prints. It passed suc- cessively through the hands of the Duke of Marlborough and Argyle. Ealing Grove now forms the site of Lady Byron's school. Little Ealing is a pleasant village half a mile on the westward road, and contains several capital mansions. Ealing Park was successively the property of J.Loving,* Esq., Sir Richard Ellis, Sir Francis Dashwood, Sir Richard Littleton, Earl Brooke, Lord Robert Manners, and Cuth- bert Fisher, Esq., and his widow. It is now the property of W. Lawrence, Esq. and under the care and constant superintendence of Mrs. Lawrence, it has become one of the most beautiful spots near London. The park is agreeably diversified by wood and water, and the collection of exotics is one of the most extensive and diversified description. Dr. William King was born at Stepney in 1685, and received his education at Baliol College, Oxford, where he proceeded LL.D. in 1715. He was made secretary to * See his Epitaph, p. 109. ฃ48 HISTORY OF EALING. the Duke of Ormond, and afterwards to the Earl of Arran, successive chancellors of the University, and he subse- quently became principal of St. Mary's Hall, and public orator. Dr. King was celebrated for the elegance of his compo- sitions, particularly an oration spoken at the opening of the Ratcliffe Library in 1749. He published some of his speeches, and a few Latin poems, and was editor of the five last volumes of South's Sermons. He wrote an amusing autobiographical work, containing anecdotes of his contemporaries, which made its appea- rance some years since in an octavo volume.* He resided many years in a capital messuage called Newby, near the church, which he surrendered to Charles Gould, Esq. General Dumouriez resided several years previous to his death at Little Ealing, in the house now occupied by Mrs. Robinson as a Ladies' Boarding School. The career of this officer was short, but it must be allowed to have been splendid ; at one critical period he fixed the destinies of France, at another he nearly over- turned the labours of his own genius. He was born at Cambray in 1739 ; his father became his instructor, and was at uncommon pains relative to his education. After serving for some time as a volunteer he procured a com- mission. Soon after this he obtained the rank of captain of horse, but at the peace of 1763, he was dismissed. But in 1768 he was sent to Corsica, and in 1770 he was ordered into Poland. Being of an active and enterprising dispo- sition, he turned his thoughts during the American war, to an invasion of Great Britain, and actually planned a descent on the Isle of. Wight in 1778. On the breaking out of the revolution he joined the patriots, and after a short administration as minister for foreign affairs, at the head of the war department, he was obliged to resign. Dumou- riez was afterwards with the command of the army destined to save his native country. The famous battle of Jemappe was the first decisive victory gained by France ; but his * Nichols's Lit. Anecdotes. LITTLE EALING. 249 subsequent exploits were less brilliant ; and he ultimately emigrated from France. However, with all his errors, and all his faults, posterity will probably consider Dumouricz as a great, man. But all that this able and ambitious man saved in his retreat was merely his life, of which he spent some years afterAvards in Germany, concluding it in this parish in 1822. He was a man of pleasing manners and lively con- versation, and was much respected by his neighbours, particularly by His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, who one day introduced him to a farmer in order to induce him to give up his family seat in the parish church to the general; but the farmer refused, by saying that he had not forgotten his former enmity to this country ; in reply to which, His Royal Highness said, that he had freely forgiven him. " You may forgive him," said the farmer, " but for my part I never will, nor shall he ever have my family pew." Thomas Pearce, Esq. of Little Ealing, who died in 1752,* was the father of the learned Dr. Pearce, after- wards bishop of Rochester, who received the first rudi- ments of his education in a private school at Ealing, where his father resided after he had retired from business. After his father's death, the bishop occasionally inhabited the house, which he inherited from him, and was residing there when he was seized with the illness which occa- sioned his death, anno 1774. He was buried at Bromley. The bishop's children all died young, though his family were remarkable for their longevity, he himself died at the age of 84 ; his father was 85 ; his mother, who died in 1761, was 93; and his brother William Pearce, Esq. who died in 1782, was 90 years of age. Dr. John Owen, the most voluminous and the most temperate writer among the dissenters, was for many years an inhabitant of Ealing, where he died, August 24, 1683. He was elected member of parliament for the University of Oxford, though a divine, was made Dean of Christ + See his Epitaph, page 200. 250 HISTORY OF EALING. Church by the independents, and in 1652, was vice-chan- cellor of the University. " While he did undergo that office," says Wood, " instead of being a grave example, he scorned all formality, undervalued his office by going in querpo like a young scholar, with powdered hair, snake bone band strings, with very large tassels, lawn band, a large set of ribbands, pointed at his knees, and Spanish leather boots, with large lawn tops, and his hat mostly cocked."* Ealing Dean is now divided into 147 allotments of land let out to poor persons, at rents producing an annual average of thirty-five pounds, which money has hitherto been expended in repairing the various alms-houses in the parish. Tokens. — On the 14th of May, 1613, King James's royal farthing tokens commenced by pro- clamation, they were not forced upon the people in the light of farthings, or established coin, but merely as pledges or tokens, for which the government were obliged to give other coin if required. In the reign of Elizabeth, there being no state farthings, it appears that no less than three thousand tradesmen, and others coined tokens, upon returning which to the issuer, current coin of the value was given. — In Great Ealing, James Lewis, his halfpenny. L. J. A. 1666. The Manor of Gunnersbury, called in the old records Gonyldesberry, or Gunyldesbury, is held under the bishop of London. It is not improbable that it was the residence of Gunyld, or Gunilda, niece to King Canute, who was banished from England in the year 1044. This manor, in the reign of Edward the Third, was held for Athcn. Oxoii. vol. ii. MANOR OF GUNNERSBURY. 251 life by John Bray, under a grant of John Chepham,* who in 1365, (38th Edward the Third,) gave the reversion to Geoffry Schrop, and his heirs. In the forty-seventh year of the same king's reign, William Gresle, clerk, and others, granted the manor of Gonyldsberry, which had formerly belonged to John de Northwych, goldsmith, of London, to John Bernes, and others, as trustees, perhaps, for the celebrated Alice Perrers, or Peirce, whose property it appears to have been at the time of her banishment, when it was seized by the crown. In the year 1378, a survey was taken by order of the crown, when the jury returned the following account of the state of this manor, viz :f — " The jury say that the aforesaid Alice holdeth the manor of Gonyldesberg, with the appurtenances, in the parish of Yellyne, in the county of Middlesex, of the aforesaid bishop of London, in his court of Fulham afore- said, by fealty and suit of court as above, and the service of thirty-six shillings and eight-pence to be rendered at the four principal and usual terms of the year. They also say, that there is there a certain site of the aforesaid manor, with closes, and other buildings, and that it is worth nothing beyond reprises ; also, there is there one dove-house in ruins which is worth nothing beyond reprises, because they likewise say, that there are there 140 acres of arable land, and they are worth by the year by a reasonable extent, forty-six shillings and eight- pence, that is to say, four-pence the acre, whereof are sown with corn, thirty acres the vestura sixty-two shillings, that is to say, two shillings per acre and not more ; because many acres thereof are overflown, and arc * Jo fil de Cepham et Eliz. uxor ejus cone Galfrid Sclirop et hsered sui manor de Gonnesbury post mort Jo. Bray qui illud tenet ad vitam suam. — Abstract of Close Rolls, 38 Ed. III. W. de Gresle cliens et alii cone Jo. Bernes civis Loud. M. D. Gonyldbury et Palynswyck in Com. Mid. — Ibid, 47 Edw. III. Dame Margaret, Lady Sussex, sister to the Earl of Derby, died March 18, 28 Hen. VIII. at Gunnersbury, and is buried in the parish church, a mile from the manor. — Fun. Certificate, Herald 's College. f Rot. Olaus. 47 Edw. III. m. 38. dors. — See Faulkner's Hist, of Hammer- smith, p. 371. 252 HISTORY OF EALING. sown with wheat and rye. . . .the crop thereof forty-three shillings and six-pence, that is to say, eighteen-pence per acre, and not more, because they had been sown in rainy weather. They also say, that there are there four score acres of pasture, and they are worth thirteen shil- lings and four-pence, that is to say, two-pence per acre. Also, four acres of meadow, and they are worth yearly six shillings, that is, eighteen-pence the acre. Also, four acres of wood, and they are worth nothing, because they were cut during the last year, .with cattle. They also say, that there are at Braynford one messuage, and two acres of land, and they are worth yearly by reasonable extent beyond reprises, three shillings and four-pence. Also, at the foresaid manor of Gonyldesberg, seven shillings of rents of assises from divers tenants, at the four terms of the year.* She afterwards procured a remission of her sentence, and married Sir William Wyndesor, to whom this manor was granted, with other property, which she had enjoyed before her attainder. In the next century it belonged to Sir Thomas Fro wick, alderman of London, who died in 1485, and was buried at Ealing. His second * Item dicunt quod prsedicta Alicia tenet manerium de'Gunnyldesberg cum pertinentiis in parochia de Yellynue in comitatu . . . . de praedicto episcopo London' curiae suae de Fulliam praedicta per fidelitatem et sectam curiae ut supra et per servitium xxxvjs, viijd. reddendorum ad quatuor termiuos anni principales et usuales. Item dicunt quod est ibidem quidam scitus — praedicti manerii cum clausis et aliis edificiis et nihil valet ultra reprisas. Item est ibidem unum columbare ruinosum et nibil valet ultra reprisas quia. . . .Simi- liter dicunt quod sunt ibidem cxl. acrse terras arrabilis et valent per aimuni per extentam rationabilem xlvj*- viijd videlicet acra iiijd. de quibus seminantur cum frumento xxx vestura lxijs. videlicet acra ij 3 - et non plus quia plu- rimae acrae inde emerguntur per cretevam aquae. Et seminantur hide cum siligine et mistel .... vestura inde xliijs vjd. videlicet acrae xviijd. et non plus quia tempore pluvioso seminatae fuerunt. Item dicunt quod sunt ibidem quatuor viginti acras pasturae et valent .... xiijs iiij d - videlicet acra ijd Item iiij. acrae prati et valent per annum vj s videlicet acra xviijd- Item iiij. acrae bosci et nibil valent quia prostratae fuerunt penultimo . . . . cum bestiis. Item dicunt quod sunt apud Braynford' unum messuagium et ij acrse terras ct valent per annum per rationabilem extentam ultra reprisas iijซ- iiijd. Item. . . .ad praedictum manerium de Guunyldesberg xxvij s < de rcddita assisa? de diversis tenentibus per annum ad quatuor tcrminos. MANOR OF GTJNNERSBt'RY. 253 son,* Sir Thomas Frowick (born at> Gunnersbury), was a very eminent lawyer, and became Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. He settled at Finchley. His elder brother, Sir Henry, inherited Gunnersbury, which appears to have descended to his daughter and co-heir Elizabeth, who married Sir John Spelman, one of the Judges of the King's Bench, grandfather of Sir Henry, the celebrated antiquary, and ancestor of Sir Clement Spelman, who died siezed of the manor of Gunnersbury, in 1607. It appears that during this time it was chiefly in the occupation of tenants. Margaret, sister of William, Earl of Derby, and wife of Robert Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex, died at Gunnersbury, in 1537, and was buried in the parish church of Ealing. In Norden's time, Gunnersbury was " well scytuate," as he describes it, " for wood, ayre, and water," was inhabited by the Corbets, to whom indeed he seems to have supposed it belonged. It was afterwards the property of the celebrated Sergc?ait Maynard. The history of this eminent lawyer is perhaps as singular and eventful as any recorded in the annals of his pro- fession. He conducted the evidence against the Earl of Strafford, and Archbishop Laud ; sat as one of the lay members of the assembly of divines ; was called to the degree of sergeant during the protectorate of Oliver Crom- well ; and was protector's sergeant both to him and his successor. After the Restoration he was Knighted, and made King's sergeant, which situation he enjoyed also under James II. In 1680 he was appointed to manage the evidence against William Viscount Strafford. King * Sir Tliomas Frowick, Kniglit, was born at Ealing, son of Thomas Frowick, Esq. by bis wife, who was daughter and heir to Sir J. Sturgeon, Knight, giving his arms az. three sturgeons, or, under a fret gules. Bred in the study of our municipal law, wherein he attained such eminency, that he was made Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas on the 29th of September, in the 18th year of King Henry II. Four years he set in this place, accounted the oracle of the law in his age, though one of the youngest men that ever enjoyed that office. He is reported to have died (floridajuven- tute), before full forty years old, and lieth buried with Joan, his wife, in the church of Finchley. He left a large estate to his two daughters, the eldest of whom was married to Sir J. Spencer. — Fuller's Worthies, Middx. p. 187. ฃ54 HISTORY OF EALING. William, not many months before his death, appointed him one of the lords commissioners of the great seal.* He arrived at the advanced age of 87, and had been a practi- tioner at the bar for more than sixty years. Sergeant Maynard was esteemed a very able advocate ; and has been called the best old book lawyer of his time. All parties seem to have been willing to employ him, and he seems to have been equally willing to be employed by all. He published some reports, held in considerable esteem, and several political tracts. Sergeant Maynard was thrice married. Elizabeth, his first wife, was buried at Ealing, in 1654-5 ; Jane, his second wife (daughter of Cheyney Selhurst, Esq.) was buried here in 1668. His last wife survived him many years, and died in 1721. The baptisms and burials of Sir John Maynard's family are to be found in the parish register. f After the death of Sir John, Maynard this house was for many years in the possession of his widow, who mar- ried Henry, Earl of Suffolk. The earl died at Gunners- bury, in 1709, his eldest son, who succeeded him in the title, died there in 1718,^ and the countess dowager, in 1721. Gunnersbury then became the property of Sir John Hobart, who married Elizabeth, one of the nieces of Ser- geant Maynard, and was sold by him about the year 1740, (being then Lord Hobart,) to Henry Turner, Esq. who died in 1756. In 1761, Gunnersbury was purchased of his representatives for the late Princess Amelia, aunt of his late Majesty King George the Third, after whose death, pursuant to the directions in her will, it was put up for sale, and purchased anno 1788, by Colonel Iron- side, who sold it again in 1792, to Sir Walter Sterling, Bart., and Henry Crauford, Esq. * His bon mot in reply to an observation addressed to bim by William III. though well known, may be mentioned as expressive of bis cbaracter and sentiments. That Prince, in allusion to Sergeant Maynard's great, age, having remarked that be must have outlived almost all the lawyers of bis time, " Yes," replied Sir John, " and if your Highness had not come over to our assistance, I should have outlived — the law too." t Biog. Britun, * Collins's Peerage, vol ii t > L73 MANOR OF GTTNNERSBURY. 255 Mr. Morley, a floor cloth manufacturer, purchased the premises of the latter on speculation, in the year 1800 or 1801, and pulled down the fine mansion which had been built in 1663, for Sergeant Maynard, by Webbe, a pupil of Inigo Jones, and had been for many years the summer residence of the Princess Amelia. The house was sold piece meal, and the land, containing seventy-six acres, was pur- chased by the late Alexander Copeland, Esq. who built a handsome house for his own residence on part of the site. But, before describing the present edifice it may be proper to notice the following account of the late capital mansion. " Gunnersbury House is situated between the two great roads, and stands on an eminence, the ground falling gra- dually from it to the Brentford road, so that from the portico in the back front of the house, you have a fine prospect of the county of Surrey, the river Thames, and the borders for some miles, and also in clear weather a good view of London. " This house was built by Mr. Webbe, who was son-in- law to Inigo Jones. " The apartments arc extremely convenient and well contrived. The hall is very large, with rows of columns on each side. From hence you ascend by a noble flight of stairs to a saloon, which is a double cube of twenty-five feet. From this room is the entry to the portico on the back front of the house which is supported by columns. It fronts the south-cast, and the sun shines on it no longer than two o'clock ; but extending its beams over the coun- try which opens to the view, renders the prospect very delightful."* The following description appeared in the public papers immediately previous to the sale by auction of the mansion and premises in 1787. " This magnificent edifice was constructed on a noble principle, replete with every convenience. In the prin- cipal story, a superb saloon occupied the centre, with an enriched dome, carved mouldings, embellished with gold, the chimney pieces were composed of various marbles, with * Tour through Great Britain, vol. ii. p. 102. Loncl 1753. %56 HISTORY OF EALING. terms and busts, and the floor with polished oak. From the saloon there was immediate access to a grand colon- nade, which occupied the grand south front. The grand staircase was of mahogany with gilt balustrades. The south or principal front contained a grand terrace walk, and a large sheet of water, and bounded on each side by noble pavilions." The present edifice which now adorns these premises is a handsome specimen of the Tuscan order. The south front is 126 feet long, and consists of a centre and wings ; the former is three stories high, and the latter two stories. The north front is of the same dimensions, but of more simple construction ; it is ornamented with a grand portico with four columns of the Tuscan order ; the whole front consisting of three stories. The east end is 60 feet wide, and is divided into two large and splendid bow windows, and is used as a con- servatory. The terrace at the front of the house is bordered by a dwarf wall and stone coping, and ornamented with vases. At the east end of this terrace is an alcove, in which is placed a statue of Apollo. The west end is bounded by an architectural archway, leading to the gardens. On the west is a handsome temple of the Tuscan order, supported by two pilasters and two columns. On the tympanum of the pediment is a shield with foliage- The interior is chastely arranged, and beautifully furnished, with Chinese vases, antique chairs, &c. and the walls are ornamented with bas reliefs, representing the most striking scenes taken from the history of Greece. From the south front of this temple is obtained an ex- tensive view of the surrounding country, including Kew Gardens, and the Surrey hills in the distance. This spot is the most elevated part of the grounds, as well as the most beautiful ; and is further ornamented with a circular piece of water, consisting of about two acres. This part of the gardens shows evident marks of the hands of Kent, MANOR OF GUXNERSBURY. %bi who was employed by Mr. Turner, for the purpose of embellishing the grounds and improving the landscape. A row of cedar trees here raise their majestic heads, and are greatly admired. The Italian garden, at the back of the temple, is em- bellished with eight figures in sand-stone, of Burns' " Jolly Beggars," admirably executed by Thorns ; they were brought from Scotland to London, for the purpose of exhi- bition, but the speculation proving a failure, they were put up for sale, and purchased by the present owner, for two hundred pounds. They are of the size of life, arranged on the grass, and exposed to the weather. The orangery, situated on the south-west of the mansion, is a chaste and elegant building, sixty feet long, with a projecting circular front and nine large windows, em- bellished with large Chinese vases. The orange trees are in fine condition, and of large growth. After the death of Mr. Copeland, this estate was pur- chashed by the Baron de Rothschild, and it is row the residence of his widow, the Baroness de Rothschild, and her family. The remaining portion of the park was purchased by Stephen Cosser, Esq. and after his death was sold, in 1807, to Major Alexander Morrison, who occupied it till his death in 1807. This distinguished officer entered the East India Company's service in 1780, and he retired Feb. 1, 1809.* In i833 the property was purchased of his widow, now the Dowager Countess of Carnwath, by Thomas Farmer, Esq. its present proprietor. . The house, as it now stands, was built by Major Mori- son : it is in the cottage stvle. The chief beauties of Gunnersbury are its fine forest trees, and the uninterrupted supply of water to the lake, fountain, &c. from a spring which rises in the premises. An interesting object is a stone archway, which was an ornament to the gardens when the Princess Amelia resided at Gunnersbury. * See his Epitaph in Ealing Church, p. 19o, S 258 HISTORY OF EALING. Different tenures according to the public announcements in 1787, viz. — A. R. P. Freehold — Houses, Offices, Yards, and part of Gardens and Paddock 54 3 2-") Potter's Field 5 Twenty Acres 17 31 Pond Mead, including Pond 7 3 30 Long Hay Bush 11 1 4 91 1 l(i Leasehold — Gravel Field 4 2 17 A Field lying next Brentford Field .... 4 3 14 The Four Acres 4 1 21 The Nine Acres 9 19 The Eight Acres 9 3 38 32 3 29 Total Acre9 129 1 a The above leasehold part, containing thirty two acres, three roods, and twenty-nine perches, are now laid out into the paddock and gardens, and are held by lease from the representatives of Richard Long, Esq. for a term of 14 years, from Michaelmas, 1784, renewable every 14 years, for the space of 99 years, to be computed from Michaelmas, 1744, on paying a certain fine of ฃ75, and a yearly rent of ฃ57. lis. clear from land-tax and all other taxes. A quit rent of ฃ2. Ss. a-year, is payable to the Bishop of London and his successors, out of some part of the freehold land. The ancient Manor House is a substantial building standing at the southern extremity of Bollar Brook Lane. The parish Alms-houses, situated on the Uxbridge-road, facing the Railway Station, were built in the year 1783. HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF KENT. ฃ59 CHAPTER IV. Ealing, north of the Uxbridge Road — Castlebar Hill — His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent — Manor of Pitt's Hanger — Thomas Edwards, Esq. — Fordhook — Henry Fielding, Esq. — Hanger Hill — Hanger Lane — Charles Dibdin — The Great Western Railway — The Grand Junction Water Works Company's Engine Houses and Works, erecting in 1845. On Castlebar Hill, distant from the village of Ealing nearly one mile, was the seat termed Castle-hill Lodge, belonging to His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent. This was for some time the property and residence of the late Henry Beaufoy, Esq. and was afterwards occupied by Mrs. Fitzherbert. Considerable improvements were effected by the Duke of Kent, and the house, though not of the first class of noble mansions, was sufficiently capacious for the accom- modation of a large establishment. The building was of rather low, but pleasing proportions. The chief front stood towards the north, and had in the centre a portico, with four Ionic columns, surmounted by a triangular pediment, the tympanum being vacant. The hill on which the structure was placed descends from the front with a gentle sweep, and a prospect of some extent is obtained over a tract of country which is of an agreeable, though not of an eminently picturesque character. The grounds comprise between thirty and forty acres, and are attractive from inequality of surface, but are deficient in wood and water. The Duke of Kent finally quitted these delighful pre- mises in 1812, and they remained in a neglected state for upwards of two years, when they were sold piecemeal by auction, and on the site a new mansion has been erected, which is now occupied by Captain Weatherall, the son of the late general."* * See his Epitaph, p. 202. s2 260 HISTORY OF EALING Edward Augustus, the fourth son of his late Majesty George the Third, was born November 2, 1767. Until the age of seventeen, he remained in his native country, and his education was commenced under able instructors. But it being determined to give him a military educa- tion, Germany was selected for that purpose. Accordingly at an early period of his life His Royal Highness was sent to Lunenburg, a portion of the Hanoverian domi- nions. Hence he was removed to Hanover, the capital, and lodged in one of the palaces. Here he was compli- mented with the rank of colonel in the guards in 1786. Here he got acquainted with many young English noblemen of the same age as himself, and spent his time very agreeably. At length, when His Royal Highness had reached his twenty-third year, he was recalled to England, where, during the course of the former spring, he had attained the rank of colonel of the 70th foot. As Prince Edward had now reached a mature age, he of course expected a dukedom, and an establishment suitable to his rank in life. He also longed to remain in the bosom of his family, but at the end of ten days he was suddenly ordered to Gibraltar, and he immediately proceeded thither. There he rejoined his regiment, and in the summer of 1791, sailed along with it to Quebec, but instead of being subjected to the rigour of a Canadian winter, he was devoted to experience the sickly heats of the torrid zone, for he was soon after ordered to join the troops under the command of General Sir Charles Grey, destined for the conquest of the French West India islands. This expe- dition proved completely fortunate, and His Royal High- ness there for the first time, drew his sword against the enemies of his country. Soon after his arrival at the place of his destination, his Royal Highness displayed his gallantry at the attack of Fort Royal, in Martinique, which out of compliment to him, was afterwards named Fort Edward, and by his sub- sequent bravery and good conduct, he obtained the praise and approbation of the Commander-in-Chief. Upon HIS KOYAL HIGHXESS THE DVKE OF KENT. 261 was His Royal Highness's return to North America, he rewarded with the government of Nova Scotia, and with the rank of lieutenant-general ; but in consequence of the fall of his horse under him, it was deemed necessary that he should return to England: he was called to the House of Lords in 1799, by a patent creating him Duke of Kent, and also Earl of Dublin. In the course of a few weeks more he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all the forces in British America, whither he immediately proceeded, and as the climate agreed with his health he wished to remain there. Here the conduct of the new Commander-in-Chief was such as to produce universal satisfaction. The people were pleased with his dignified, but easy manners, his uniform polite- ness, and kind and unremitting attention to all, while the assembly testified its entire approbation by the vote of five hundred guineas for the purchase of a diamond star. In consequence of a severe bilious attack, the Duke of Kent solicited and obtained leave to return to England, and he accordingly arrived here in 1800. A few days after this, he was nominated Colonel of the Royal Scots. Early in 1803, he obtained the government of Gibraltar, and proceeded thither in the spring. This proved the most inauspicious period in the life of His Royal High- ness, who being now possessed of the supreme command, determined to introduce all the rigour of the German tactics. But it was found utterly impossible for any body of men, particularly of soldiers, to imitate the abstemi- ousness, the regularity, and the austere habits of the new government. It is lamentable to relate that these new regulations were not attended with the salutary effects that might have been expected. On the contrary, a mutiny took place, December 24, 1803, in which it was said the governor's life was actually aimed at. The Duke of Kent was soon after recalled, and in 1805 received the baton of Field Marshal. From this moment he remained unem- ployed, and all his efforts to obtain a restoration to his government, or to obtain any command in the army, proved unavailing. But although the Duke of Kent was HISTORY OF EALING. now deprived of the exercise, not only of his official situation as governor of Gibraltar, but also of his profes- sional services, he did not relapse into indolence, or remain a useless member of society. On the contrary, although he declined all parliamentary intervention out of deference to others, yet he opened a noble career, by aiding, supporting, and patronizing most of the public charitable institutions of his native country. To some he gave his advice and assistance ; to others not- withstanding the state of his pecuniary affairs, he became a liberal subscriber ; to almost all he acted as chairman, and conducted himself with such great propriety, while he evinced such glowing eloquence on every occasion, that those institutions derived great benefit from his coun- tenance and protection.* If the best estimate of a governor is to be deduced from the voluntary good opinion, and disinterested gratitude of the governed, it must be owned, that no public character ever challenged a higher claim to respect, than that of the Duke of Kent. After his return to England, the inha- bitants, including the civil officers of the garrison of Gibraltar, transmitted a thousand guineas for the purchase of a piece of plate, and a diamond garter, to His Royal Highness. Regular, methodical, he could be accused of no vice ; active, vigilant, intrepid, he could be suspected of no dereliction of duty. Anxious for the improvement of the minds and morals of those subjected to his command, this distinguished officer was the first to exhibit a laudable example to the army, by the introduction of regimental schools, while, in imitation of his Royal Father, he had ever been eager to diffuse the blessings of education throughout all ranks of civil society. Highly gifted by nature both for business and debate, the Duke of Kent had hitherto been prevented alone by a nice sense of delicacy from exhibiting great oratorical * Philippart's Royal Milit. Calendar, vol. i. p. 84. HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DIKE OF KENT. 2()o powers in his parliamentary capacity, and had therefore confined his eloquence to the advocacy of the cause of humanity, and the promotion of those great public charities, in which England stands so proudly pre-eminent above all contemporary and contiguous nations. His Royal Highness was tall in stature, of a manly and noble presence; his manners elegant, affable, condes- cending, dignified, and engaging; his conversation ani- mated; his information varied and copious ; his memory exact and retentive ; his intellectual powers quick, strong, and masculine ; and he resembled the King in many of his tastes and propensities. His Royal Highness was an early riser ; a close economist of his time ; temperate in eating ; indifferent to wine, though a lover of society ; and heedless of slight indisposition, from confidence in the general strength of his constitution ; a kind master ; a punctual and courteous correspondent ; a steady friend ; and an affectionate brother. The latter years of the Duke of Kent were distinguished by the exercise of talents and virtues in the highest degree worthy of a benevolent Prince and of an enlightened English gentleman. There was no want nor misery which he did not endeavour to relieve to the extreme limits of his fortune. There was no public charity to which his time, his presence, his eloquence, were not willingly devoted, nor to the ends of which they did not powerfully conduce. The traces of his intercourse with the inhabitants of the metropolis, on occasions of a salutary tendency to the morals and happi- ness of his poorer fellow creatures, will never be effaced from the grateful hearts of those who heard and saw him. In conversation his Royal Highness particularly excelled ; and he was perhaps one of the most correct and elegant speakers of his time ; and his memory was so retentive as never to forget a face he had once seen, or a circumstance he had heard that deserved to be remembered. His Royal Highness was married on the 29th of May, 1818, at Coburg, and re-married at Kew Palace, on the 11th of July, in the same year, to her serene Highness Victoria 264 HISTORY OF EALING. Maria Louisa, youngest daughter of the late reigning Duke of Saxe Coburg, widow of his late serene Highness the Prince of Liningcn, and sister of his Majesty the King of the Belgians. The issue of this marriage has been her most .-> gracious Majesty Queen Victoria. There are several handsome villas on this hill, in one of which resided for some time the gallant defender of Gib- raltar, General Elliot, afterwards Lord Heathfield, and where his son, the present Lord Heathfield was born. Manor of Pitt's-H anger. — Sir Arthur Ayte, who died in 1605, was siezed of a manor, or manor farm, in the parish of Ealing, called Pitt's Hanger, containing 143 acres. In 1690 this manor was the property of Margaret Ed- wards, widow ; from her it descended to Thomas Edwards, Esq. the ingenious author of the Canons of Criticism, who it is probable was her grandson. Mr. Edwards spent some of the early part of his life at Pitt's-Hanger, but afterwards removed to an estate which he had purchased in Bucking- hamshire. After his death, which happened in 1757, Pitt's-Hanger was sold by his nephews, Joseph Paice and Nathaniel Mason, Esq., to King Gould, Esq. whose son, the late Sir Charles Morgan, Bart, alienated it to Thomas Gurnell, Esq. Mrs. Peyton, some time the wife of Jonathan Gurnell, Esq. and then relict of the late Admiral Peyton, was the late proprietor. Mr. Meacock is the present occupier. Thomas Edwards, a critic and poet, born in 1699, was the son of a gentleman of London, in the profession of the law. After receiving a good classical education, he was entered of Lincoln's Inn, and in due time was called to the bar ; but like many others, he occupied himself more with the belles lettres, than with Coke upon Littleton. ? See Faulkner's Hist, of Kensington . p. 558, MANOR OF PITT'S HANGER. 265 Having paid a particular attention to Shakspeare, on the appearance of Warburton's edition of that dramatist, in 1744, he published " A Letter to the Author of a late Epistolary Dedication, addressed to Mr. Warburton." This was followed, in 1747, by " A Supplement to Mr. Warburton's Edition of Shakspeare," a work which passed through several editions, and subsequently became famous under the title of " Canons of Criticism," the idea of which was derived from a hint given by Warburton, that he intended to construct a body of canons for literary criticism. Edwards took up this design, and framed a burlesque set of canons, which he illustrated from War- burton's notes on Shakspeare, wherein that celebrated personage appears to very singular disadvantage. " An Essay towards a Glossary," another of Warburton's abor- tive designs, also furnished his ironical opponent with great scope for his humourous acuteness. The critic attacked was not of a temper to be thus assailed with impunity, and took the opportunity of a new edition of Pope's Dunciad, to introduce Edwards by name, with his usual coarseness of invective — Her children first of more distinguished sort, Who study Shakspeare at the inns of court, Impale a glow worm, or virtu profess, Shine in the dignity of F.R.S. — Dunciad, iv. 570. The latter, however, received compensation in an ode addressed to him, by Akenside, who reflected upon War- burton in turn, and thus the affair ended. As a poet, Mr. Edwards chiefly distinguished himself by an attempt to revive the sonnet, and composed several which are more creditable to the justness of his sentiments, than to his powers of imagination. He was a skilful critic in the English language ; and the seventh edition of the " Canons," besides the sonnets, contains an " account of the letter Y," in which he discusses the principles of English orthography. He passed his life in the ease of competence and literary leisure, chiefly in London and Ealing, until he purchased 266 HISTORY OF EALING. an estate in Buckinghamshire, in 1739, which from that time became the place of his residence. He died,* un- married, in 1757, whilst on a visit to Mr. Richardson, at Parson's Green.f In 1761 appeared his posthumous " Tract on Predestination." Fordhook. — Henry Fielding, the Cervantes of England, resided occasionally during the last mournful year of his life at Fordhook, situated on the Uxbridge road, at the distance of about a mile from the village of Acton, at the eastern extremity of Ealing. Fielding, whose pen had been the source of so much heartfelt mirth, was now oppressed by a complication of disorders which threw a cloud over his fancy, and would have subjugated the whole powers of a mind less vivacious and elastic. As a last and forlorn hope, he was advised to seek the mild climate of Lisbon. He passed the night before the commence- ment of his voyage at his country retirement near Ealing, in the society of his children ; and the feelings of such a man, in so touching an. hour as that of a departure from his family, demand the topographer's attention, while pausing over the spot on which the trial of fortitude occurred. The following are his own words, proceeding warmly from the closest recess of his bosom, as he slowly sailed towards the port whence he was never to return : — Wednesday, June 26, 1754. — " On this day the most melancholy sun I had ever beheld arose, and found me awake at my house at Fordhook ; by the light of this sun, I was in my own opinion last to behold, and take leave of some of those creatures on whom I doated with a mother- like fondness, guided by nature and passion, and uncured and unhardened by all the doctrine of that philosophical school, where I had learnt to bear pains and to despise death. In this situation, as I could not conquor nature I submitted entirely to her ; and she made as great a fool of me as she had ever done of any woman whatsoever, * Biog. Brit. Richardson's Corresp. t See Faulkner 'a Hist, of Fulham, p. 380. FORDHOOK. W under pretence of giving me leave to enjoy, she drew me in to suffer 3 the company of my little ones during eight hours ; and I doubt not whether, in that time, I did not undergo more than in all my distemper. " At twelve precisely my coach was at the door, which was no sooner told me than I kissed my children round, and went into it with some little resolution. My wife, who behaved more like a heroine and philosopher, though at the same time the tenderest mother in the world, and my eldest daughter, followed me ; some friends with us and others here took their leave ; and I heard my be- haviour applauded, with many murmurs and praises to which I well knew I had no title, as all other such philo- sophers may, if they have any modesty, confess on the like occasions."* He reached Lisbon in August, 1754, and about two months after expired, his death taking place on the 8th of October following, in the forty-eighth year of his age. He was attended on this melancholy occasion by his second wife, by whom he left four children. The merit of Fielding as a novelist is disputed by no school of criticism, in respect to wit, humour, correct delineation of character, and knowledge of the human heart ; and, perhaps, no novel in any language exceeds " Tom Jones" in the exhibition of character and man- ners, and for the consummate skill displayed in the developement of the story, and the management of the catastrophe. " Amelia," with less variety and inven- tion, is, in regard to portraiture of life, almost equally felicitous ; while as to pure raciness of humour, " Joseph Andrews" is often deemed before both. Even " Jona- than Wild," coarse as are the persons and doings described, is irresistible in the way of humourous cari- cature, and we forgive the subject, for the original mode of the handling. In the eyes of foreigners, Fielding ranks far below Richardson, which is not wonderful, for while no one more largely deals in the general elements of human * Journal of a voyage to Lisbon, by the late Henry Fielding, Esq. p. 48-55. 268 HISTORY OF EALING. nature, like Hogarth, he has rendered all his personages so unmixedly English, that they are scarcely to be recog- nized in any other dress. The great impulse given by popular encouragement to Works of fiction of a kindred class to these celebrated novels, has certainly led to many imposing and splendid productions of late years, but it may be doubted if, in reference to verisimilitude and real nature as modified by the habits and institutions of modern society, Fielding does not yet stand at the head of the English school of genuine comic romance.* Fordhook, which is said to have been the seat of Alexander Denton, Justice of the Common Pleas, is now the residence of G. Tyrrell, Esq. Charles Dibden wrote many of his best songs at his house in Hanger Lane, now occupied by Sir Francis Sykes. He was the son of a silversmith, at Southampton, and was born there about the year 1745. The strong passion which he felt for music induced him at a very early age to give up all thoughts of the church, for which profession his father had intended him, with which view he had placed him at Winchester school, upon the foundation. When about the age of fourteen he became a candidate for the situation of organist in a Hampshire village, but his youth proving a fatal objection to his success, he accepted the pressing invitation of an elder brother, a captain of a vessel in the West India trade, to come to London. Here he occupied his time in composing a few ballads, which brought him more credit than profit, and in tuning piano fortes, till 1762, when he made his first appearance on the boards of the Richmond Theatre, and two years afterwards on the London stage, as Ralph, in the Opera of " The Maid of the Mill." The principal part of the music to iS Lionel and Clarissa," and the whole of that to the musical entertainment of the " The Padlock," written by him shortly afterwards, established his fame as a dramatic composer, which he subsequently increased * Biog. Britan. FORDHOOK. 269 by the production of nearly one hundred musical pieces for the stage, of more or less merit. The most celebrated of these are his " Deserter/' brought out in 1772, " the Waterman," the dialogue of which is also the production of his pen, in 1774, and " The Quaker," in 1775. Though devoted to dramatic composition, Dibdin never liked the profession of an actor, and having at length quarrelled with Garrick, and, indeed, with the proprietors of all the principal theatres, as well as having failed in more than one managerial speculation on his own account, he quitted the stage altogether, and made an attempt, which proved singularly successful, to entertain the public by his own unassisted powers, accompanying himself, in his own songs, on the piano forte. The prolific qualities of his genius are ascertained by the prodigious number of songs which he wrote (words and music) for these enter- tainments, and sang at his Saloon, near Leicester-square, to which he gave the title of " Sans Souci." They are said to have exceeded twelve hundred. Of these the majority display much originality and humour ; but, his sea songs in particular, are very felicitously composed, and will, in all probability, continue popular in the navy while Britain has a fleet. " Poor Jack," " Tom Bowling," (the latter is said to have been a real tribute of affection to the memory of his brother,) and others of the same class, must be familiar to the ears of the major part of the community. Notwithstanding the popularity of these entertainments, and the large income they produced, aided by. occasional assistance from government, who considered his exertions towards cheering the hearts, and softening the sentiments of the sailor, worthy of reward, the improvidence which seems so frequently to attend the votaries of Thespis, kept Dibdin constantly poor, and he died in very indigent circumstances, in 1814. Dr. Kitchener has lately published an edition of the best of his songs.* * Bioฐ\ Diet, of Musicians, vol. i. 270 HISTORY OF EALING. Ealing north of the Uxbridge Road. — This part of the parish has greatly increased of late in houses of a respectable character, and in population, in consequence of its proximity to the Great Western Rail-way Station, which is the first on the road from London. The Great Western Rail- way was opened through this parish on June 4, 1838. It is assessed to the Poor Rate at the sum of ฃ2400. a year, amounting upon an average to ฃ360. the rate being about three shillings in the pound. The Church Rate and Highway Rate amount also to about one shilling in the pound. Grand Junction Water Works. — The extensive works of the Grand Junction Water Works Company have already been noticed, and we are now enabled to add the following additional particulars of their progress. The Grand Junction Water Works Company obtain the water for the supply of the west end of London, from the river Thames, between Kew and Richmond, on the Surrey side of the river. The water at the point of the river whence their supply is drawn is entirely removed at all times, and under all circumstances, from the influence of the London drainage, and was selected upon the evidence of scientific gentlemen, by a committee of the House of Lords, in the year 1835, as being considered remarkably free from impurities ; indeed, for ten months out of the twelve it is particularly bright and pure ; but, as for about two months of the year during floods, or rainy weather, the water has been found not to be so clear as at other times, the company have constructed a depositing reser- voir of about three acres in extent, into which the water is raised by a direct acting expansive engine. Two engines of this character are erected, one of which will serve as auxiliary power, and be available in case of accident. From the reservoir, the water passes on to a filter bed of about two acres in extent, from which it is raised and distributed in the western district of London, and supplied to the GRAND JUNCTION WATER WORKS. 271 cisterns of the tenantry without further exposure to the atmosphere. The Grand Junction Water Works Company have had for some time three large engines of about one hundred horse power each, upon the non-expansive principle. These engines are about to be altered, and converted into expansive engines, capable of raising the water to two hundred and ten feet above Trinity high water mark. In addition to these engines, the company have just erected a large expansive engine, and as it is the largest engine ever erected by any Water Works Company, some particulars of its dimensions may be interesting. The diameter of the cylinder is ninety inches ; the diameter of the plunger pump is thirty-three inches ; and the length of the stroke is eleven feet in both cases. The power of this engine when working at ten strokes per minute, is equal to two hundred and fifty horses, and will raise four thousand gallons per minute. The whole of the water is raised over a stand pipe adja- cent to the engines, the top of which is two hundred and eighteen feet above Trinity high water mark, or two hun- dred and six feet above the surface of the ground. By these works the company will be able to raise twenty- five millions of gallons per week, and will have upon their premises auxiliary power so as to insure this quantity being supplied at all times, having six engines of an aggre- gate power equal to six hundred and thirty horses. The advantage to the public by the above alterations will be two-fold, for in the first place all the water sup- plied will have been previously purified by filtration ; and secondly, the whole being raised to a height of two hun- dred and ten feet above high water mark, the mains will be constantly charged under high pressure, night and day, throughout the year, as a protection against fire. In addition to this, and for the purpose of guarding against the effect of any fracture on the main pipe between the Kew Bridge works and the Metropolis, which, how- ever, the improvements now carrying on will render very improbable, the company have made a reservoir at Camp- 272 HISTORY OF EALING. den-hill, capable of holding three days supply, which will enable them to keep their mains always charged, even though the communication between their engines and the district supplied by them should be stopped. The new works and machinery, including the large expansive engines, the depositing and filtering reservoirs, &c. have been constructed from the designs, and under the superintendence of Thomas Wicksteed, Esq. the company's consulting engineer. From the above short statement of the improved works constructed and constructing by the Grand Junction Water Works Company, it is evident they have had the intention of keeping good faith with the public, having availed themselves at a very great cost, of all the modern improvements in water works, and placed themselves undoubtedly in a situation to offer all that the public can require, viz. : a very abundant supply of pure and limpid water at such a pressure as will enable it to be given to the tops of the highest houses in their district, and afford very effectual protection at all times of day and night, in case of fire. The affairs of the company are conducted by a Court of Directors, consisting of ten gentlemen, of which Sir William Clay, Bart. M. P. is the chairman ; Benjamin Edward Hall, Esq. the deputy chairman ; and W. M. Coe, Esq. the secretary. THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF CHISWICK 175 THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF CHISWICK. CHAPTER I. Name — Situation — Soil — Boundaries — Extent — Roman Road — Water Courses and Bridges — Parliamentary Army at Turnham-Green — Battle of Turnham-Green — Ancient Manors. This parish, is not to be found in Domesday Book, but it is mentioned in various ancient records by the name of Ceswyck, Cheswyck, and Cheswick. There is a tradition, that within the last hundred years, a very considerable mart, or fair, for cheese, was annu- ally held in the field called the " Great Downs," nearly opposite the Duke of Devonshire's. If so, we here pos- sess the most probable derivation of the name of the vil- lage, which in all the more ancient writings that I am acquainted with is spelt Chesewick, or Cheswick. The village of Chiswick is situated by the river side, at the distance of about five miles from Hy de-Park-Corner ; the parish lies within the hundred of Ussulston, and is bounded on the east by Hammersmith, on the north by Acton, on the west by Ealing and Brentford, and on the south by the Thames. This parish contains the hamlets of Stanford Brook, Strand-on-the-Green, Little Sutton, and Turnham-Green. t 2 276 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. Though neither Chiswick or Sutton occur in the record of Domesday among the possessions of the Church of St. Paul's, I suspect that the manor of Fulham, said to belong to the canons of that cathedral, was no other than that of Chiswick, which together with Sutton, contained five hides, exactly the quantity mentioned in the Survey.* The soil varies from a light sand and gravel to a dark and fertile loam, but even in the best land gravel is to be found near the surface. About four hundred acres are under grass, about two hundred acres of which are included in parks and pad- docks. About three hundred are occupied in gardening, and about three hundred are arable or corn land, of the latter about twenty acres are occupied in ozier plantations. Extinction of the right or Common on the Lam- mas Lands. — In the year 1806, an Act of Parliament was obtained for extinguishing the right of Common over cer- tain Lammas Lands in this parish, belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, known by the following names, and con- taining by admeasurement the under-mentioned quan- tities, viz. : — A. R. Dickey Mead 9 1 Two Slips, 8 a. 3 r. and 7 a. 3 r. 16 2 The three Thames Meadows 1, 1, 11 2, . . . . 4 3 3, . . . . 3 1 Corney Meadow 9 Chiswick Field 14 Total 67 3 The Rev. James Trebeck, the then vicar, as owner of the land called " Thames Field," also claimed some part * Lysons's Environs, vol. ii. p. 180, 187. ROMAN ROAD THROUGH TURNI1AM GREEX. 277 of the Land in " Chiswick Field" for the poor of the parish, who were entitled to rights of common.* " The next place which we meet with upon the Thames is the pleasant village of Chiswick, situate about three miles by the Thames side from Fulham, and eight from London, was anciently called Cheswick as it appears in and some very old deeds. The sweet air and situation of this place drew not only a great many considerable families to settle here formerly, but indeed, several illus- trious persons to build seats; nor has it lost its reputation now, but is honoured with the presence of several noble persons. Although we find no mention made of this place in history, yet several very ancient buildings now standing, are an evidence of its antiquity."f The Roman road from Regnum or Ringwood, went from Staines through Brentford, which was a manse between it and London, to Turnham-green, thence over Standford-bridge, and into the Acton-road, crossing the Watling-street, at Tyburn. Dr. Stukeley after having described the course of this road, ฃvo\\\ Regnum, now Chichester, to Pontes, now Staines, thus mentions its course through this parish. It passes now between Staines and London, being the common road at present, till you come to Turnham-green, where the pre- sent road through Hammersmith and Kensington leaves it, for it passes more northward upon the common, where to a discerning eye, the trace of it goes over a little brook, called from it Strand-bridge, and comes into the Acton road at a common ; at a bridge a little west of- Camden- house, and so along Hyde -park- wall, and crosses the Wat- ling-street, at Tyburn An urn filled with Roman silver coins was dug up at Turnham-green in 1731. I have not heard of any further discovery of Roman coins on this spot : specimens, however, of the British series have been occasionally found. * 46th Geo. III. c. 111. .Inly 1800. f Bowack's Antiquities of Middlesex, p. 13. Loud. 170o. 278 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. In confirmation of the correctness of the description of this ancient road, it may be mentioned, that the most satisfactory evidence of its existence was discovered in the year 1834, by the workmen employed in making Gold Hawk-road, for npon digging down about ten feet from the surface they came to the old Roman causeway, which was very hard and compact, and consisted of the usual sort of materials employed in the formation of these roads. Among the various articles dug up, were Roman coins, and small square tiles, some of which were preserved ; but, being subsequently mixed with similar matters dug up at the same time in the Tower ditch, they cannot now be parti- cularized.* Oj*r In this parish are the following principal water courses and Bridges, in the highways crossing the same. The River Thames. — Passing on the west and south sides of this parish, from the parish of Ealing, at the east * See Faulkner's History of Hammersmith, p. 20. PARLIAMENTARY ARMY AT TURNHAM GREEN. 279 side of Kew-bridge, to the parish of Fulham, east of Chiswick church, is not crossed by any public road. Bollar Brook — Passes through this parish, from the parish of Acton, at the east end of Ealing-common, to the north of the west end of Turnham-green, and through the pleasure grounds of Chiswick-house to the river Thames, south-west of Chiswick-church, and is crossed by the public roads at the following places, viz. at a very small culvert in the Brentford-road, at the west end of Turn- ham-green. This culvert being inadequate to the free passage of the waters during floods, Acton-common and the neighbour- ing lands are frequently overflowed. Chiswick-House-Bridge, in the road from the village of Chiswick to Strand-on-the-Green. This bridge is of brick, with one arch; it is twenty-five feet wide between the parapets ; the water way under the bridge is ten feet wide, and five feet high to the summit within the arch. It was built in the year 1828, by the Duke of Devon- shire, when the road in front of Chiswick-house was diverted by his Grace.* The Parliamentary Army at Turnham Green. The Earl of Essex, (says Whitelock,) returned to London at the beginning of November, and the parliament voted him ฃ5000. for his conduct in the late battle. On the 12th the king advanced with his army towards Brentford, where after a sharp fight, he defeated Colonel Hollis' regiment, and towards night got possession of the town. Intelligence of the king's progress having reached London, every possible exertion was made by the parliament to assemble a sufficient force to prevent his entrance into the capital ; and therefore, with unspeakable expedition, the army under the Earl of Essex was not only drawn toge- ther, but the trained bands of London led out in their brightest equipage upon the heath, west of Brentford, where * Report of Public Bridges in the County of Middlesex, -Ato. Loudon, 1826. 280 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. they had, indeed, a full army of horse and foot fit to have decided the title of a crown with an equal adversary.* The Earl drew up his forces upon Turnham-green, the whole army consisting of 24,000 men, stout, gallant proper men, as well habited and armed as were ever seen in any army, and seemed to be in as good a courage to fight the enemy.f The Earl encouraged his men by riding from regiment to regiment, and speaking to each; and when he had spoken to them, the soldiers would throw up their caps and shout, u Hey for old Robin." Both armies continued to face each other the whole day, yet neither seemed emulous to begin the attack. Charles pro- bably was disappointed in the assistance he had expected from his London friends, and Essex was apprehensive that part of his troops would desert their colours should the battle commence. In the evening the King drew off to Kingston, and on the next day the general gave orders for the citizens to go home, which they gladly obeyed. The good wives and others, mindful of their husbands and friends, sent many cart loads of provisions and wines, and good things to Turnham-green, with which the sol- diers were refreshed and made merry; and the more when they understood the King and all his army had retreated. ฃ A true relation of the present passages in Middlesex, behceen the forces of the Malignants, and those assembled for the defence of the Kingdom. London, 1642. Saturday, 12th of Xovember. Prince Rupert, with his desperate route of cavaliers, the vant curryers, or as it were the forlorn hope of these malignant forces, having in vain attempted Windsor castle, came harassing along these countries, performing all acts of hostility upon the good and faithful subjects of Middle- sex, and leaving Harrow-on-the-hill on his right-hand, * WMtlock's Mem. p. 52. ?+ Clar. Hist, of Reb. vol. ii. p. 75. j Maitland's London, p 237. edit. 1739. CIVIL WARS IN CHISWICK. 281 he came sweeping like a torrent that bears down all before him, to Acton Ward, and from thence sat down with his forces on a plain called Turnham-Green, some five or six miles distant from this honourable city, where part of the parliamentary forces were billeted in the hamlets there- abouts, with the trained bands, who having notice of his approach, resolved to stop his passage, and give him a bloudy welcome, as he well deserved, into these parts ; drawing therefore into one body, under their several leaders, on Saturday, the twelfth of this present November, they faced him upon the said Turnham-Green. The Prince espying these forces coming marching towards him, with their colours flying, and drums courageously beating, had no great mind to have meddled with them, not looking to have been fought with so soon, at least not intending it till more of the malignant forces were come up to him; but our men having in view those deadly enemies to God and their country, would not expect any longer, but gallantly gave them the charge in the front ; the ordnance thundering their deathful shot upon them. The Prince, as he is cunning enough to save himself, opening his ranks wide, the artillery did not so much execution upon them as was desired. The Prince, also discharging his ordnance upon us, his being the higher side of the plain, they flew up in the air over our quarters, giving by that means license to our soldiers, ere they could again charge them, to come within distance to dis- charge their muskets, which they did with good aim and expedition, tumbling good store of malignants' horsemen on the ground, that strived to force into the squadrons ; and keeping their ground with good discretion and valour, they charged and discharged like excellent firemen on the enemy, who finding himself so terribly galled with this first salutation, had no great mind to be acquainted with any more such greeting, and rather were willing to defend themselves than offend us, till Prince Rupert remon- strating to them the disgrace it was for men of valour and performance to be afraid of boys and roundheads, as he termed our soldiers, he with his own troop, and some HISTORY OF CHISWICK. others that he knew best experienced, charged them with a broad front, into our front of foot ; then might you have seen the horses gored to the heart with our stiff sharp- pointed pikes, fall with their riders under them; yet nevertheless, Prince Rupert, charging like a devil rather than a man into our footmen, made them lustily bestir themselves, when two or three troops of our horse came in on the spur to the relief of the foot, and made the Prince's troops stagger, instead of striving to force through our great body any further, they shocked up close to- gether, fighting as it were in a ring, their other troops and foot companies coming up to their rescues, the medley grew very hot and bloody, so that it was reported in the neighbouring villages, as Brentford, Ealing, and Acton, that the clay was like to go against us, and that the Prince had taken our ordnance, when indeed there was no such matter, it being but a rumour raised by lying malignants, to discourage our party, we standing to it like men, re- solved to sacrifice our lives, rather than by cowardly non- chalance of our duties to betray our country; knowing that ere long we should have succour from our brethren in London, which upon the notice of this business came with all speed to us, and joining themselves with our forces, which were well wearied with this two or three hours' skirmish, they took upon them the dealing with Prince Rupert, who in this conflict with us had received double our loss, the red regiments, or red-coats, on our part charging them with all fury possible ; there did those courageous and valiant London apprentices show them- selves to be no boys, as the others in contempt termed them, but resolute and able soldiers, falling on with excel- lent discretion and agility, being mindful of the ancient honour, as well as the present safety, of that noble and renowned city of which they were members. Traversing their ground, and discharging their muskets into the thickest of their adversaries, their pikemen at push with those of the enemy, running those instruments of destruction clean through their bodies, and with their sharp swords making those malignants feel that the London BATTLE OF TURNHAM GREEX. 283 prentices were every whit equal to themselves in courage and the exercise of arms. The Prince, who without doubt is rather to be held desperate than truly valiant, nothing moved with the loss of his men, which dropped down in heaps, did lay about him like a fury, and though he was shot at a thousand times by our men, not any of them was to the purpose, encouraging his horsemen, who were the flower of his garland, not to leave him nor the quarrel, so that with his persuasion they stood to him, though to little purpose, loss upon loss seconding their attempts. Yet they made good the field without appearance of rout or flight, even until the darkness of the evening friendly approached to save them from further destruction ; so that fair and softly they retreated from us towards the enclosed grounds on the right side of the Green, where they intended that night to fix their rendezvous, we following them, and giving fire among them, till they were scantly discernablc ; and so as absolute masters of the field we sat down on the Green, resolving, in the morning as soon as it was light, to give them a breakfast of the same viands that they had been so plentifully feasted with at supper, watching them all the night, lest they should give us the slip ere the morning ; all the night there was nothing but drinking, damning, and roaring in their quarters, cursing their des- tiny, and the horsemen laying all the blame upon their footmen, calling them cowards, for that they came up no faster, but said that they were afraid of boys and Round- heads ; we in the meantime, after careful setting our sentinels, and laying at our perdues, fell to our prayers, giving God hearty thanks for our deliverance from those cannibals. In the night, the Prince gave three or four alarms to our quarters, as if he would have instantly fallen upon us, but they had no such intentions, however we stood upon our guard, intending if they came to give them their welcomes with fire and bullets, but they were better advised, and stood all night as well as Ave upon their defence, thinking we would charge them, which we never intended ; so the night being consumed with much expec- tation and vigilance, in the morning we took a survey of 284 H1ST0KY OF CHISWICK. our last days's business, finding of their men slain on the Green eight hundred and odd persons, most of which appeared to be of good quality by their habits, likely to be so, the loss falling amongst their horsemen, who were most gentlemen, their footmen scarce ever advancing at all towards us ; we got some four field-pieces also, which they were inforced to leave behind them for haste ; of our side some hundred and twenty fell their country's mar- tyrs, whom burying as well as the season would permit, we stood in arms expecting Prince Rupert's sallying out of the closes upon us. About eight of the clock some of his horsemen began to run along the sides of the hedges, discharging their carbines at our men, who answered them with our musquets. Little^ stomach it should seem they had this morning to their breakfast, they were so clogged over night with their plentiful supper ; however, about nine o'clock came up some horsemen towards us, but in no just number, for an army being scarcely good sufficient parties, with these some of our horsemen encountered, there falling but a few in that skirmish on any side ; but the Prince advancing out with some other of his forces, we saluted him with a bonjour from our ordnance, which he took in such bad part he had no more mind to pass on any further ; but hovering up and down the green, with- out the reach of our muskets, our red coats, being divers of them London prentices, could scarcely be restrained from falling on those cavaliers ; after some shot spent on both sides, but to little damage on our part ; the Prince seeing he had taken a wrong matter in hand to deal with us, retired again into his quarters, ever and anon some of his horsemen fiurting out to try if they could kill or sur- prise any of our perdues or sentinels. So the horsemen being as a wall between us and their footmen, kept us from falling on them ; indeed the ground being very dis- advantageous for us to assault them by reason of the hedges, their footmen retiring by little and little without any noise of drums beating, or their colours furled up, escaped through the country which they coasted over into Surrey, whither their horsemen all followed in the night, BATTLE OF TURNHAM-GREEN. 285 so that by Monday day -light there was no news at all of them, they are certainly in Surrey whence it is conjec- tured they intend for Kent, to join the malignants which Sir Edward Deering is raising there, but we hope we shall still be blessed with victory against these bloodsuckers. The valour of the London prentices being terrible to the cavaliers, whom we hope shortly to root out with all their associates. Next day being Sunday, marched out the militia of London ; but both armies may be said to keep the sabbath and facing each other without any considerable action. It is incredible how many cart loads of victuals were car- ried out of London, enough to have feasted their souldiers some days, and fed them some weeks. In the evening the King's forces drew off towards Kingston. The number of the slain amounted not to a thousand, and the reputation of the victory on the King's side, was more than the effect thereof; for then the royalists did nose and beard the populous city of London, and did triumphare in, though not sub hostio. Indeed the accession of citizens to the King, answered not the rational expectation ; wealth, though loyal, being always fearful and loath to hazard a certain state. This is most sure, that many scores of prisoners taken by the King, were by him freely dismissed without other ransom, than a strict oath to serve no more against him ; now what oath office is kept in London I know not, nor what Pope therein had power to dispense with so sacred an obligation. But these met with such confessors, who seem- ingly satisfied them in the violation of this oath, so that some weeks after they appeared on the same side as fierce as before.* Manors. — There are two manors in the parish of Chis- wick, both belonging to the Church of St. Paul's, one of which is called the Deans' (being his peculiar), or the manor of Sutton ; the other, the Prebendal manor. Manor of Sutton. — It does not appear when or by * Fuller's Worthies, Middlesex, p. 169. 286 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. whom the manor of Sutton was given to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's. Though it is not mentioned among the manors belonging to the canons of that church, or in Domesday-book, yet it is upon record that they were in possession of it in the reign of William the Conqueror. Among the archives in the Chapter-house at St. Paul's, is a very curious and minute survey of all the manors belonging'to the church, made as it appears, in or about the time of Alardus de Burnham, who succeeded Ralph de Diceto in the Deanery, very early in the thirteenth century ; as this is one of the most ancient surveys extant, and very explicit and satisfactory in describing the ser- vices of the tenants, I shall translate at large the account of the demesne lands, and some of the principal estates held under the lord by various rents and services. An Inquisition of the Manor of Great Suttone Philip de Haddam, lessee. The jury return, that this manor is taxed or rated to the king at three hides, besides the farm* of Cheswick, which by itself is two hides, rated with hides of Sutton. The manor is free and quit from all suit, either of county or hundred, and all other dues which belong either to the king himself, or to his bailiffs. In demesne are two hundred and ten acres of arable land, sixteen of meadow, and about forty of wood, of a good growth.f The quantity of pasture is not known, but it suffices for twelve oxen, four horses, { ten cows, and one hundred and thirty sheep. "Wainagep may be made with twelve oxen and four horses, according to the custom of the township. * " Solandam." I have translated the word fami,. being guided by tlie sense. The word solanda does not occur in any glossary that I have seen. Solatium is a farm. + In bosco bene vestito. I " Quatuor Stottis." Stottus is denned in the glossaries to be equus admissarius — admissarius quia admittitur inter armenta. ง " Wanning} mn." Wainage is sometimes used for the furniture of a wain or cart, and sometimes for tillage. See Jacob's Law Dictionary. If either, it must mean the latter here. MANOR OF SUTTON. 287 Inquisitio facta in Manerio de Suttuni Magistro Ph. de Haddam exist ente fir mar io . Juratores. Juratores dicunt q d maneriuin istud Jobs de Sutton prepos. defendit se versus regem pro tribus Walter chiles * hidis prseter solandam de Chiswick q Gilib. fii Edwardi. habet duas hidas et sunt geldabiles cum Adam fii Gilib. hidis de Sutton et libm et quietum ab Wlnodus fil Edwini. omni งecta ^^ hlmdredi et alio „ Gilib. de Sularan. - Everardus fii Turbiti. ruua q spectant ad dnm Rege m capite Gilib. fil Nicbolai. vel SUOS ballivos. In dominico sunt decies viginti acre et 10 de terra arabili et in prato 16 acre et in bosco satis bene vestito circiter quadraginta acre. Et numer acrar de pastura ignorat sed sumcit ad 12 boves et quatuor stottos et 10 vaccas et ad sexies viginti et 10 oves. Potest wanniagium fieri cum \2 bovibus et quatuor stottis cum consuetudinibus villate tenentes de domino. Tenants of Assise. — Gilbert, son of Nicholas, holds three virgates of land, to which his grandfather, Gilbert, was admitted by Theoric, a former lessee, and for which he now pays thirty shillings per annum, and is subject to the following services, viz. He must plough two acres of the demesne lands in winter, and two in lent, and sow the lords' seed, which he is to receive at the manor-house, and to carry into the field ; he must harrow also the land above-mentioned ; he must find two mowers,* who are to have their provision from the lord of the Manor ;f and two men to carry hay, who must be fed at his own cost. Two men one day, and two other men a second day, to weed the corn, these men to be provided with one meal a day by the lord.J He must find also two carts, or one waggon, to carry hay, and three men for each of the reap * Homines cum falcibus. + Ad cibum domini. } Ad cibum domini semel iu die. 288 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. days.* He must find two men for one day to thresh the rent corn,f to be carried to London, these men to have one meal a day at the lord's cost, and provide two sacks for each rent. He must carry dung from the Manor- house two days, each day with two carts, the workmen to be allowed provisions by the lord. He must bring four cart loads of fuel from the wood, finding provisions at his own cost. He must render, moreover, annually two hens and twenty eggs. William, son of Tustan, holds one virgate at the rent of 6s. 2d. He is to mow also one day for the lord of the manor, being allowed his provisions, and to send all his labourers to the reap days, the lord allowing them victuals and ale. Another tenant was to shear the lord's sheep and lambs, and to cut his pease. Some were to pay a certain rent, called malt silver,* being five-pence, three-pence, or some small sum; others a rent called " ward pence,"ง gene- rally two-pence, and others a small sum e. g. ten-pence, called the gift, if Inquisitio Man. Suthona temp. Hen. Decern. Alex. Thesaur. Manerium de Suthona defendebat se tempe Rege Henr. et Willi. Decan pro S hidas et reddebat vice comiti * Quaslibet precarias ! Jacob translates precaria a reap day. It was called also in ancient records, a bederyp, or bed repose, from tbe Saxon words heden, rogare ; and nip, messis ; being a term for certain assistance during the term of the harvest, due to the lord from his tenants, who, according to the terms of their agreement, sent either all their labourers., or a part of them, upon certain fixed days, called " dies precaria, i. e. bedryp, or reap days. Upon these occasions, the lord of the manor always found the men provisions, and sometimes liquor. John de Lambourne, a tenant of the manor of Sutton, was to send one man to the sicca precaria, and two to precaria; cervisia:. (? " Finnan." Du Cange gives instances of firma, being used in this sense : he defines it " Fructus ex conventione reddendns." \ A payment to the lord for the privilege of making malt. It was some- times called malt shot. ง Ward penny was a payment made to the sheriffs for the defence of Castles. % De dono lOd. Dommi is defined to have been a payment made to the lord under the name of a free gift. — Glossariinn Media Latinitatis. MANOR OF SUTTON. 289 3 sol et adhuc ita est et recldit modo canonicis 2 firmas plenas cum quingenis solidis et praeterea 40 sol in Dom sunt circiter sexties 20 acre et 10 terr arab in prat 16 acre. In bos'c vestito circiter 30 acr et piscaria habent Canonici 5 sol vel decimum piscam. Est ibi past ad 60 oves et 5 vaccas sunt due caruce dom quietum est ab om serv. Sex decern virgata sunt assisse. Aluridus tenet unum garram de Dni pro duobus sociis. Summa ฃ7 Ss. 7d. ; De Piscaria 5s. ; De Essarto \d. Isti tenent de terra assisa. Gilib fil Nicholai tenet tres virgulas in quas Gilib avus suus habet ingressum per Theodori firmar et modo reddit p illis 30 sol et debet 2 acras in hieme arrare et duas in 40 et seminare de seraine Dni qdo recipiet de curia dni et portabit in campum et liciabit eosdem et inveniet 2 homines cum falcibus ad cibum dni et 2 homines ad levand fenum sine cibo et duos homines uno die et alios duos alio die ad sarcland ad cibum dni semel in die et inveniet duas carectas vel unum plaus- trum ad fenum ducendum ad cibum dni et inveniet tres homines ad quaslibet precarias et una die flagellare cum duobus homines firma portendu London, ad unum pastu dni et inveniet duos succos ad utramque firma et ducet fimum de curia duobus diebus quolibet die cum duabus carectis ad cibum dni et quatuor Carectas adducet de bosco ad curiam sine cibo et dat 2 Gallinas et viginti ova. Roger fil Hen I virgata cum insula prati p 12 sol et inveniet 3 homines ad quaslibet precarias et quicquid avene metent, colligent, et ligabunt, sine cibo. Will fil Turstani pro 6 sol et 2d et debet una die ful- care ad cibum dni et metere ad precarias cvisia omnes operarios et tenentes suos ad cibum Dni. Johannes de Lamburne pro dimid virgat inveniet ad quilibet siccam precarium unum hominem et ad precarias c visia? duo. 290 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. Oms oparios et tenentes suos ad cibum Dni. Godman nepos Lefwardi dim virg pro SOd et 3d. de Maltsellum. Galf fil Alwine 8 acras de essarto pro 16c/. This inquisition must have been made soon after Alar- dus was Dean, who seems to have succeeded R. de Diceto one of the then tenants, holding some land by grant of Alardus.* Another survey of the manors belonging to the church of St. Paul's, made about the year lฃ45,f says, that the manor of Sutton in the time of King Henry, and William the dean, which must have been about the year 1111, was rated at three hides, and paid three shillings to the sheriffs, which it still did at the taking of the inquisition. The canons received from it two full corn rents,} and five hundred and forty shillings in money. The quantity of land is the same as in the survey above quoted, except that the work is computed at only thirty acres, and the pasture said to be sufficient only for five cows and sixty sheep. There were sixteen virgates of land which paid quit rent. Aluric held of the lord unam garram,% by the annual render of two plough shears.^" The rents of assise amounted to ฃ7. Ss. Id. besides five shillings, or every tenth fish from the fishery, and four-pence from the cultivated waste.** In the year 1285, an agreement was made relating to the * Lysons's Middlesex, MSS. Brit. Mus. + Newcourt calls this an inquisition of churches and manors, taken in 1181. The inquisition of the manors is expressly said to have been taken when Henry de Cornhill was dean, and Alexander, treasurer. Henry de Cornhill was made dean in 1244 ; and Alexander Sweiford, the treasurer, died in 1246. The inquisition of the manors therefore must have taken place about 1245. The date of the year is annexed to the visitation of each church, viz. 1249, 1250, &c. } " Duos Jirmas plenas." ง The word garra I cannot find in any glossary. Du Cange has it in the plural ; and mentions an instance wherein garrets atrii occurs, but gives no satisfactory explanation of it. If the MS. was not remarkably fair and legible, I should suspect that gravam, a grove, was the word intended. % " Soccos." See Kelham's Doomsday Illustrated, p. 336. ** " De Essarto." Essartwm is defined to be waste land, grubbed up and cultivated. PREBEND AL MANOR. 291 fisli within the manor of Sutton, between the dean and chapter of St. Paul's and the prior of Merton, who enjoyed a grant from the king of the fisheries of the river Thames, for a certain district, which includes the shores of Chiswick. By this agreement, the men of Sutton and Chiswick were permitted to place forty wears* for catching of barbel and lampreys only, for which permission they were to pay twenty-three shillings per annum to the prior of Merton ; and if the payment was neglected five days beyond the time appointed, the sum was to be doubled.f In the ninth year of Edw. IV. Baldwin Bray, whose ancestors appear to have been settled there for several generations,* conveyed the manor of Sutton, near Chese- wyke (that is, I suppose, assigned the lease of the manorial estate), to Thomas Coveton and others.ง During the civil wars, the manor was sequestered to the lord mayor and aldermen of London.^" In the year 1676, the lease came into the hands of Thomas, Earl of Fauconberg,** whose great-nephew, Thomas Fowler, Viscount Fauconberg, assigned it, about the year 1727, to Richard, Earl of Burlington. After Lord Burlington's death, the lease was renewed to the late Duke of Devonshire, who married his sole heir, and it is now held by the present Duke. The manor house was lately the property of Thomas King, Esq. deceased, by whom it was in a great measure rebuilt. The dean and chapter of St. Paul's had a grant of free warren in their manor of Sutton, 9 Edw. Il.ft Prebend al Manor. — The prebendal manor is so called, as being the corps of one of the prebends of "St. Paul's cathedral. The ancient survey before mentioned, describes it as containing two hides of land. The reserved rent, as received by the prebendary, is * Burrochae. 1- Reg. Dec. and Cap. lib. A. f. 35. ? John Le Bray, of Sutton, is mentioned in a record, 45 Edw. III. See Harl. MSS. Brit. Mus. No. 4507, p. 121. ง 9 Edw. IV. m. 18. IT Court rolls of the manor. ** Rent books and court rolls of the manor. H Cart. 9 Edw. II. No. 31. v2 292 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. ฃ39. 2s. 6d. In the year 15T0 (12 Eliz.) Gabriel Good- man being then prebendary of Chiswick, granted a lease of this manor, with the demesne lands, consisting of about one hundred and forty acres, for ninety-nine years, to William Walter and George Burden, in trust that they should within two years convey the same to the church of Westminster, of which the said Goodman was dean. The dean and chaper still hold it of the prebendary of Chiswick, under a lease for three lives. In 1649, this manor was valued at ฃ177. 8d. exclusive of the reserved rent, was in the occupation of Arthur Duck, LL.D. as sub-lessee, and was sold soon afterwards as Church property, being discharged of the reserved rent, for the sum of ฃ155. 5s. Sd. to William Angier and Edward Radden, on behalf of Richard Duck, of the county of Devon.* In 1691, Sir Stephen Fox was lessee of the manor under the Church of Westminster.! The lease was assigned by his son Stephen, about the year 1727, to Dr. Michael Hutchinson, and by some mesne assignments came to James Fry, Esq.* Dr. Michael Hutchinson appears to have held the manor till 1737 ; from that year till 1745, Mrs. Mary Daniel and Joseph Alstone, who probably were his heirs ; in 1745, Gauntlet Fry, Esq. ; in 1748, Susanna Sharpe, spinster, who devised it to James Fry above mentioned. The present lessee is Charles Welsted, Esq. and as such he is called lord of the manor, and holds an annual court baron. Lands within this manor descend to the youngest son. Manor Farm House, this house which was an academy in the occupation of the Rev. Dr. Home, is called in a survey dated 1725, the Manor Farm* House, and was then in the tenure of Lady Nevill. * Parliament. Surveys, Lamb. MS. Library. + His name first occurs that year as lord of the manor, in the court rolls. I Stephen Fox was lord of the manor in 1726 ; and Dr. Michael Hutchinson in 1727- MANOR OF COLLEGE HOUSE. 293 Manor of College House. — In Gabriel Goodman's lease above-mentioned, it is stipulated that the lessee should erect additional buildings adjoining to the Manor house, sufficient for the accommodation of one of the prebendaries of Westminster, the master of the school, the usher, forty boys, and proper attendants, who should retire thither in time of sickness, or at other seasons, when the dean and chapter should think proper.* To this day a piece of ground is reserved in the lease to the sub-lessee as a play place for the scholars, though it is not known that the school was ever removed to Chis- wick since Busby's time. It is on record that he resided here, with some of his scholars in 1657. f A few years ago, when this house was in the tenure of Robert Berry, Esq. the names of the celebrated Earl of Halifax, John Dryden, and many others were to be seen upon the walls. Bowack who wrote an account of Chis- wick in 1T06 says, that the house was then so decayed that it was wholly unfit for its intended use, and was patched up into small tenements for the labouring people of the town.J If his representation be accurate, it must have been rebuilt, or at least have undergone very considerable repairs, before the year 1725, when the College house was inhabited by Dr. John Friend, master of Westminster * Fuller is inaccurate when lie says that Dean Goodman purchased a house, with land thereunto belonging, for the use of Westminster school. " If these lands," says he, " at this day be not so properly employed as they were by the donor piously intended, it were safer to bemoan the sad effects, than to accuse the authors thereof." He adds, that " Goodman with his own hands planted a row of elms in his time, grown up to great height and beauty." — Worthies, b. iv. p. 35. Norden is more accurate than Fuller when he says, " Cheswicke, belonging to a prebend of Pauls, now in the hands of Dr. Good- man, dean of Westminster, where he hath a fair house, whereunto he with- draweth tbe schollers of the colledge of Westminster." — Spec. Brit. p. 17. + " I was presently in all haste," says Bagshawe, in the narrative of his dispute with Busby, " in that hot and sickly season of the year, to be removed unto Westminster from Chiswick, where I had fixed my residence, and where, upon all removes of the college, the second master is by statute obliged to be." — p. 3 This was in the year 1657. There is mention of other removes of the college during the same year, p. 2. I Antiquities of Middlesex, p. -ฑ8. 294 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. school, and the prebendary's apartments by Dr. Broad- rick.* Dr. Nicholls was the last master who occasionally resided at the College house. Dr. Markham, the present archbishop of York, when master of Westminster school, rented the prebendary's lodgings of the dean and chapter. The whole being in a ruinous state, was let on a repairing lease in the year 1788, for which purpose a special license was obtained from the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, and the prebendary of Chiswick, pursuant to dean Goodman's injunctions, whereby the Church of Westminster is restrained from letting the mansion, or manor house for more than one year, without such license. * Survey of the manor, bearing date 172f). RECTORY AND VICARAGE. 295 CHAPTER II. Rectory and Vicarage — Ancient Inventories of the Church of Cheswyk — Prebendaries — Value of the Vicarage — Parliamentary and Commonwealth Clergy — Vicars from 1662 — Church of St. Nicholas — Monuments and Inscriptions in the Church and Church Yard — Parochial Charities and Benefactions. Rectory and Vicarage. — The church is a vicarage in the patronage of the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, who are ordinaries of the place, it being exempt from the bishop's jurisdiction. In a survey of the churches and manors belonging to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, taken about the year 1245, the inquisition relating to this parish says, that the church of Sutton, meaning I suppose Chiswick, was in the demesne of the canons, who received from it ten shillings per annum by the hands of the lessee. It paid also thir- teen pence under the name of synodals. The lessee col- lected the peter's pence, which he received to his own use.* Ecclesia de Sutton: — est in domin canonicorum et red eis per man firmarii et solvit nomine sinodalium 13d. flrmarius colligit denarium sancti Petri et sibi retenit. Hab. hsec eccles. in dom. suo 16 J acras de ten* arab. in prato 1 acre liberas, et habet de dominio tertiam partem decimarium tarn in majoribus quam in minoribus similiter de dom. Scotlande Thesaurarii tertiam partem decima- rum et de duobus villatis totas decimas prseter fenum. * Cart. Antiq. Reg. D. et Cap. lib. iv. f. 82. 6. 296 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. The glebe land belonging to the church was 16 J acres of arable, and one of meadow, all free land The church had also a third-part of the tithes both great and small, of the demesnes, and of the treasurer's demesnes, and all the tithes of both townships, except those of hay. In the reign of Hen. III. the dean and chapter, out of respect, it seems, to Gualo, the Pope's legate, granted a lease of the rectory of Chiswick to Tholomeus Romanus,* for thiee marks per annum. In 1327 it was rated at one hundred shillings ;f in the time of Edw. VI. at ฃ404 It appears by the survey of 1649 that the parsonage of Chiswick was then on lease to John Edgar, at ฃ4 10s. per annum; and that it was valued at ฃ55 4s. per annum, over and above the reserved rent.ง Another survey, taken in 1650, values the rectory at ฃ100; it was then in the occupation of Mr. Chaloner Chute.ซ[j The rectory is now leased with the manor of Sutton Court, the reserved rent of both together being ฃ43 per annum. At a visitation of the church of Chiswick, anno 1252, it appeared that the vicar received all the alterage,** and had a glebe of twelve acres of arable and one of meadow ; besides which, he was paid a mark of silver annually by the chamberlain. ff At a visitation, anno 1458,++ the vicar's glebe was com- puted at twenty acres, which he enjoyed for the purpose of finding a boy for the choir, to assist in the divine service. * Cart. Antiq. St. Paul's, No. 787. + Harl. MSS. Brit. Mus. No. 60. J Chantry Roll, Augmentation Office. ง Parliament. Surveys, Lamb. MS. Liby. ซJ[ Parliamentary Survey, Lambeth MS. Lib. ** Decreed by the Court of Exchequer, 21 Eliz. to comprehend all small tithes. H Peg. Dec. and Cap. lib. L. f. 137, 6. H See a thin book of Visitations of Churches, among the archives of St. Paul's cathedral. ANCIENT INVENTORIES. 297 ANTIENT INVENTORIES OF THE GOODS AND ORNAMENTS OF THE CHURCH. Among the archives of the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, are two inventories of the goods and ornaments belonging to the church of Chiswick. The first bears date 1252, and may be thus translated : A good and sufficient missal sent from the treasury of St. Paul's. A tropery, in good condition, except that it wants binding.* An old legend with masses inserted in various places, for the use of the monks. f An antiphoner, in good condition, with the notes pro- perly marked. X A good and sufficient psalter. Item. — There is no manual. Item. — A silver chalice, small and of little value. A chesible of red velvet ง with a handsome orfray, which was a rich border or fringe to a garment worked for the most part with gold and silver, called an orfray, or orfroy ; in Latin sometimes orfrea, and sometimes aurifrigium. Item. — Two sufficient gradales.^" * Tropium. — A tropery was a book of Sequences, Ducange defines Tropus- versus qui prtecipue festis cantatur ante introitum. t Lecconarium. — Mr. Lewis calls the Book of Lessons read at matins, the legend ; these lessons were sometimes taken out of the Scriptures, and some • times out of the Sermons and Homilies of the fathers, or the lives of the saints. I Antiphonarium. — A book containing antiphones, or anthems. ง Casula. — Mr. Lewis calls this a chesible, it differed from the principal vestment, or cope, by being shorter, and open on each side ; on the fore and hind part of it was a large cross. ^ Gradalia, — so called from the gradales which were sung after the Epistle. — See Gutch's Collec. Curios, vol. ii. p. 108. An Account of Books, Vest- ments, and Utensils, used in Churches before the Beformation, by the Bev. John Lewis. ฃ98 HISTORY OF CHISWTCK. Here follows a Second Inquisition of the ornaments and goods of Chisivick Church, dated anno 1458. A cope entire and well ornamented, another cope with a white chesible, thin and torn.* Two maniples and a stole. f Three corporasses.* Five consecrated altar cloths in good condition, one of them ornamented with silk.g A silk cloth of arest in good condition, given to the church, by one of the parishioners.^! And old Chrismatory.** A good and sufficient banner. Item. — There is no pix wherein to place the conse- crated host. Item. — Two brass candlessicks, and two of tin, and four tin vials. The font much out of repair and without a lock. The chancel out of repair, and the roof decaying. Item. — There is no collection for lights except a half- penny from each house for the pascal-taper ; it is ordered that a like collection be made for the rood light.f f * Or principal vestment, made close on both sides, and open only at top and bottom, generally of very rich materials. + The Maniple was a slip of linen or silk embroidered with crosses, and fringed at one end, which the priest wore round his left arm. — Stole. A broad piece of white linen, or of silk, fringed at both ends, and sometimes embroid- ered with crosses, worn by the priest about his neck, and hanging down sometimes below his knees. + Three Corporasses — Corporalia, so called, because it covered the water, i. e. according to the Roman Catholic tenets, the body of our Saviour. ง Palle altarii benedicte. ^[ Du Cange gives some instances of cloth of arest occurring in Records, but does not define it ; perhaps the same as arras, so called from a town in Artois. ** Chrismatory, a vessel for the consecrated oil. ++ Rotella. — The only definition of this word in the Glossaries, is a little wheel, as a diminute from Rota. But as Du Cange defines rodella idem quod rotella, we may suppose that the latter was used also for the former, in which case it may be derived from roda, a word made from the Saxon rode — the rood ANCIENT INVENTORIES. 299 Item. — John Belemeis then prebend of Chiswick, has half a mark towards the repairs of the chancel, left by Alexander, the late treasurer. Item. — The church has not been dedicated* ฉrnatmma tnbntta aputt ฉfiesfoicfe die ScoW Johs. et Pauli. An Dom. 1252. Missale bonum et sufficiens missum ibidem de Thes. Sancti Pauli. Duo Graduale sufficiente. Un troprium sufficiens, male ligatum. Item — Vet. lib. lecconari, cum messa incerta per locis in usu monach. Item — Antiph. leccone sufficiens bene notat. Item — Psalterium bene et sufficiens. Item — Desit Manuale. Item — Calix argenteus parvus et parvi pretii inhibans. Item — Una casula de Sameto rubeo bene ornata auri fregio. Item — Vest, integ. institut paratis bene. Item — Al vest cum alba casula debili et rupta inti cum duplicis maniplis et Stol. Item — Tria corporalia bnda. Item — Quinque pallae Altaria benedicte, in integ. quo una habet parura de serico. Item — Pannus sericus de aresta qui quidem parochi- anus dedit eccles. integ. Item — Chrismatorium vetus. Item — Unum Vexillum bene et sufficiens. - Item — Nulla Pixis ad reponam Corp. Domini. Item — Dua candelabra eneae — et cluas candelab stagnea?. Item — Quatuor Phiale Stag. Item — Fons debil. et ruptus sine cera. or holy cross. Indeed, the sense here, and in the surveys of the other churches, in most of which it occurs, will allow of no other definition. It is well known that collections for the pascal and rood-light were made in almost every parish in England before the Reformation * Before the ensuing Inquisition was taken, ii had been dedicated to St, Nicholas. 300 HISTORY OF CIIISWICK. Item — Cancellum debile. et ruptum et cooptum male. Item — Ad luminare nichil collectem in collecta ad sereum paschalem sed cle quolibet domo obol. injunctum est parochianis simile collectam ad rotellam. Item — John de Belemeis dimid marc ad cancel, emend, de testament, quondam a Thesau. Item — Ecclesia non est dedicata. Item — Vicar habet tot Altaragium cmn 125 acr. terr. arab & 1 acr. prat. & 1. marc Argent, per man. camerarii. In the second Inquisition of the state of Chiswick church, dated anno. 1458, there is mentioned amongst the ornaments, a tablet of alabaster over the great altar, representing the death of our Saviour.* Two paintings representing the last judgment, and the five joys of the Virgin Mary. A vest of green silk with flowers of gold and white birds. Another vest of red silk with golden lions. A third vest of red bawdekyn, with flowers of gold, being the gift of William Dolman. f A vest of black sattyn, having orfrays of green silk, with white lilies. A green vest of brod alysaunder, with white roses* and two frontals.ง The chancel was represented as in very bad condition, and the charges of repairing it estimated at twenty marks. Complaint was made of " twenty-two elmys loppid and pollyd," near the road of the procession. * Tabula de Alabastro Tabula is said to mean sometimes a solid tablet, adorned with sculpture, and fastened to the altar. — Glossarium Media Lati- nitatis. f The richest kind of silk, wrought with tissue of gold, sometimes baw- dekyn, or baldekin, because as Du Cange says, brought from Baldaco, or Babylon. Minshew's says, Bawdekin, quia a meretricibus inventus, — Gloss. Med. Lett. + Probably a species of cloth brought from Alexandria. ง A cloth to hang under the tapers. ANCIENT INVENTORIES. 301 CTfiC iJl'SSSiK Of ฉfiegtoefe*— We the Jury doo present and testyfy the goods, plate, ornaments, Jewells and bells, belongynge and apertayngnge to the Churche of Cheswek in the comptye of Myddlesex as well as wh in the Inventory takyn by the Kyngs Commessyoners as well as also the goods belongyng to the same Churches as apereth hereafter most playnly testyfyed by us the same Jury, the fyfth daye of Awgoost in the Yere of our Lord God a thousande fyve hundredthe fifty and two, and in the sexth yere of the Reygne of our Soveregn Lord Kynge Edwarde the sexte by the grace of God of Ingiand and Ierlande the supreme head Emedyately under God : — This Inventory made the tenth daye of March in the thyrde yere of the Regne of our moost dreade Sovereigne Kynge Edward the sexte by the Grace of God of Inglande Fraunce and Ierlande Kynge Defender of the faithe, and of England and Ierlande the supreme hede Emedyately under God of all such goods as ar in the Parysshe Churche of Cheswek in the comptye of Myddlesex. The Inventory e taken by the Kynges Commessyoners in the thurd yere of his moost gracyous reygne — BmprittUS* — Two challis of sylver parsel gylte weynge xxvi 11 Item — A pyxe of latten.* Two latten candlestyks on the high aultor. A basen and ewer of latten for crystenvng. A crosse of copper and gylte. Three corporess cases A vestment of blew saten. * The curious observer will do well to ascertain when any brass, bearing traces of enamelled work comes under his notice, whether the metal employed in such cases be copper, or the usual kiud of brass anciently termed latten, a mixed yellow metal of exceedingly bard quality, and which appears to be the identical in composition with that now used, for making cocks for casks or cisterns, technically called cock brass. — Archccolog. Journal, Sept. 1844. p. 208. *30ฃ HISTORY OF CHIS WICK. Item — A vestment of blue satin w th a redd crosse on the same. A" vestment of dark blew satyn of brydges w h a crosse of blew vellctt. Two vestments of blew satyn of brydges w th blew crosses. One vestment of damask of popingjay color why the, womens heds on the crosse thereof. One vestment of yellow flowers. One vestment of sylke full of whyte byrds. One vestment of murry chamblett with starres. One vestment of redd chamblett. One vestment of whyth fustyan w th redd spotts. One vestment of yelow sylke. One yelowe cope with lyons. One other yelowe cope w th pecokes feders. irtOittlft* — One cope of redd caffa w th yelowe lyons. One cope of grene w th flowers of redd. One cope of redd saye. One corse cope wyth grene flowers. One camary clothe of redd sylke. A hearse cloth of redd sylke. A hanging of yelowe sylke for the high aultor. In the steple fyve greate bels one of them beyinge a clock. A sacaryn bel. A hand bel. Goods belongyng and remaynynge in tkeprochc. BRASS AND PEWTER. Item — Two brass potts weyinge .... poundes. * Stolen — the people obtained iutelligence of the intended visit of the ecclesiastical commissioners, whose purpose was to remove the greater part of the trinkets, or implements used in those days of ignorance and superstition, and they broke into the churches and carried them off to preserve them ns relicts — Gutch, GoUcc. Curios, vol. ii. p. 17C. ANCIENT INVENTORIES. Item — A spytt. 1111 pewter dyshes and a lyttlle basen weyinge xi pounde. STOWLN. All the lynynge of the churche, as Albes, sorplesses, aultor clothes, and all other lynynge stoyln out of the churche, and the church brokyn. Depts and Rerages dew to the same Churche li. s. d. Item — In the hands of John Thomas, one of the churchwardens, delyvered in to his hand ...... xi William Baldock beyinge warden dyd lend of the churche money to one William Sutton and unpayd . . vi viii John Good ..... xl And remayns in the boxe in the costody of the sayde wardens Willim Gyells and John Tursell . . . . x vii GOODS SOWED. Som of these depts and rerages* . . v xi iiii Prebendaries of Cms wick. In Newcourts' Reperto- rium may be seen a list of the prebendaries of Chiswick, among whom are Nigellus, Bishop of Ely, Richard Clifford, Bishop of London, Cardinal Moreton, Christopher Urswick, Bishop Bonner,, Bishop Barlow, and Bishop Beveridge.f The present prebendary is the Rev. J. Smith, M.A. vicar of Ealing. The prebendary of Chiswick hath the eighteenth state on the left side of the choir, and the corps of his prebend lies in this parish, and belongs to that manor, which toge- * Certificate of Church Goods in Middx. temp. Edw. VI. — Augment. Office. + Vol. i. p. 138. 304 HISTORY OF CHTSW1CK. ther with the mansion-house, and all the manors and messuages, lands, tenements, and rents, are left to the dean and chapter of Westminster, and hath been so ever since Queen Elizabeth's reign. Prebendarii. Edmundus ; Willelmus Decanus ; Nigellus Nepos Rogeri Sarum ; Ricardus de Amanville ; Ricardus The- saurarius ; Will. Coroner ; Rodolphus Held ; Alanus, Clericus Dom. Papee, Mn. III. ; John Belemus ; Will, de Bathonia ; Edm. de Bathonia ; Ric. de Gravesende ; Will, de Scothe ; Phil. Weston ; Will, de Wenlyngsburgh, Sen.; Will. Bryan, pr. 26 Sept. 1395; Ric. Clyfford Archid. Cant. 18. Apr. 1397; Ric. Clyfford, 21. Dec. 1398; Joh. Nottingham; Tho. Poole, 20. Feb. 1418; Ric. Clifford, 19. Jun. 1419;— Will. Cleve; J. Colville, 11. Nov. 1419; Hen. Sharp, L.D. 7. Apr. 1471; Robt. Neubald, L.B. 25. April, 1472; Joh. Morton, A.M. 29. Jun. 1478; Rob. Morton, A.M. 29, Jun. 1478; Ric. Sampson, L.D. ; Ric. Sandford, A.M. 31. Mar. 1534; E. Bonner ; E Moyle, d. 4. Sept. 1529 ; Gal. Goodman ; Will. Barlow, S. T. P. 1. Jul. 1601 ; Ric. Bayley, S. T. P. 2. Maii, 1631 ; Ric. Perinchief, S. T. P. 2. Aug. 1667 ; Car. Smith, d. 9. Sep. 1673 ; Will. Beveridge, d. 22. Dec. 1674. THE VALUE OF THE VICARAGE. In the king's books this vicarage is valued at ฃ9 18s. 4d. per annum; in the survey of 1649, at ฃ53 18s. ; in that of 1650, at ฃ58 ; in the latter survey is mentioned a glebe of twenty acres and a half. Patrick Seamer was then vicar,* having been presented by the parliament, after the sequestration of Mr. Packington. James Thompson, who was presented to the vicarage of Chiswick, Nov. 4, 1658, by William Steele and others, * Parliamentary Surveys, Lambeth MS. Liby. VALUE OF THE VICARAGE. 305 procured an allowance of sixty pounds per annum, out of the impropriated tithes, April 27, 1660.* In 1649, the commissioners say that the present vicar, Mr. Patricke Seamer, is an able and honest preaching minister, presented by the parliament after the seques- tration and putting forth of Mr. Packington; there is a vicaridge house w ch is very much decayed, the barne thereunto belonging was very lately repayred by the present minister, and is lett unto William Simon, for three pounds the yeare. One and twenty e acres and a halfe of gleabe land belongying to the vicaridge ys valued at twenty e-seaven pounds pr annum, held by Beniamyn Holden ; the petty tythes valued att twenty five pounds p annum; the presentation of the minister formerly, as we are informed, was by the deane and chapter of Paules, London. The parsonage is in the hands and occupacyon of Mr. Challoner Chute. The value of the chiefe tythe is, as we are informed, one hundred pounds per annum, for what tearme, he the said Mr. Chute hath it in, wee cannot know.t We the Comm rs for approbacon of puhlique preachers and all others whom it may concerne. We William Steele etc the true and undoubted patrons of the vicarage of the psh church of Chiswick, become void by the death of the late incumbent or by any other wayes whatsoever, have nominated and presented James Thompson minister of the word to the said vicarage, and desire that the said James Thompson may be admitted to and reside in the said vicarage, and vested with all the rights, members, and appurtenances thereof which we doe hereby upon your admission graunt unto him, and that you would doe and fulfill all the other things requisite and necessary by you in this behalf to be done. Given * Minutes of the Commissioners' proceedings, Lambeth MS. Library, vol. xix. p. 137, 138. + A Survey of Church Lands, Anno 1049. vol. i. p. 1^. Lambeth MS. Lib. X 306 HISTORY OF CHISWIOK. under our hands and seales the 4th day of November, 1658. James Thompson admitted the 19th day of November 1658 to the vicarage of Chiswick in the county of Middle- sex upon a presentation exhibited the 17. day of the same month from the trustees for maintenance of ministers. The patrons and certificates from Richard Mayo of King- ston-upon-Thames. Thomas Willis of Twickenham, Ri. Hobhouse of Walton.* Mr. Thompson procured the allowance of sixty pounds per annum, out of the impropriated tithes, in consequence of the following mandate : — " Whereas the vicarage of the parish of Chiswick in the countie of Middlesex doth not exceede the yearly value of ฃ40 and the lease of the impropriated tythes of Chiswick aforesaid, parcel of the possessions of the late deane and chapter of Pauls as lately appeared. It is ordered that the yearley summe of three score pounds bee graunted out of the rents and profitts of the said tithes, to and for encrease of such godly and painful preachers of the gospell, as shall from time to time be the settled ministers of ye said parish church, and duly to be paid to Mr. John Thompson present minister whereof, of whose godly con- versation, abilities and fitness for ye said place, the said trustees have good testimonie to hold for such times as he shall continue faithfully to discharge ye duty of the minister of the said place till farther ordered. And that Mr. Francis, churchwarden doe pay the same unto him as annexed to his vicarage according to act of parliament in jt behalfe.f " Thos. Thorowgood Io. Pocock. W. Skinner. Ri. Yonge. * Minutes of the Commissioners' proceedings, Lambeth MS. Library, vol. xix. p. 137. + Minutes of the Commissioners' proceedings. Trustees for plundered Ministers, vol. xxxv. p. 144. Lambeth MS. Library. DESCRIPTION OF THE CHURCH. 307 Bowack thus describes this church in 1705 : — cc This church we are well assured is very ancient, tho' after all our pains we cannot discover its founder or the time when it was built, therefore we must venture to give our con- jectures from the architecture of it, as we have done in other places. Upon a careful survey of the structure of this church, we find in it three or four distinct kinds of building, between every one of which by their different appearances there must have been a considerable interval. That which appears most ancient is the north wall, the lower parts of which we suppose to have continued ever since its first foundation. This is built with flint and chalk stones, and is of great thickness, though without any care or order, and seems of a piece with the buildings of the 12th or 13th century. We have further reason to believe it of such a standing, because there is a cup belonging to this church, used in the communion service, called St. Nicholas's cup, of a very antique form, which probably was dedicated to the said Saint with the church. But that which strengthens this conjecture is, the archi- tecture of the tower at the west end, which seems to be built at least 200 or 300 years since the foundation of the church, and we are assured is of about 300 years standing ; the founder dying in the year 1425, as appears by this inscription on a marble stone near the belfry : — ' Mr. William Bordale, principal vicar of this church of Chiswick, was founder of the steeple of the same. He dyed in the year of our Lord mccccxxv. both of which appears in the brass of his tombstone in this church. This monument of this worthy benefactor, being by William Walker, his successor, happily preserved from being lost, is now in this stone commended to the lasting memory of posterity by the Eight Honourable and truly noble Lord, Francis, Lord Russell, Earl of Bedford, Anno Domini MDCXXX.' " The said plate referred to in this inscription is now in x2 308 HTSTOllY OF CHTSWICK. being, and the inscription on it inserted in the collection following. " In some other parts of this church, the walls seem to be rebuilt almost from the foundation, and considerably raised in several places, as also alterations in the windows, which seems to be done about 150 years ago ; but that which is most modern, is the south aisle, a handsome brick building, carried a considerable way from the body of the church towards the south, built from the ground by the parishi- oners in the years 1649-50 and 51 (the south side of the church, being then in a shattered condition, and the con- gregation much augmented), and cost them, with some other repairs ฃ279. These are all the alterations and repairs we can discover in this church, except some repairs of the chancel, by the Right Honourable Thomas, Earl of Falconberg, in the year 1694, by virtue of his lease from the dean and chapter of St. Paul's." " It may not be improper here to add, that some few years after repairing the church, the parishioners likewise liberally contributed towards the rebuilding of the Par- sonage house, which was in a very shattered condition ; and in the year 1658, the old one was pulled down, and a new one erected, built of brick, very handsome and commodious, the parish rate for this was ฃ260. Also, in the year 1698, the house being out of repair and wanting several conveniences, it was repaired, beautified, and had some additional buildings added, which cost in all ฃ56. 16s. Several of the honourable and eminent inha- bitants contributing very largely, particularly that worthy gentleman Sir Stephen Fox, who also at his own charge has built a spacious barn of brick near adjoining, for the use of the vicar, which cost him ฃ40." Thomas Elborough who was collated to this vicarage in 1662, published an Exposition of the Common Prayer, in two books. He was an intimate friend of John Barwick, who was made dean of St. Paul's, by Charles the Second, for his loyalty and sufferings during the civil war. Dr. Barwick in the latter part of his life, frequently retired to his friend's house at Chiswick. \ ) (CSnigWKCIE. (DHWIBOHc HEJR TmฎM&8> (SHAMMERS MOTTCIIIOTT, JKBdDfi, LIST OF VICARS. 309 1483. William Bordale * James Thompson. 1662, Sept. 26. Thomas Elborough, resig. 1675, April 15. Samuel Turner, M.A. death. 1678, Feb. 20. Jacob Ellesby, M.A. death. 1716, Mar. 26. Thomas Wood, resig. Ellesby. 1732, Dec. 5. Thomas Spateman, M.A. death. 1761, Jan. 26. Arthur Cohan, M.A. death. 1781, Mar. 30. James Trebeck, by cession. 1808, Dec. 1. Thomas Hughes, D.D. death. 1809, Aug. 16. John Pretyman, B.A. resig. 1811, Mar. 26. Thomas Frere Bowerbank, M.A. by cession. This church is dedicated to St. Nicholas, who was believed by our Saxon ancestors to be propitious to mari- ners, merchants, and fishermen, and we therefore find many sacred edifices upon the sea coast adjoining great rivers, put under his protection. The present structure appears to have consisted origi- nally only of a nave and chancel, and was built probably about the beginning of the fifteenth century, at which time the tower was erected at the charge of W. Bordall, vicar of Chiswick, who died in 1435, as appears by an inscrip- tion on a tablet placed against the west wall of the nave of the church. There are six bells in the steeple, five of which bear date anno 1656. The sixth bell, or tenor, is thus inscribed, "Thomas Mears, founder, London : this bell* was cast December 1843, in lieu of the former tenor which had been broken and useless many years." The church clock was made by Twaites, of Clerkenwell, anno 1814. The tower, which is built of stone and flint, is eighty feet * Besides the above named William Bordale I can give no further account of the Vicars of the church, because some of the Records of the dean and chapter were burnt — but of such as were admitted since the restoration. — Neivcourfs Repertorium, vol. i. p. 500. 310 HISTORY OF CHI S WICK. high, and the spire and vane is twenty-eight feet high, and is crowned with a figure of St. Nicholas, the patron saint. The chancel is the only part of the old church now remaining, and is built with stone and flint. The Interior of the Church. — The interior of the church presents a handsome and uniform appearance : at the last general repairs in the year 1818, the galleries were enlarged, and the whole was painted to resemble wainscot. The south aisle and gallery were built by voluntary subscriptions in 1772, and the north aisle and gallery were built by voluntary subscriptions, in 1817. The pulpit is judiciously placed against the east wall of the nave, it is octagonal and painted uniform. On Sundays it is covered with crimson velvet and gold fringe. The church is lighted by twelve windows, placed in the north and south aisles, and at the west and east ends of the nave. The body of the church is fifty-eight feet long from east to west, and sixty -five feet wide from north to south. The chancel is lighted by a large gothic window at the east end, one circular headed window on the south side, and two on the north side; it projects easterly from the body of the church to which it is connected by a gothic arch. It is thirty feet long, by fifteen feet wide. On the north side is the Duke of Devonshire's family pew, which he occupies as lord of the manor of Sutton. Over the communion table is painted the credence table in four divisions. The parochial charities and benefactions are painted in gilt letters on the front panels of the galleries. The organ is placed as usual over the west gallery. The present organ was first opened on Sunday, April 9th, 1797, with the overture and chorus from Solomon, which was sung by Mr. Braham. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 311 MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. Tendimus hue omnes, metam properamus ad imam, Omnia sub leges mors vocat atra suas. — Ovid ad Liviam. The transition from the fabric of the Church to the tomb is easy and natural, and the reader must expect little more in the following pages than a transcription of epitaphs. In a parochial history a list of this kind cannot be without interest, since there must be a pleasing sensation in the recollection of departed friends. Whilst we see around us the memorials of those whom we once loved, or at least those whom we once knew, we cannot but indulge a few moments of serious thought, and profit by the prospect. The tomb of a good man supplies the want of his pre- sence, and veneration for his memory produces the same effect as the observation of his life.* On the south wall of the chancel is the monument of Sir Thomas Chaloner, composed of red veined marble, repre- senting a tent sort of architectural design, the upper part projecting in a semicircular form, with an entablature of the doric order, on the metopes of which are displayed two coats of arms. Over this is a pediment, in the front of which is another coat of arms ; on the apex of the pedi- ment stands a figure of fame with a trumpet in each hand. On the entablature, supported by two angels' heads, stand two figures in coats of mail, with duck trowsers, military boots, black beards, black hair, faces and hands coloured flesh, who drawing aside the curtains, shew the figures of a man and a woman kneeling before an altar, on which is a skull with this inscription : — Here lieth the bodey of Sir Thomas Chaloner, who was Knighted In the warres of France by King Henry the Fourthe, aซ 1591, and After governor in the minority, and chamberlayne to the late prince Of famous memory, Henry Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornval, And Earle of Chester. He married to his first wife, Elizabeth, Daughter to William Fleetwood, Serjeant at Lawe, to Q. Eliz. * Dr. Johnson's Essay on Epitaphs. 312 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. And Recorder of London, by whom he had yssue, Thomas, decea. ; Willia; Arthur, decea. ; James, Elizabeth, decea.; Mary, wiffe To Sir Edward Fisher, Knight; Elizabeth, and Dorothy, and Died the 22 d of June ao 100:3, aged 35 yeares : and to his Second wife he married Jude, the daughter of Will. Blunt, Of London, Esquier, by whom he had also yssue, Henry, Charles, Frederick and Arthure ; Anne, Katharine, and Francis, And she decea. the 30th day of June, ao 1615, aged 36 yeares, And the aforesayd Sir Tho. Chaloner, died ye 18th day Of November, 1615, beinge of ye age of 51 yeares. An. Dom. 1721. In gratefull remembrance of his honourable ancestor, this monument was repaired at the charge of Edward Chaloner, of Gisbrough, in Com. Ebor. Esqre. Arms. — Sab. a chevron between three cherubim, or, for Chaloner of Gisbrough, quartering 1 arg. a cross flory engrailed sab. between, for Cornish, choughs for Ithell. 2. arg. a chevron vert between 3 wolves' heads erased arg. 3. Sab. between 3 fleurs-de-lis arg. Chaloner impaling per pale nebuly az. and or, 6 martlets in pale, counterchanged for Fleetwood. Chaloner impaling arg. 2 bars, az. an escarbuncle of eight staves, for Bluut. This Sir Thomas was the son of Sir Thomas Chaloner, the elder, a very eminent person in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and he seems to have inherited a great portion of his father's accomplishments. He was particularly attached to the study of natural history, which led him to the discovery of the first alum-mines which had been known in this kingdom, and which he found near Gis- brough, in Yorkshire. The method of preparing the alum he is said to have brought from Italy. These mines, with others that have been discovered, were afterwards seized by the crown, and became so valuable, that Sir Paul Pindar rented them at ฃ4,740. per annum ; and as Fuller says, did not complain of his bargain. The mines lay neglected for many years, but are now worked, and the produce sent both to the London market and to foreign parts. Sir Thomas Chaloner wrote a Treatise on the Virtues of Nitre, and " others matters (says Wood,) per- taining to virtuosity, and some things as it seems to Pastoral ; but whether extant I cannot tell." Puttenham compares " Maister Chaloner for Eclogue and Pastorale Poesie to Sir T. Sydney, and the gentleman MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 313 who wrote the Shepherd's Calendar, all of whom" says he, " deserve the highest price."* William, his eldest son, was created a baronet by James the First, anno 1620. Edward, who was born at Chiswick, entered into holy orders, and published several Sermons, and a work entituled, " the Authority, Universality, and Visibility of the Church," 4to. 1625. He died of the plague, at Oxford. James, disgusted by the seizure of the alum mines, took a very active part against Charles the First, and sat on his trial. At the restoration, messengers being sent to arrest him, he took poison. He was the author of a short Treatise on the Isle of Man, appended to King's Vale Royal, of Cheshire. Thomas signed the warrant for the King's execution, which occasioned him to be excepted out of the act of oblivion. He retired to Holland, and died at Middleburgh, in 1661. He wrote, among other things, a pretended discovery of the tomb of Moses. Fuller says, Sir Thomas Chaloner (tutor, rather gover- nor, as I take it, to Prince Henry,) not long ago built a spacious house within a close of Clerkenwell Priory, upon the frontispiece whereof these verses were inserted, not unworthy of remembrance. f Cliast faitli still stayes beliinde, though hence be flown Those veyled nuns, who here before did reste ; For revend marriage, wedlock vows doth own, And sacred flames keeps here in loyal brest. Presuming that the original verse was written by the younger Chaloner, we may regard it as an ingenious com- pliment to his first wife, who was the daughter of Fleet- wood, the celebrated recorder of London, in Queen Eliza- beth's reign. The following lines inscribed on a sun-dial within the precincts of the Nunnery, is ascribed to the elder Chaloner. " Non aliter pereo species quani futilis umbree." The fleeting shade describes its day and mine, For life and light by the same steps decline. * Fuller's Worthies, Yorkshire, p. 180. Art of Poetry, p. 51. Wood's Athen. Oxon. vol. i. Biog. Britan. art. Chaloner in the notes. + Church Hist. Book vi. p. "278. London, 1665. 314 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. On the same wall, an elegant marble monument with a pyramid, and a female figure reclining on three coffins under a weeping willow tree — In a vault beneath this church Are deposited the remains of William M'Tavish, Who died in his 22nd year, at Strand-on-the-Green, On the 4th of May, 1818. Ann M'Tavish, Who departed this life at Bridport, on the 22nd of May, 1819, In her 20th year. And Mary Pasley, sister of the above, Who died in her 22nd year, at Sidmouth, On the 9th of June, 1819. On a small tablet underneath the above — Simon M'Tavish, Esq. Fourth and last child of Simon M'Tavish, Esq. Died at Eamsgate, 9th of October, 1828, Aged 25 years. Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus Tarn cari capitis ? On a handsome marble tablet surmounted with a bust — Thomas Bentley, Born at Scrampton, in Denbighshire, January 1st, 1730. He married Hannah Oates, of Chesterfield, in the year 1754, Mary Stamford, of Derby, in the year 1772, Who survived to mourn her loss. He died November 26th, 1780. Blessed with an elevated and comprehensive understanding, Informed in a variety of sciences. He possessed A warm and brilliant imagination, A pure and elegant taste. His extensive abilities Guided by the most expanded philantrophy, Were employed In forming and executing plans for the public good. He thought With the freedom of a philosopher. He acted With the integrity of a virtuous citizen. He was partner with Mr. Josiah Wedgewood in the celebrated Staffordshire manufacture, and being possessed of an elegant taste, furnished man; of the beautiful designs for that ware. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 315 On the south wall of the chancel — Sacred To the Memory of John Thompson, Esq. who died Sept. 16, 1807, aged 68 ; And of Judith Elizabeth, eldest daughter of the above John Thompson, who died October, 1814, Aged 43 years. On the same wall is this monument, curious for the quaintness of the epitaph. On each side is a pilaster formed of books, with clasps in the old manner, and placed alternately with backs and front leaves outer- most. The pillars support a cornice, on which is placed a coat of arms between what has been once intended for pine apples. In the lowest part of the monument, is another coat of arms, with a scroll on each side, which displays " Law will I mark, will, and walke aright." Sibi vivens. et Mariee Uxori charissimae optase Mortuae (ne quos vivus amor et Felix concordia Conjunxit, mors ipsa divideret tumulo hie uxoris C'ineres expectant viri ut quod,) vivis non licuit din Qui unanimes fuissent semp una esse possint in Terra usque du in coelis Deus sit omnia in omnibus Wills. Walkerus hujus Ecclesiae Pastor indignus Quod nollet, id volens posuit, quin sibi, quoqu Conjugique suae secundae marthae Filiae, Clarissimi domini D. Johannis Allot Eqvitis aurati, et Praetoris olim Londinensis ; Deo Annuente designat. Maria Walker, daughter of yt venerable divine, Mr. Robert Kay, who honoured his pfession and profited Y e people of Ware in Hertfordshire with his fruitfull preaching and holy life for above ix yeares, and ye wife of William Walker, ye pastor of this Pish, was a singular Sampler, of true piety, virtue, goodnes endowed wth much beauty of body, and more of mind. She left 2 sons, Francis & Theophilus, and 4 daughters, Mary, Faith, Anne, Elizabeth Walker. She lived beloved, and dyed desired of all, and living daily dying, did dying come to live eternally. She finished ye last act of her mortification On earth by death, and entered into true life in heaven, Feb. 21. A. D. mdcxix. Law will I mark, will, and walk aright. 316 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. Arms: — Arms almost obliterated, were arg. on a chevron sab. between 3 pel- lets, as many crescents of the Field for Walker quartering arg. a milrind sab. and impaling arg. 2 bendlets sab. for Kay. There was also the coat of Walker impaling arg. on a bend sab. between 2 pellets a demi lion rampart of the field, for Allot, the name of his second wife who is mentioned in the Epitaph. Near the preceding — Here before lyeth buryed the body of Anne Barker, Of Chiswick, widowe, daughter to Lawrence Stoughton, of Stoughton, in Surry, Esq. first married To Richard Maxey, of Salinge, in the county Of Essex, Esq. by whom she had one sonne, and Five daughters, and having lived his wife And widow fifty and five years, departed This life the fourteenth of May, in the threescore And nineteenth year of her age, anno domini 1607. Non violenta rapit te mors sed tempore pleno Plena annis, meritis plenior Anna cadis Utque annis absumpta cadis sic surgis in altum Et vivas meritis non moritura tuis Hie igitur placide faglix anus, ossa quiescant Laus inter vivos mens super astra volat. Arms : — Barker as before, impaling az. a cross engrailed erm, for Stoughton. Anne Barker was daughter of Lawrence Stoughton, Esq. of the county of Surry. On the east wall of the chancel — Here lyeth buried ye body of Thomas Barker, of Cheswyke, Esq. one Of His Maj tes justices of ye peace for ye county of Midd* And bencher of ye honble societie of the Middle Temple, London, sonne Of William Barker, of Sunninge, in ye county of Barks Esq. and Anne his wife, whose body lyeth also here bvried. He married Marye ye daughter of Valentine Saunders, Esq. one of six Clerks of His Majtes high court of Chancery, by whom hee Left three sonnes and five daughters. Hee lived a faithful member of God's church, an honour to his house and familye, a father to ye poore, learned in his profession, beloved of his neighbors, And full of d ayes and good workes, departed this life, and changed his abode here for a perpetual mansion, not made with handes, but eternal in ye heavens. Upon ye third of April in the threescore and fyfte yeare of his age, an. dni. 1G30. Arms : — Quarterly 1 and 4. per chevron engrailed or. and sab. a lion rampant counterchanged ; 2 and 3 arg. 3 spears in pale and a chief sable ; the spears headed on the chief; arg. for Barker, impaling per chevron sab. and arg. 3 elephants' heads erased and counterchanged for Saunders. Thomas Barker married the daughter of Valentine Saunders, Esq. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 317 Near the communion table on the north side, is the following inscription, on an old tablet — Here before lyetli buried ye bodies of Cbidioke Wardour, Esqieur, who served the state in the time of the late Queen Elizabeth of famous memory, and ye most renowned Kinge James that now is, by the space of forty-two years In the office of Lo Treasorers Clerke, writer of the records of the Pelles of Introitus and exitus who dyed ye xiiii day of September, an. dni. 1611. And of Mary Becher, wife of the said Chidioke Wardour, daughter unto that worthy gentleman Henry Becher, late alderman of the famous city of London, who dyed the 15th day of September, 1600. Which said Childioke and Mary had issue one sonne, named Edward, and three daughters, whereof the eldest, named Jane, and ye youngest, named Ursula, died young, but the second named Elizabeth, after she had bin married by the space often years unto Sir Stephen Lestieur, Knt. Now ambassador from ye King's Majesty unto Mathias ye II. elected emperor of ye Komans, By whom shee had issue two sonnes, Edward and Stephen, who both dyed infantes. She also dyed ye first day of April, 1606, and lyetli here buryed. As also ye body of Edward Wardour, eldest son of Edward ye sonne of ye said Chidioke and Mary, who dyed \ the xith day of March, 1605. In happy memory of all which (vizt) his father, mother, sister, and sonne, Edward Wardour, hath dedicated this monument this (first day of November, 1612, not doubting but) that all their souls do rest happily In the kingdome of heaven, where he doth assuredly hope he shall see them face to face, And also be made an heire of the same kingdom, through the only merites and mercies of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Against the north wall of the chancel on a monument in the form of a pyramid with a bust in front, on a medal- lion — If talents To make entertainment instruction to support the credit of the stage by just and manly action, if to adorn society by virtues which would honour any rank and profession deserved remembrance ; let him with whom these talents were long exerted, to whom these virtues were well known, 318 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. and by whom the loss of them will be long lamented, hear testimony to the worth and abilities of his departed friend. Charles Holland was born Mareh 12, 1733, dy'd Dec. 7, 1709, and was buried near this place. D. Garrick.* On the north wall of the chancel, on a marble tablet — To the memory of Mr. John Forbes, A.L.S. A botanical collector in the service of the horticultural society of London, Who died at Senna, On the Zambazee river, in Eastern Africa, In the month of August, 1823, In the 22nd year of his age. This tablet is erected by the council of the society, In testimony of their entire approbation of his conduct while on their service, and of their deep regret at the untimely death of a naturalist of so much enterprise and promise. Over the north door of the chancel, on a plain marble tablet — Sacred to the memory Of her Grace Charlotte, Duchess of Somerset, Daughter to Daniel Finch, second Earl of Nottingham, and wife to Charles Seymour, Duke of Somerset, by whom she had two daughters, The Lady Frances, married to John, Marquis of Granby, and Lady Charlotte to Heneage Finch, Earl of Aylesford. Thus distinguished by her noble birth and connections, She added lustre to both, by the invariable rectitude of her conduct, the unaffected simplicity of her manners, the uniform practice of every virtue, and the purity of a long and exemplary life, on the 21st day of January, 1773, at the age of eighty years. She expired in the arms of her family, who had long been instructed by her precepts, as was the world by her example. Peace to this urn, for to its charge is given, All that was mortal of a saint in heaven. The Duchess of Somerset resided at Sutton Court. * Mr. Charles Holland died also this year. He was a performer of consi- derable talents and great attainments, and if not originally excellent, was one of the best copies of excellence. — KirkmatCs Life of Macklln, vol. ii. p. 31. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 319 On the south wall of the chancel, on a marble tablet — This tablet Is erected by W. S. Penderleath, Esq. To the Memory of Margaret, His beloved wife, Who died at Dover, on the 22nd day of September, 1833, Aged 58. And lies interred In a vault in this church. And now Lord what wait I for ? My hope is in Thee. — Psalm xxxix. 7. On the floor of the chancel pavement — Here lyeth interred The corps of Mary Bitcott, daughter of John Bitcott, Esq. Pensioner unto our gracious Queene Elizabeth, And wyfe unto Richard Barker, of Sunning, Esq. And with her Jeane Barker her vth child, of whom she died in Child bed, and at her death leaving a sonne, and daughter living, She dyed the vnth day of November, whose soul assuredly resteth With the Lord, and her bodie upon that sudden occasion buried the ixth day Anno Domini m.dxcix. Et regni Reginae Elizabeths quadragessimo primo. Marcus Antonius La Bastide De Crosat Obiit Quarto Martii, 1704. This gentleman was secretary to the Marquis Rovigny, ambassador from the King of France to Oliver Cromwell.* The following inscription is near the church-rails — Here lyeth interred the body of Mr. Thomas Elborrow, late Vicar of Chis- wick. He departed this life the seventh of April, 1675, aged fifty-four years. Having thus described the monuments within this ancient and beautiful chancel, we now enter the nave or body of the church. The word nave or naf is Saxon, and signifies properly the middle of a wheel, and is thence transferred to signify the body or middle of the church. * See Bowack's Antiquities of Middlesex, p. 25, London, 1705. 3ฃQ HISTORY OF CHTSWTCK. The two following inscriptions arc mentioned by Weever. ฉrate pro mxinm /ttat?)tl&ig g>alb)cgne uxovte &icl)aviJt Salbcgne JWiUtts ฎf)isauser 3EccU que o6* 1432. In the middle aisle on a very old brass plate, now in the hands of the churchwardens ; the impression of which is visible upon an old stone, to which it belonged, is the following inscription : — Htfc lacet aHiUtug 25orOaU ^rtndpalis YTimii fwjug talk tt funitatur campanilte efusft* ฎut ofiu't xvto.&f* mtm. ฉctoft anno* Wnu mccccxxxv. cujug ale piopctietur ฉens* Weever has the following passage when speaking of inscribed grave stones in church pavements. " Many monuments are covered with seats or pews, made high or easie for parishioners to sit or sleep in, a fashion of no long continuance and worthy of reformation.! Pews, however, appear to have been introduced much earlier than Weever's time ; for Stow, in his account of the " faire and beautiful" church of St. Andrew Undershaft, which " hath beene new builded by the parishioners there, since the year 1520, every man putting to his helping hand, some of their purses, others with their bodies," states that Stephen Jennings, some time lord mayor of London, (besides erecting all the northern half) had the whole of the south church glazed, and the pewes in the south chappell made of his costs, as appeareth in every window, and upon the said pewes. J The Pulpit. — The ambo Avas what we now call the reading desk, a place made on purpose for the reader and singers, and such of the clergy as ministered in the first service called Missa Cathecumenorum. It had the name * Weever's Funeral Monuments, p. 165. London. 1681. + Fun. Mon. p. 701, Lond. 1631. % Survey of London, p. 284. Lond. 1618. Willius Bordall, Principalis Vicarii Hujus Ecclie. Qui obiit Anno Domini MCCCCXXXV. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 321 of Ambo, not as Walafridus Strabo imagines, " ab ambi- endo," because it surrounded them that were in it; but from anabainein, because it was a place of eminency, to which they went up by degrees by steps. The bishops did not anciently use to preach from the Ambo, but more commonly from the rising steps of the altar, as Valesius shews that this custom continued in France to the time of King Childebert;* and, therefore, both Socrates and Sozomen seem to speak of Chrysostom's preaching in the ambo as an unusual thing ; but he did so for conveniency, Socrates says, that he might be the better heard by the people. We cannot therefore conclude that the ambo was the ordinary place of preaching, but rather the altar. Organ — The present organ was opened on Sunday, April 9th, 1797, with the Overture and Chorus from " Solomon," which was sung by the celebrated Mr. Braham. Near the pulpit is a small and delicate mural monument ornamented with a figure of Faith, by Westmacott, with this inscription — Near this spot are interred the bodies of The Reverend James Trebeck, M.A. Twenty-eight years vicar of this parish, Who died July 1, 1808, aged 80. And Mary his beloved wife who died December, 1, 1805. Aged 75. They delivered the poor that cried, and the Fatherless, and him that had none to help him. If there was any virtue, if there was any Praise, they thought on these things. On the east wall of the south aisle on a marble tablet — Near this spot in one grave lie the remains of Augustus E. Brande, Esq. M.D. Born 16th December, 1746. Died 27th January, 1834. Anne his widow, Born 22nd October, 1753. Died 3rd July, 1837, * Valois, Hist, de France, torn. i. p. 62. Socrat. Hist. Eccl. lib. vi. c. 5. Sozomen Hist. Eccl. lib. vii. c. v. Bingham, lib. viii. c. 5. p. 4. Durand. lib. iii. De Evang. p. 77. Spelman, Glos. Voc. Ambo. Y 322 HISTORY OF CTIISWICK. And of Anna Frederica Kramer, Bom 27th May, 1755. Died 10th March, 1836, Many years inhabitants of this parish. Also of Thomas Thomas, Esq. M.D. Of Charles Street, St. James's Square, London, Born 21st December, 1750. Died 17th November, 1838 And of Augusta, widow of Capt. Jno. Lambe, Formerly commander of the Melville Castle, Honble. East India Company's Service, Born 3rd July, 1762. Died 27th April, 1839. On the wall of the south aisle, a handsome marble tablet is thus inscribed : — Sacred to the Memory of Simon Cock, Esquire, Of this parish, Endowed with talents of the highest class, With an elevated and energetic mind, He filled various appointments of honour and respectability ; His opinion was frequently sought On questions of commercial importance, and occasionally Upon public measures under consideration of Parliament. Attentive to the performance of all the social duties In his comprehensive benevolence, He was ever ready to relieve the wants, or advance the prosperity Of all those who desired or needed his aid. He was thus justly endeared to a large circle of friends, Afflicted by illness of long duration Which he bore with the utmost cheerfulness. He departed this life on the 23rd of March, 1837, In the 63rd year of his age. A few of the friends of Simon Cock have erected this monument To record their sense of his public and private worth. " Be vigilant." Peter, 5th ch. 8th v. On a small tablet adjoining — In a vault under this church, lies the body of Charles Whittingham, late of this parish, Printer; who attained considerable eminence in his art, parti- cularly in the printing of wood engravings. He was born at Calledon, in the county of Harwick, 16th of June, 1767, and died at Chiswick, 15th January, 1840, aged 73 years. In the same vault lies buried Mary, wife of the above ; also, Rebecca Whittingham, his sister. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 323 On a tablet is thus inscribed near the preceding — Sacred to the Memory of Henry Robins, Esq. of the Great Piazza, Covent Garden, London, Who departed this life the 15th of September, 1821, aged 68 years, Whose mortal remains are deposited in a vault beneath this tablet. Also, of Ann his wife, who died July 2, 1820, aged 74 years. Also, of James their son, who died January 19th, 1815, In the 33rd year of his age. In the vault beneath are deposited the mortal remains of Tabitha, wife of Mr. George Robins, of Covent Garden, and Turnham Green, who departed this life the 19th of December, 1828, aged 51. By nature grac'd, by smiling fortune deckt With all that conquers love and wins respect; An honoured friend, a dear and cherished wife, Blest as a poet's vision seemed thy life; But, when disease had dimmed that radiant eye, When closed was that long lingering agony ; A nobler blessing crowned thy parting breath, The holy triumph of a Christian's death. On an adjoining tablet — Beneath in a vault Lieth the body of Miss Grace Maria Robins, Daughter of Henry and Ann Robins, Who died September 15, 1796, aged 16 years. Whose lovely form by studious care refined, Contained that precious pearl, an upright mind : Her parent's hope, but righteous providence They trust, for better life, soon took her hence. Also, the body of her sister, Miss Catherine Robins, Who died Feb. 20th, 1802, aged 19 years. On a tablet — Sacred to the Memory Of Mrs. Elizabeth Pratt, of Little Sutton, Whose remains lie near this place, Died the 28th April, 1806, Aged 82 years. Thy will be done. Y 2 HISTORY OF CHIS WICK, On a tablet — Near this place are Deposited the remains of Thomas King King, Esqre- and Juliana his wife, The former died 28th April, 1800, aged 75. The latter on the 16th of July. 1815, aged 85. This venerable couple Many years inhabitants of this parish, were Benevolent, charitable, and devout, Kind neighbours, and sincere friends. In the north aisle east end, a marble monument with arms — In a vault under this marble Lie interred the remains of The Honourable Thomas Walpole, Secend son of Horatio, 1st Lord Walpole, Of Wotterton, in the county of Norfolk, Born 6th October, 1727, died 21st March, 1803. Also, those of Ins eldest daughter, Catherine Mary Walpole, Born 8th July, 1756, died 2d June, 1816. This marble is placed by order of His youngest daughter, Elizabeth Walpole. A marble monument, with arms — Near this place lies the body Of Charles Barnwell, Esq. Was born February 10th, 1695, And died the 30th of May, 1739. Arms : — Arg. a field and river proper, a stag drinking. On the west wall, on a tablet — • To the Memory of Mr. Robert Hawley, Who died July 27th, 1800, aged 77. If upright conduct, virtue, piety, Affection, friendship, truth and charity, Betoken christian faith, his acts confirm, He liv'd in hopes, his soul may rest in peace ; Trusting in Christ, to rise among the blest. Also, James Masters, Nephew of the above, who died July 20th, 1801, aged 46 MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 825 On a square antique tablet, under the organ gallery — Mr. William Bordall, principal vicar Of this churche of Chiswicke, was Founder of y e steeple of ye same. He died ye 15the day of October, In ye year of our Lorde mccccxxv. both whcb appeare in tbe Brass on his tombstone in This church, whch monument Of this worthy benefactor, Being by William Walker, His successor, happily preserved, Is now in this stone contended to the lasting memorie of posteritie by ye right honorable and truly noble lorde Francis Lorde Russell, Earle of Bedford, anno Domini M.Dc.xxxi.* Near the preceding on a tablet — To the Memory of Mr. John Edwards, Who died March 18, 1794, aged 59 years. Also, of Mrs. Mary Edwards, aged 50 years. Also, of Mr. John Panter, Who died April 24, 1791, in the list year of his age. Also, to the Memory of Mrs. Charles Bush, Who died June 20th, 1815, aged 78 years. North aisle, at the west end, on a tablet — In a vault beneath this tablet Are deposited the remains of Lewis Peacock, Esq. late of tbis parish, who died on the 4th of August, 1828, aged 77 years. Also of Elizabeth, for 55 years the beloved and affectionate wife of the above, who departed this life, on the 5th Jany. 1839, aged 8b' years. * Brass in Chiswick Church. — Many monuments of the dead in churches in and about this city of London, as also as in some places in the country, are covered with seats or pews made high and easy for the parishioners to sit or sleep in, a fashion of no long continuance and worthy of reformation — Weevcrs Fun. Monuments, p. 701. HISTORY OF CHISWICK. On a neat plain marble tablet- BENEATH IN A VAULT ARE DEPOSITED THE REMAINS OF JOHN SICH, ESQ. FOR MORE THAN SIXTY YEARS AN INHABITANT OF THIS PARISH. HE DIED 24th JANUARY, 1836, AGED 84 YEARS. ALSO OF ANNE HIS WIFE, WHO DIED 22nd MARCH, 1824, AGED 09 YEARS ; LIKEWISE OF HARRIOT SICH, THEIR DAUGHTER, WHO DIED 28th JANUARY, 1830, AGED 47 YEARS. On a tablet — A sacred tribute of parental affection to the beloved memory of Robert Hay, who departed this life October 28, J 823, aged 24 years. " Into thy hand I commend my spirit." On the wall of the north side — Here rests In humble hope of a blessed resurrection through the merits of his Redeemer, The body of the Rev. Thomas Home, D.D. formerly fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, and for many years Master of the Manor House School, in this parish. After a life of exemplary piety, Purity, and Christian Charity. He departed hence on the 27th January, 1824, in the 86th year of his age, full of faith and good works. Also, that of his excellent consort Francis Ann Home, who affectionately following his footsteps, departed in the blessed hope with cheerful resignation, Oct, 28th, 1826, in the 76th year of her age. Near the preceding, on a marble tablet — In a vault near this place are deposited the remains of Anne Sharpe, late wife of Benjamin Sharpe, of Fleet Street, Banker. who died after a few hours illness. May 1 111). 1819, aged 31. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 32' This marble whilst it gratefully records the virtues of one who as a wife, a mother, and a Mend, was a blessing, to those with whom her earthly lot was united, expresses likewise the humble, though confident hope that her short life passed in the love of God, and by that love, prompted to the performance of every Christian duty, has through the merits of her Redeemer, been changed for one of eternal happiness and glory. Sacred to the Memory of William Francis Sharpe, second son of the above, who died 25th April, 1828, he possesed a superior mind far beyond his years, with the mildest manners and most affectionate heart. Forgive blest shade, the tributary tear That mourns thy exile from a world like this ; Forgive the wish that would have kept thee here, And staid thy progress to the realms of bliss. In the same vault with those of his beloved wife and son have since been interred the remains of Benjamin Sharpe, Esq. of Fleet Street, and Chiswick. He departed this life after a short illness, On the 12th of February, 1838, In the 08th year of his age. This memorial is inscribed by his three surviving children To whom, next to his God, his whole life was devoted. On the east end of the north ailse on a marble tablet — Near this place lies interred the Body of Thomas Plukenett, late of this parish, Gent, who Departed this life the 1st. of November, 1721, in the 81st year of his age. Also the body of Mrs. Grace Plukenett, Relict of the above Thomas Plukenett, who departed this life the 25th day of November, 1738, in the 88th year of her age. Also the body of Mrs. Grace Woodroffe, Daughter of Thomas and Grace Plukenett, who departed this life the 31st. of September, 1743, in the 69th year of her age. Arms: — A bend engrailed gules, impaling az. a chevron between 3 hanks of cotton arg. borne by Cotton. 328 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. On the wall at the east end of the nave, on a large tablet — Mary Rachel Wade, Born the 16th of July, 1760, died 16th of September, 1827, Buried in a vault beneath this church. She was the daughter of the Honorable Richard Walpole, the third son of Lord Walpole, of Wollerton, in Norfolk, who was the brother of Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, K.G. Prime Minister. She was married on the 1th January, 1798, To the Reverend Ashton Wade, of Hardington, lu the County of Northampton, who died and was buried there in May, 1820. George Ashton Wade, Esq. The 2nd son of the above, born at Hardington, On the 4th of December, 1803, died at Bath the 1st of October, 180"), Buried at Walcot Church in that City. This monument is erected by the three surviving children, Richard Henry, Caroline, and Harriett. On the east end of this aisle — Sacred to the Memory of Col. John Beckwith, who departed this life, October 16th, 1815, aged 88. Also of Mrs. Beckwith, who died 21st January, 1824, aged 70. On the north-east wall of the nave, on a large antique marble tablet — James Henry Casamajor, Esquire, Obiit 23rd Jan. 1815, JEtat. 69, And his mortal remains are deposited at the foot of this tablet. He lived long enough to exhibit Amidst various trusts both in public and private life, a consistent example of probity, purity, and innocence. Nor was he less an aimiable than a good man, And the kindness of his heart confirmed the love which the suavity of his manners had conciliated. The warmth and constancy of his affections, His care and anxiety, tenderness, and indulgence, in the relation of husband and parent. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. S89 are imperishable memorials of his domestic virtue, deeply inshrined in the bosom of his family To whom he has bequeathed the sacred inheritance of his unspotted name, and the example of his excellent life. On a tablet adjoining — Also the remains of Elizabeth Cassamajor, the beloved and respected wife of the above, who died on the 19th of January, A. D. 1837, aged On a tablet adjoining Sacred to the Memory of Mrs. Rebecca Cassamajor, widow, who departed this life, On the Oth of November, 1788, aged 73 years. At the cast end of the north aisle, on a tablet with a pyramid and two urns — Sacred to the Memory Of Thomas Spateman, A.M. late vicar of this parish, wherein he officiated near twenty-nine years, and with what sincerity, With what humility, and study after peace, is gratefully remembered in this place. He lies interred in the new vault, Near this place by his own direction. Bom Augt. 1091. Died Jany. 1701. Arms : — Erm. on a fesse gules, between two bars gemellcs sab. 3 griffins' heads erased, or. On the floor of the north aisle — Here rests the remains of John, son of Thomas and Ann Griffith, of Pall Mall, London, who died Dec. 20, 1787, in the 23rd year of his age Mary, sister of the above, died Feb. 9th, 1791, aged 17 years. The above W. Thomas Griffith who is buried in the vault in the church, died March 13, 1795, in the 03rd year of his age. Ralph Griffiths, aged 83 years, buried Oct. 5. 18d3. 330 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. In the south gallery — In Memory of Vere Warner, of Upwoo d, in the county of Huntingdon, Esq. who departed this life November the 23rd, 1756, in the 58th year of his age* He married December 25th, 1745, Mary, relict of Leman Hutchins, of Northaw, in Hertfordshire, Esq. by whom he left no issue. Near the preceding — Near this place lie interred the bodyes of Robert Kennel, Esq. of the Parish of St. Martin's-in the-fields, who died in the year of our Lord 1690. Also Jane Kennell, his wife, who dyed in the year of our Lord 1719. This monument is erected to their pious Memories, at the charge of their eldest daughter, Ann Kennell. On the same wall — Near this place lyeth interred the body of Richard Taylor, Esq. in a vault built by him, and appropriated to his own family, Obiit 29 Aug. A.D. 1698, ^Etat. 73. Also Mrs Ann Taylor, relict of of the said Richard Taylor, Obiit 28 Oct. 1700, iEtat. 67. Arms : — Arg. on a chief az. 3 escallop shells, or, for Taylor, impaling a wood, proper for Delbotch, impaling arg. a bend between 6 martlets sable. At the east end of the south aisle, on a tablet — M. s. Johannis Tayler, arm. Hospitii de Bridewell et Bethlem Londini Thesaurii. Vitss integritatem simplicem modestiam, pietatem in parentes fidem conjugalem, In liberos suavissima comitate conditam gravitatem, in omnes benevolentiam, ab hoc marmore discite superstites MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 331 Uxoreni houesta satis et antiqua gente B — Margareta Del B — Et ex ea duplicem utriusque sexus prolem Reliquit Feb. 10, An. Dni. m.dccxxix setat. lix. Patri opt. Johannes Filius Natu max, P. Arms: — Arg. on a chief az. 3 escallop shells, or, for Taylor impaling a wood, proper, for Delbotch. On the south wall over the gallery, on a tablet — H. s. E. Richardus Tayler, arm. Qui res a Patre relictas Imunis malarum artium Satis feliciter auxit. Nee defuit ejus interim Larga universis pauperibus Licet ignota manus. Cum universum orbem Iuvenis sapientias emptor pretiosus Peragrasset ; latuit quietus Honorum juxta ac Vitiorum spretor miranda in illo viro Hispanica firmitas Gallica Promptitudo Itala Sagacitas at .Anglica benevolentia. Annam filiam unicam reliquit supra fidem docilem A veneris finxit cura patris solers. Hoc monumentum maerens posuit Dimidio animae suae sacrum Martha conjux superstes. Obiit ille in Aug. Anno Salutis humanae reparatae mdccxvi „Etatis suae lx. Arms : — Taylor impaling azure, a chevron between 3 fleurs-de-lis, or, a canton of the second. On a tablet, on the same Avail — Near this place lyeth the body of James Howard, Esq. only son of the Honble. Thomas Howard, brother to the Right Honble. James, Earl of Suffolk, wbo was interred the sixth dav oS2 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. of July, 1660, about the 20th year of his age. This monument is erected at the charge of Dame Elizabeth, Viscountess Shannon. Arms: — Howard quartering Warren, Fitzalan and Mowbray not blazoned. James Howard married Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Boyle, natural daughter of Charles the Second, by Lady Shannon. His only child Stuarta Walbury Howard, aliened the house at Turnham-green, which had belonged to her father, to Sir John Chardin. On a tablet — Here lyes ye clay Which the other clay Inclos'd Sam Sevill's soul, but now is free and unconfin'd, she fled aud left her clog behind Intomb'd within this mole May ye 21, 1728, In the 30 year of his age. In the north gallery, on a tablet — In Memory of Colonel Ralph Winwood, who died the 28 Dec. 1790, aged 73 years. Also Elizabeth, his wife, who died 0th January, 1800, aged 68 years. On a tablet — To the Memory of Thomas Tomkins, Of Sermon-lane, Doctor's Commons, whom God in his wisdom thought fit to remove from his numerous circle of respected and regretting friends, upon the 5th of Sept. 1816, aged 73 years. His professional abilities were exceeded only by his universal philantrophy. On a tablet — Sacred to the Memory of Mary Read Pyke, of this parish. She died the 30 day of March, 1818, aged 7 1 years, and her remains are deposited iu the vault beneath. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 333 On a tablet — Sacred to the Memory of John William Horsley, Esq. late of this Parish, who departed this life on the 1st of June, 1833, aged 75 years. and of Mary his wife, who departed this life on the 9th of December, 1830, aged 70 years. The following epitaph was written by A. Murphy, Esq. on John Ayton Thompson, a youth of fifteen — If in the morn of life each winning grace, The converse sweet, the mind-illumined face, The lively wit that charm'd with early art, And mild affections streaming from the heart ; If these, loVd youth, could check the hand of fate. Thy matchless worth had claim' d a longer date. But thou art blest, while here we heave the sigh ; Thy death is virtue wafted to the sky. Yet still thy image fond affection keeps, The sire remembers, and the mother weeps ; Still the friend grieves, who saw thy vernal bloom, And here, sad task ! inscribes it on thy tomb. In the church, in the Earl of Burlington's vault, is interred the illustrious Kent, a painter, architect, and the father of modern gardening. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS IN THE CHURCH-YARD. On the north side of the church the following inscription is on a square altar tomb with iron rails — In a vault beneath this tomb lye buried the remains of Nicholas Crispe, Esq. who having been many years severely afflicted with an asthma and stone, dyed quite worn out and weary of life, the fifth day of March, in the 60th year of his age, A.D. 1705-li, 334 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. Mrs. Ann Crispe, wife of Nicholas Crispe, Esq, died Feb. 0, 1731, in the 74th year of her age- Lady Gough, widow of Sir Richard Gough, Bart, their eldest daughter, died Dec. 31, 1731, in the 50th year of her age, Mrs. Mary Walker, their 2nd daughter, died Oct. 4, 1760, In the 72nd year of her age. In hopes of a joyful resurrection. Against the north wall of the church, and facing the above, is a mural tablet, with the arms of the Crispe's, thus inscribed — Near this place lies interred the body of Edward Crispe, Esq. who died Augt. 12th, 1739, aet. 48. In regard to whose memory this monument was erected. At the north-west end of the church-yard, and on a hand- some monument, secured by iron rails, is the following in- scription — This monument is dedicated to the memory of Philip James De Loutherbourgh, Esq. R.A. who was born at Strasbourgh, in Alsace, Nov. 1740, and departed this life at Hammersmith Terrace, March 11, 1812, aged 72 years. With talents brilliant, and supereminent as an artist, he united the still more envied endowments of a cultivated, enlarged, and elegant mind, adding to both the supreme qualities of the heart, which entitled him as a man and a Christian to the cordial respect of the wise and good. In him science was associated with faith, piety with liberality, virtue with suavity of manners, And the rational use of this world with the enobling hope of a world to come. A deathless fame will record his professional excellence, but to the hand of friendship belongs the office of strewing on his tomb those moral flowers which displayed themselves in his life, and which rendered him estimable as a social being. This monument was erected from a design by Sir John Soane, and his epitaph was written by the late Rev. Dr. Christopher Lake Moody (who was buried Dec. ฃ9, 1805), whose initials are placed under it. Here, Loutherbourgh ! repose thy laurel' d head ; While art is cherish'd thou canst ne'er be dead. Salvator, Poussin, Claude, thy skill combines, And beauteous nature lives in thy designs. C.L.M. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 335 On a handsome table monument secured with iron rails is the following inscription — Sacred to the memory of the Eight Honorable George, Earl of Macartney, Privy Counsellor, Knight of the Order of the Bath, &c. a nobleman endowed by nature with the most extraordinary talents, which he cultivated with a degree of assiduity and perseverance hardly ever equalled. The greatest part of his life was devoted to public service ; he filled a variety of high and important functions in different parts of the world with the most unsullied honour, the strictest integrity, good credit, and advantage to his king and country. His private virtues were such as to demand universal esteem and admiration. His liberality and generosity were unbounded. His superior knowledge, sweetness of temper, amenity of disposition, and lively entertainiug conversation, rendered him the delight of his friends, and the ornament of society. He was born on the 4th of June, 1737, and died on the 31st of March, 1806. We unwillingly observe, that the letters of the in- scription on Lord Macartney's monument are so badly cut, and the punctuation rendered so erroneous by the want of judgment in the mason, that the work may in a future day be adduced as a specimen of ill taste in the age that produced it. At the north-west end of the church-yard, on an altar monument — In a vault under this tomb lieth the body of Charles Holland, late of Drury Lane Theatre, of whose character and abilities David Garrick, Esq. has given testimony on a monument erected to his memory in the chancel of tbis church, by permission of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire. John Holland, died May 19, 1764, aged 67. Mrs. Sarah Holland, died Oct. 7, 1778. Mr. John Holland, died March 10, 1780. On the south side of the church-yard is the monument of the celebrated William Hogarth. On the north side of it, in basso-relievo, are the laurel wreath, rest-stick, pallette with the line of beauty, pencils, a book inscribed Analysis of Beauty, a mask, portfolio decorated with oak-leaves and acorns, under which are the following lines, by his friend Mr. Garrick — 336 HISTORY OF CHTSWICK. Farewell, great painter of mankind ! Who reach'd the noblest point of art. Whose pictured morals charm the mind, And through the eye correct the heart. If genius fire thee, reader, stay ; If nature touch thee, drop a tear ; If neither move thee, turn away, For Hogarth's honour 'd dust lies here. East side — Here lieth the body Of William Hogarth, Esq. Who died October 26th, 1764, Aged 67 years. Mrs. Jane Hogarth, Wife of William Hogarth. Esq. Obiit 13th November, 1789, iEtat. SO years. South side — Here lieth the body Of Mrs. Anne Hogarth, sister To William Hogarth, Esq. She died August 13th, 1771, Aged 70 years. Also, the body of Mary Lewis, Spinster, Died 25th March, 1808, Aged 88 years. West side- Here lieth the body Of Dame Judith Thornhill, • Relict of Sir James Thornhill, Knight, Of Thornhill, in the county of Dorset. She died Nov. 12, 1757, Aged 84 years. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 06 i " Time will obliterate these inscriptions, and even the pyramid must crumble into dust, but Hogarth's fame is engraven on tablets which shall have longer duration than monumental marble."* Arms : — On the tomb — az. a sun in splendour for Hogarth, impaling arg. a chevron gules between, 3 blackbirds for Thornbill ; there is also the coat for Tbornhill, imp. per fesse az. and erm, a pale counter-changed, 3 lions arg. The following epitaph, written upon Hogarth by Dr. Johnson, is printed in Mrs. Piozzi's anecdotes — The hand of him here torpid lies That drew the essential form of grace ; Here clos'd in death th' attentive eyes. That saw the manners in the face. This epitaph has been much admired, but it is by no means a favourable specimen of that kind of composition. The first two lines are tame and prosaic ; and the word " farewell - ' is inappropriately made use of To say farewell to the ashes of the dead is natural to those who look for the last time on the face of one they loved; but the object of an epitaph being merely to inform the reader of the great or the good man who moulder below, there is no necessity for the word of leave taking. The thought in the last stanza is much better, and were it not for the unreasonable request, that we should weep over the spot, would be perfect. Men cannot weep that their predecessors have died ; we may sigh that neither virtue nor genius can escape the common lot of humanity, but no more, we cannot weep. Admiration claims no such homage, and if it did, we could not pay it. — Mavkay's Thames and its Tributaries, vol. i. p. 96. On an altar monument, secured with iron rails, nearly adjoining the preceding on the east, is the following in- scription, written by Arthur Murphy, Esq. — Whoe'er thou art, with silent footsteps tread The hallow'd mould where Rose reclines his head. Ah ! let not folly one kind tear deny, But pensive pause where truth and honour lie. His the gay wit that fond affection drew ; Oft heard, and oft admir'd, yet ever new ; * Mention is made of this monument in the following works : — Nichols's Anecdotes of Hogarth, p. 345 ; Strutt's Hist, of England, vol. ii. p. 24 ; John Ireland's Hogarth Illustrated, vol. ii. p. 111.; Sam. Ireland's Hogarth, p. 185, and River Thames, vol. ii. p. 156 ; Lysons' Middx. ; and Boydell's River Thames. Z HISTORY OF CHIS WICK. The heart that melted at another's grief; The hand in secret that bestow'd relief ; Science, untinctur'd with the pride of schools, And native goodness, free from formal rules ; With zeal through life he toil'd in learning's cause, But more, fair virtue, to promote thy laws : His every action sought the noblest end ; The tender husband, father, brother, friend. Perhaps e'en now, from yonder realms of day, To his lov'd relatives he sends a ray ; Pleas'd to behold affections like his own, With filial duty raise this votive stone. On the west side is the following — Miss Eliza Rose, who died January 10, 1802, aged 32 years. Underneath, a large flag-stone is thus inscribed — The entrance to Dr. Rose's vault. Adjoining the monument of Dr. Rose on the west, on a mutilated flag-stone, is this inscription — Isabella, the affectionate wife, the faithful friend, the sensible companion, of Kalph Griffiths. March 25, 1764. Aged 52. On a stone, west side of the church-yard — To the memory of William Sharpe, Esq. Historical Engraver, Member of the Imperial Academy of Vienna, Of the Eoyal Academy of Munich, Died July 25, 1824. Aged 74 years. On a head-stone — Henry Smith, late of East Smithfield, July 22, 1787, aged 57. Tho' Boreas' blasts and Neptune's waves Have tost me too and fro, In spite of both, by God's decree, I harbour here below. MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS. 339 Tho' now at anchor I do rest, With many of our fleet, We must one clay set sail again, Our Saviour Christ to meet. On a table tomb — This tomb is erected to the Memory of Alexander Brodie, Esq. late of Carey Street, in the liberty of the Rolls, London, and CallcuU. in the County of Salop. First inventor of the register stoves and fire hearths for ships, and had the honour of supplying the whole British navy with the latter, for upwards of thirty years. To the preservation of many valuable lives, since their intro- duction, and was a great service to government; by which, with his own industry, he accumulated a large fortune. Died 6th January, 1811, Aged 78 years. Mary, the wife of Alexander Brodie, Esq. Died 13th of August, 1777, aged 32 years, Likewise their only child, who died in its infancy. On a large flat stone, south side of the church-yard, the following inscription, and coat of arms — UGO FOSCOLO OBIIT XIV. DIE SEPTEMBRIS, A.D. 1817, .ETATIS 52. Miles Corbett, Esq. March 18— 172 1 Aged 83. An elegant and elaborate altar tomb, erected By Lord Burlington, to the memory of his favourite Bricklayer. Richard Wright, Bricklayer, 20th July, 1734, aged 62. Mr. William Lewis, Covent Garden, Bookseller, Died Nov. 18, 1759, aged 74. Requiescat in pace. Mrs. Catherine Carpue, departed this life, Feb. 16, 1797, 62. z2 340 HISTORY OF CHISWIGK. Rev. John Mapletofts, M.A. Chaplain to the Royal Hospital Bridewell, in the city of London, 1773, aged 41. On a head stone — Mr. William Murfin, died 28th Bee. 1813, aged 72. On earth he truly liv'd old Adam's heir, In tilling it with sweating pain and care ; And by God's blessing great increase did find, As serv'd to please his gracious master's mind ; Till from those earthly gardens he did rise, Transplanted to the upper Paradise. On a head stone — Mrs. Betsy Adamson, wife of Thos. Adamson, died 28th of November, 1812, aged 42, and left a disconsolate husband and seven children to lament her loss. Mr. Thos. Adamson, husband of the above, died 18th Feb. 1837, aged 66. On a stone tablet in the eastern wall facing the high road, is this singular inscription — This wall was made at the charges of the right honourable and truelie pious Lorde Francis Russell, Buke of Bedford, oute of the true zeal and care for the keeping of this church yard, and the wardrobe of Goddes saintes, whose bodies lay therein buryed from violateing by swine and other prophanation; so witnesseth William Walker, A.B. 1623. It maybe observed that there was no Buke of Bedford of the Russell family till 1694. North wall of the vestry in the church-yard — Sacred to the Memory of James Fittler, Esq. R.A. Marine Engraver to his late Majesty George the Third, and a Member of the Royal Academy of London, whose mortal remains are deposited in this vault, Obiit Bee. 2, 1835— .Etat. 79 years. Requiescat in Pace. North-west corner of the church-yard, on a stone tablet — This church yard was enlarged Ay an addition of twenty-five perches of Ground given to the parish, By his Grace William Spencer Cavendish, Buke of Bevonshire, E.G. and this boundary wall built thereon by order of Vestry, A.B. 1838. CHARITIES AM) BENEFACTIONS. 341 CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS. Two acres of land in Chiswick Field, left to the poor, but the benefactor and the situation of the land are unknown. This benefaction is thus recorded — * Ceswicke. j The pore and churchwar _ j dens of the said pishe, are possessed to th use of the pore of two small tente with 11 acres of lande ^xin vm^ And ther remaynetl thereunto belongyng now in the tenure of Edwarde Kyng and Hugh Edwyn, paying yearly . To the deane and chapter of Powles in quit rent . . clere John Morecoke gave to the said pson and church- I One wardens to thuse of the f Cowe. 1 the handes of pore Which is the handi and paithe yerely . ii Henry Fryer, Esq. A.D. 1681, gave twenty-five pounds per annum to the poor of this parish, payable out of estates left by him to Christ's hospital. Received by the churchwardens annually, at Christ's hospital. Henry Fryer, A.D. 1631, by his will, bearing date 7 Car. II. left certain estates to charitable uses, charged with a specific sum of one hundred pounds per annum, to be divided between the poor of the parishes of St. Botolph, Alder sgate ; Harleston, in the county of Cambridge ; and Chiswick. By a decree of chancery, 28 Car. II. the estates were conveyed to the lord mayor and common council of the city of London, the governors of St. Thomas's, Christ's, and Bridewell hospitals, in trust, charged with the sum of forty pounds per annum to St. Botolph ; thirty-five pounds to Harleston ; and twenty-five pounds to Chiswick. * Chantry Roll temp. Edw. VI. Augmentation Office. 342 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. Thomas Barker, A.D. 1642, gave by will five pounds per annum, payable out of lands, called " The Downs," in this parish. Lady Dorothy Capel, A.D. 1719, gave by will the twelfth-part of the clear rental of an estate, called " Perry Court Farm," in the county of Kent, to the support of the charity schools. Received by the vicar on the 23rd of May annually, at Kew church. Mrs. Mary Quaife, A.D. 1730, left four hundred pounds to the poor, with which has been purchased ฃ497 9s. 9d. in three per cent, consols. The interest of which is distributed at the discretion of the vicar and churchwardens. Trustees — Rev. T. F. Bowerbank, Rev. Thomas Home, John Sich, Douglas Thompson. Mrs. Elizabeth Lutwyche, A.D. 1773, gave by will two hundred pounds, with which was purchased ฃ244 5s. 6d. in three per cent, consols. The interest to be given to such poor of the parish as the vicar shall nominate. Trustees — Rev. T. F. Bowerbank, Rev. Thomas Home, Douglas Thompson, John Sich. Mr. Robert Hawley, A.D. 1800, gave by will two pounds per annum to the Sunday school, and one pound per annum to the charity schools, being the interest of one hundred pounds in three per cent, consols. Received by the vicar, the Rev. T. F. Bowerbank. Mrs. Elizabeth Blackshaw, A.D. 1811, gave by will one hundred pounds in three per cent, consols in trust for the poor ; and also one hundred pounds in the three per cent, consols in trust for the support of the charity schools. CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS. 0ฑ0 In the same stock, and the same names, as Miss Rey- nolds' legacy. Mr. Edward Waistell, A. D. 1813, gave by will two hundred pounds, with which was purchased ฃ244. Ss. 8d. in new three and half per cents, the interest to be given to poor housekeepers not receiving parochial relief. Trustees — Rev. Thomas F. Bowerbank, John Sich, George Henry Matyear. Mr. Thomas Newman, A.D. 1886, gave by will to the trustees of the National Charity Schools of this parish, one thousand pounds in the three and a half per cents, leaving after payment of legacy duty, a sum of nine hun- dred pounds stock, on condition that the trustees keep in repair the grave in which he is buried, and the railing thereof. Mr. James Good, A.D. 1837, gave by will to the church- wardens for the time being, two hundred and fifty pounds towards the repairs and alteration of this church, which sum was expended A.D. 1839, in necessary repairs and painting ; and also the like sum of two hundred and fifty pounds to be paid at the death of his servant, Caroline Carter, for the same purpose. Both sums were expended in repairing and painting the church. Benjamin Sharpe, Esquire, A.D. 1838, left one hun- dred pounds, with which was purchased (after deducting ten pounds for legacy duty) ฃ96. 18s. Id. in three per cent, reduced, to the support of the charity schools. Mrs. Anna Maria Reynolds, A.D. 1802, gave by will, five hundred pounds, with which was purchased ฃ837. 10s. 3d. in three per cent, consols, the interest to be applied to the benefit of the poor. Trustees — Rev. Thos. Frere Bowerbank, Rev. Thos. Home, and John Sich. 344 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. His Grace William Spencer Cavendish, duke of Devon- shire, K.C. gave, A.D. 1812, the site of the Boy's National Charity School, at Turnham-green, with one hundred pounds towards the building thereof: and also, A.D. 1838, twenty-five perches of land for the enlargement of the church-yard. Six alms house at Strand-on-the-green. Two of these houses were built by Mr. Thomas Child, one by Mr. Solomon Williams, and one by William Abbott, carpenter, at his own charge, for the use of the poor of Chiswick for ever, 1724. Repaired 1816. James Willson, ) , ixr -IT7- id r Churchwardens. W. Wallis Bifield,J The National Schools are situated at Turnham-green, on the front of the building is this inscription — CHISWICK NATIONAL SCHOOLS, ERECTED BY VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTIONS, A.D. MDCCCXII. These Charity Schools Avere originally established in the year 1707, for the education of twenty-six boys and twenty-five girls. The boys were formerly instructed in the vestry room in Chiswich church-yard, until the year 1813, when their present commodious school room was built at Turnham-green. The house and grounds were given by his grace the duke of Devonshire, and the School of Industry and Sunday School were then attached ; and by the peculiar facilities of the national system, the blessings of a religious and useful education are now offered to all the children of the poor in the parish. The Boys' School Room, when first built, was about forty feet by twenty-five feet. In the year 1836, it was lengthened to sixty feet for the accommodation of Sunday CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS. 345 Evening Service in that part of the parish, previous to the building of the new church. The present number of boys is one hundred and twenty- seven, all under the age of fourteen years, their instruc- tion is wholly gratuitous, and two boys and twenty girls' are annually clothed by the trustees, on account of their regular attendance and general good conduct. The schools are supported by partial endowment, and voluntary con- tributions. The Girls' School is situated adjoining the church-yard, in a commodious school room rebuilt on the site of the old school. It contains one hundred and four girls, and is under the management of the same trustees as the Boys School. This school was re-built in the year 1838, at the expense of ฃ330. 12s. There is also an Infant School at Turnham-green, in connexion with the above, consisting of about eighty children ; it was established and superintended for many years by Frederick Gibson, Esq. and his family. Alms-Houses at Turnham-Green. — There arc four alms-houses on Turnham-Green, situated opposite the church ; they are repaired out of the poor's rate, and are occupied by poor aged persons. 346 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. CHAPTER III. The Town — The Mall — College-House — Manor Farm-House — Corney-House — Lord Macartney — Sir Stephen Fox's House — Morton Hall — Eminent Inhabitants — Population — Trade. tK The Town, though but small/' says Bowack, " is so very pleasantly situated out of the road, and free from noise, dust, and hurry, that it has for many years past boasted of more illustrious and noble persons, than any of its neigh- bours, nor is it at present without a good number of persons of great quality and wealth. The Thames taking .an oblique course from Fulham to Hammersmith, but gently salutes this place, and the several little islands or heights so pleasantly scattered in it, considerably weakens its force. The greatest number of houses are stretched along by the water side from Limekiln, near Hammersmith, to the church, in which dwell several small traders, but the most part fishermen and watermen, who make up a considerable part of the inhabitants of this town." The Mall facing the river commands beautiful and extensive views, and consists of several capital houses, among which may be mentioned College-house, Walpole- house and academy. College-House. — This ancient mansion belongs to the dean and chapter of Westminster, and is now in the occu- pation of Mr. Whittingham as a Printing Office, whose * Antiquities of Middlesex, folio, p. 47, London, 1705. COLLEGE-HOUSE. 847 late uncle distinguished himself as one of the best printers of the age. The building is of great extent, and faces the river. The interior is divided into many apartments well adapted for the purposes of a large printing establishment; it consists of two stories ; the walls of the cellars are of great thickness, and in many parts are composed of solid stone, rudely constructed many ages ago. This ancient house had previously been occupied by Madame Solieaux as a boarding school. " Near the church by the Thames side, is a very ancient house, which Norden calls a fair one, (Spec. Britan. p. 16.) and says it belongs to Dr. Goodwin, dean of Westminster, where the scholars of that school in time of any common plague or sickness, as also to take ah*, used to retire. Dr. Busby with some of his scholars, used frequently in summer time to spend some time here ; but the building is now so decayed with age, that it is unfit for such a use, and is patched up into small tenements, for the poor labouring people of the town. We cannot gather who was the founder of this structure, or what it was designed for; but upon a careful examination of it by the dimensions and contrivance of it, seems to have been intended for a reli- gious use."* Mr. Ralph, a multifarious writer of the last century, resided in the prebendal part of College-house, which he rented of the dean and chapter of Westminster. He died of the gout on the 24th of January, 1762. He was a native of Philadelphia, and came to England as a literary adventurer in 1725, in company with the celebrated Ben- jamin Franklin. In 1728 he published a poem, entitled " Night," to which Pope thus alludes in the Dunciad — Silence, ye wolves ! while Ralph to Cynthia howls, Making night hideous — answer him ye owls. B. iii. 1. 104. He afterwards attempted the Drama, but without success, and having produced a tragedy, a comedy, an opera, and * Antiquities of Middx fol. p. 47, London, 1705. 348 HISTORY OF CHIS WICK. a farce, lie took up the employment of a party writer. In 1742 he published an answer to the " Memoirs of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough ;" and in 1744 appeared his " History of England/' during the reigns of Charles the Second, James the Second, William, &c. 2 vols, folio, which is a work of great merit. He was at length connected with the politicians and literary men who were attached to the service of Frederic Prince of Wales, in consequence of which, Ralph is said to have become possessed of a manuscript written by the prince, or under his direction, to which so much impor- tance was attributed, that a gratuity or pension was offered to the holder as a compensation for surrendering it. This very manuscript was afterwards discovered by Dr. Rose, his executor, who surrendered it without compensation. He certainly obtained a pension after the accession of his late Majesty King George the Third, but he did not long enjoy it, as his death took place in January, 1762. Besides the works mentioned, he published a treatise on the " Use and Abuse of Parliaments, 2 vols. 8vo. " The Case of Authors by Profession," 8vo. and several political pamphlets.* The road-way in front of the Mall has undergone repeated alterations and embankments, in order to secure it from the effects of the tides, by which it is frequently overflowed and endangered. The willow ait, situated in front of the Mall, consists of nearly four acres of land. The Hammersmith division at the eastern end is separated by a ditch cut across from north to south. The kind of oziers chiefly raised on this ait are the salix vitallina, or yellow willow ; the salix amigdalhia, or almond-leaved willow ; and the salix viminalis, or ozier willow, with their several varieties. There was anciently a carriage-way, which passed by the Lamb public-house into the town ; it thence con- * Biog. Dramat. Davis's Life of Ganick. WILLIAM ROSE, LL.D. 349 tinued easterly as a bridle-way as far as Hammersmith Terrace.* Trie house in Chiswick Lane, adjoining the chapel, was for many years the residence of Dr. William Rose. William Rose, LL.D. an eminent scholar, was the eldest child of Hugh Rose, and born under the paternal roof at New Mill, in the parish of Birse, Aberdeenshire, (where his forefathers had long possessed some small landed pro- perty,)! in the reign of George the First, about the year 1719 ; and was descended from an exceedingly ancient and honourable family in the north of Scotland, the prin- cipal branch being represented by Hugh Rose, laird of the manor of Kilravock, in Morayshire. J After completing * See Faulkner's Hist, of Hammersmith, p. 351, for a further discussion respecting this locality. + Long since disposed of to the Earl of Aboyne. I The archives and charters of the lands granted by King John Baliol, in 1293, were destroyed at the fire of the cathedral of Elgin, in June, 1390, previously to which few families in Scotland could trace their descent further back. Shaw, however, in his " History of Morayshire," published at Edin- burgh, in 1785, and since continued down to 1826, states, that there were records still existing of twenty proprietors of the estate of Kilravock, sixteen of whom were named Hugh Rose, in direct lineal succession. In this long line of progenitors, the eighth Hugh (1545), appeal's to have possessed some humour, as he subscribes a submission between himself and two neighbours, " Hutcheon Rose, of Kilravock, an honest man ill guided between you baith ;" and the second Hugh (1649), called Sonsy-sides, living at a period when notions of menm and tuuni were rather indistinct, and lifting of neighbours' cattle by the Highlanders still carried on, died, " good easy man," of mor- tification and disappointment, at being refused reparation by his relative, the Duke of Gordon, at an advanced time of life, for the plunder of himself and tenants by that powerful clan. The twelfth Hugh (1687), styled the Black Baron, was quite a northern Blue-beard, having married five- wives, and had issue by all , thus distancing in his conjugal sympathies even the old Oxford- shire Baronet, whose more moderate pace described in his epitaph — " Though marriage by most folks be reckon'd a curse, Three wives have I married for better for worse." has been often irreverently deemed rather a dangerous and unequal venture — the ladies being very apt to realize only the latter part of the contingency. He was, however, also a man of ability in other ways ; being sheriff- depute of Ross, and one of those named by the last Scottish parliament to represent Scotland in the British parliament at the union, in 1707. During the troubles of 1715, the exertions of himself and Forbes, of Culloden, aided by Lord Lovat, were successful, after some contest and bloodshed, in recovering for the cause 350 HISTORY OE CHISWICK. his education at Marischal college, Aberdeen, he accom- panied the earl of Dunmore, a Scottish nobleman, as his of George I. the important town of Inverness, which had previously declared in favour of the Jacobite interest. His son, the thirteenth Hugh (1732) was provost of Nairn, in 1745 ; and the Duke of Cumberland having halted there with his army the day before the battle of Culloden, lodged in his (town) house for the night. That the worthy provost's zeal was on the winning side is attested by this inscription on a porter-cup, still in the possession of the family — " This cup belongs to the provost of Nairn, 1746, the year of our deliverance. A bumper to the Duke of Cumberland !" About two o'clock of the same day, an officer from Prince Charles Stuart arrived at Kilravock (but a few miles' distance from Nairn), to announce that it was the Prince's intention to dine at the castle. Mr. Rose and his lady made the best preparation that the shortness of the time admitted for the reception of so illustrious and unexpected a guest ; and in about an hour after the Prince reached the castle, attended by a numerous retinue of gentlemen, many of whom were French. The manners and deportment of the Prince on this occasion were always described by his host and hostess as having been most engaging. He asked the number of their children, and on being told three sons, requested to see them, praised their looks, and kissed each of them on the forehead. Having walked out with Mr. R. previous to dinner, and observed several persons engaged in planting those trees which now adorn the ancient family seat, he remarked, " How happy must you be, Mr. Rose, in being thus peacefully engaged, when the whole country around you is in a stir." Mr. R. who was a capital performer, having taken up his violin and played an Italian minuet, said to the Prince, " That, if I mistake not, is a favourite of your Royal Highness." " That it is a favourite of mine, Mr. Rose, is certain, but how you came to know that it is so, I am quite at a loss to guess." " That, sir," replied Mr. R. " may serve to show you, that whatever people of your rank do or say is sure to be remarked." " I thank you," said the Prince, " for that observation." Prince Charles, his secretary Mr. Kay, and Mr. and Mrs. Rose, dined together in what is now the parlour of the old castle, while forty of the Prince's attendants dined in a large hall adjoining. Between these two rooms there is a short passage, in which two of the Prince's officers stood with drawn swords while he was at dinner ; when the cloth was removed, Mr. R. proposed to the Prince that he would allow these gentlemen to go to dine, adding, " Your Royal Highness may be satisfied that you are perfectly safe in this house," to which the Prince replied, " I know, sir, that I am safe here ; you can desire them to go to dinner." A large and very handsome china bowl, capable of containing as much as sixteen ordinary bottles, is still preserved at the castle of Kilravock. This bowl Mr. Kay greatly admired, and said that he would like to see it filled. In consequence, immediately after dinner, the bowl, filled with good whiskey- punch, was placed on the Prince's table. After drinking a few glasses of wine, Prince Charles rose to depart, as did also Mr. Kay ; but the Prince good- humouredly said, " No, no, Kay, since yon have challenged that bowl, you WILLIAM ROSE, LL.D. 351 tutor to England, where they proceeded to the academy kept by the celebrated Dr. Doddridge, at Northampton, in which establishment an intimacy, which continued through life, commenced with Dr. William Farr, M.D. also an inmate ; and whose elder daughter, Dr. Rose's son, Samuel, afterwards married. Here, too, he met, and was united to Sarah, the eldest daughter of Dr. Samuel Clark, a dissenting minister of considerable repute in that town, by whom he had a numerous family. After his marriage he kept a boarding school at Kew, and on his removal to Chiswick, conducted a very numerous academy with increasing credit and success, for nearly thirty years, until the period of his sudden and unexpected decease, from gout in the stomach, on the 4th of July, 1786, at the age of 67. Mr. Strachan, the King's printer, and alderman Cadell, the opulent bookseller, being appointed his exe- cutors. must stay to see it out." Kay, however, only took a glass, aud accompanied his royal master to Culloden, where they slept. The next day, the Duke of Cumberland stopped on his march at the gate of Kilravock castle, and Mx. Rose having gone out to receive him, the Duke said, " So I understand you had my cousin, Charles, here yesterday." "Yes, please your Royal Highness," replied Mr. R. " not having an armed force, I could not prevent his visit." " You did perfectly right," said the Duke, " and I entirely approve of your conduct." So saying, he rode on to Culloden Moor. The fifteenth Hugh (1772), who possessed the necessary country in-and- out-a-door requisites of being a famous fiddler and superior shot, dying without issue in 1782, was succeeded, after five years' litigation, in 1787, by his sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Rose, who by her able and active management of the estate, gave a strong proof in her own person of the injustice, as well as want of gallantry, of the Salic law ; enclosures substantially fenced — lakes and farms extensively drained — above 1000 acres of moor-ground planted with Scotch fir and larch — considerable additions to the already valuable family library — and finally, a very interesting literary correspondence with Burns, the poet, are sufiicient evidences of her valuable qualities and literary attainments. Dying in 1815, this amiable and excellent woman, who to her other accomplish- ments united great proficiency in music, was succeeded by her son, the sixteenth Hugh, who was lieutenant-colonel of the Inverness-shire militia, and after- wards commanded the local militia of the county of Nairn, of which he was vice-lieutenant. At this gentleman's death, his sou, the present proprietor, came into possession of the estate. Kilravock's paternal arms are or. a boar's head cooped gul. betwixt three water budgets, sab. Crest, an harp az. Motto, Constant and True. 352 HISTORY OF CHISW1CK. * Besides editing Dodsley's " Preceptor," containing a general and complete course of education, which was pub- lished in 2 vols. 8vo. in 1748, with Johnson's elaborate Preface, the seventh edition, appearing in 1783, and com- piling several judicious elementary works in English, French, and Latin. Dr. Rose was also the author of the elegant and standard translation of " Sallust," which was printed with his name, in 1751. His connection with Dr. Griffiths, whose second wife (thejlrst not being very agreeably represented in Prior's Life of poor Goldsmith,) was a sister of Mrs. Rose, led to the establishment of the once far-famed " Monthly Review;"* and whether he, Mr. Cleland, the son of the " Spectator's" Will Honeycourt, but now chiefly remem- bered for less creditable reasons, or Dr. Griffiths himself, originally suggested the undertaking, there can be no doubt that, notwithstanding his daily laborious avocations, he was its earliest and most valuable supporter. His con- tributions on classical subjects have been since pronounced by very competent judges to afford ample proof of sound and distinguished attainments. His now established reputation and proximity to the metropolis, naturally conduced to his acquaintance with the principal literary characters of the day ; and Dr. Rose enjoyed the proud distinction of being almost the only Scotchman (q y - was Boswell himself an exception,) whom Samuel Johnson really ever loved. The following from Murphy's Essay on his Life and Genius, will, although * Smollett was one of the contributors ; and his secession and establishment of the rival but very inferior " Critical Review," were occasioned by an article written by Mrs. Carter, pointing out that the numerous errors in his Don Quixote arose from his utter ignorance of the Spanish language, and his con- sequent adoption of all the blunders of the French translators. Lord Wood- houselee, on the contrary, in his " Essay on Translation," whilst admitting all Smollett's imperfections and disqualifications for his task, rather attributes his failure to his unacknowledged adoption of Jarvis's version, which he vulgarised in style, and augmented its general faults. Tbe two criticisms, however, are quite compatible, Jarvis himself having a very imperfect knowledge of Spanish lore. WILLIAM ROSE, LL.D. 353 the latter is not very clearly expressed, sufficiently attest their terms of familiar intimacy. " The late Dr. Rose, of Chiswisk, whom Johnson loved and respected, contended for the pre-eminence of the Scotch writers ; and Ferguson's book on Civil Society, then on the eve of publication, he said, would give the laurel to North Britain. i( Alas ! what can he do upon that subject ?" said Johnson : "Aristotle, Polybius, Gro- tius, PufFendorf, and Burlemaqui, have reaped in that field before him." He will treat it said Dr. Rose, " in a new manner." A new manner ! Buckinger had no hands, and he wrote his name with his toes at Charing Cross, for half a crown a piece ; that was a new manner of writing!" Dr. Rose replied, " If that will not satisfy you, I will name a writer, whom you must allow to be the first in the kingdom." " Who is that?" " The earl of Bute, when he wrote an order for your pension." " There sir," said Johnson, " you have me in the toil : to lord Bute I must allow whatever praise you may claim for him." Ingratitude was no part of Johnson's character."* " That he (Johnson) often argued for the sake of triumph over his adversary, cannot be doubted. Dr. Rose, of Chiswick, has been heard to tell a friend of his, who thanked him for introducing him to Dr. Johnson, as he had been convinced in the course of a long dispute, that an opinion, which he had embraced as a settled truth, was no better than a vulgar error. This being reported to Johnson, " Nay," said he, " do not let him be thankful, for he was right and I was wrong." Like his uncle at Smithfield, Johnson in a circle of disputants, was deter- mined neither to be thrown nor conquered." * It is right, however, to say, that Boswell doubts the genuineness of the latter part of this anecdote, Johnson having assured him that he had never heard of Dr. E.'s rejoinder touching Lord Bute. There is another story extant on the same subject, unnoticed by Murphy. On Dr. E.'s stoutly maintaining the literary fame of his countrymeu, and Johnson knocking down, with very little ceremony, Hume, Adam Smith, Ferguson, Blair, and Robertson, as they were successively brought forward, a pause ensued, when Johnson, looking around with an air of triumph, exclaimed, " Well,, sir, any more of your northern lights ?" 354 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. Johnson was a frequent and familiar visitor both at Kew and Chiswick ; and at the former place when once invited in the summer by his host, to take a stroll in the adjacent royal domain, the residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and subsequently of the Princess Dowager and family, replied, " No sir, I will never walk in the gardens of an usurper!"* a tolerably convincing proof, though something must be allowed for characteristic contradiction and strength of expression, of the doctor's unabated Jacobite partialities at a period when Culloden's crushing catastrophe was still fresh and festering in the minds and memories of the adhe- rents of the exiled family. To the mistress of the house he does not appear to have been very communicative, as after spending the day, on her helping him to his usual or rather unusual number of cups of tea in the afternoon, he would merely say, " Madam, I am afraid that I give you a great deal of trouble."! Johnson died in December, 1784, and his friend, though by ten years the younger man, only survived him eighteen months. Amongst the remarkable inhabitants of Chiswick, was Dr. Rose's intimate acquaintance, James Ralph, the poli- tical writer and historian, himself once a schoolmaster at Philadelphia; who appears by Dodington's Diary, and other records of the period, to have been long in the con- fidence and service of Leicester-house* At his death, of gout, at the end of January, 1762, followed in a few weeks by that of his only daughter, in her eighteenth year, of the * This anecdote, inter alia, was communicated to Mr. Croker, for insertion in Lis edition of Boswell ; and, considering that Johnson's strong hereditary Jacobitism was already quite notorious; and that since the death of the Cardinal York, the last male descendant of the Stuarts, at Rome, in 1807, only a remote interest, through a female branch, has vested in the royal family of Sardinia; my readers will probably see no sufficient reason for, or possible benefit from, its further suppression. t It seems to have escaped the notice of those who recount the doctor's tea-drinking exploits, that, in addition to his taking little else, the small old- fashioned china cups and saucers then in use, were scarcely, if at all, larger than children's tea-things of the present day. WILLIAM ROSE, LL.D. 355 same disease, he left all his papers to Dr. Rose, who find- ing amongst them a private and bitter correspondence between George the Second, and his son, Frederick, Prince of Wales, immediately transmitted the original documents to Lord Bute, then prime minister, neither stipulating for nor receiving fee or reward: conduct, which although redounding greatly to his honour, will, it is to be feared, find but few imitators in the present calculating age.* In January, 1766, the quiet village was " frighted from her propriety," by the arrival of the celebrated Rousseau, who took lodgings there, to be near to Dr. Rose, perhaps, on the recommendation of David Hume, at whose invi- tation he had repaired to this country, in consequence of the outcry raised against him abroad by the publication of his " Emile," " Contrat Social," and other works. f On his approach, Dr. Rose might well have been excused for apostrophising his new neighbour in the words of a poet, now nearly forgotten, but then much read and quoted. * The true account of this transaction having been given in the text, it seems scarcely worth while to notice a very different version in " Nichols's Literary Anecdotes of the 18th Century" Whence Sylvamis Urban procured his information does not appear, but the writer has every reason to believe that the circumstances of the daughter (who survived her father but a few weeks) receiving a pension of ฃ150 a-year — of Dr. R. himself being largely remunerated — and of his means and mode of living, hitherto very straitened, having in consequence been suddenly and greatly altered for the better — though confidently brought forward, are altogether without foundation. A memoir of Ralph, in the Penny Cyclopedia, intimates that he was liberally rewarded in his life-time for surrendering a certain (unnamed), valuable docu- ment ; but this story again scarcely agrees with his leaving behind him a box of these sibylline leaves — evidently regarded as a provision for a destitute child — which, already much deteriorated in value by the lapse of ten years since the death of his royal patron in I? 52, and the more recent decease of George the Second, would have been rendered still less profitable by the knowledge on the part of the government, that the most important record had been, through purchase, long in their own hands. Surely, all things considered, Mr. Ralph, as a shrewd and practised man of the world, would himself have disposed of all or none of these lettres mysterieitses. t Is it possible that a Iranslation of the Heloise, published by Griffiths, in 1 vols, duodecimo, had anything to do with the introduction ? 35(j HISTORY OF CHISWICK, " Oil fly ! 'lis dire suspicion's mien ; And meditating plagues nnseen, The sorceress hither bends. Behold her torch in gall imbru'd ; Behold her garment drops with blood Of lovers and of friends." Akenside. Little is now known respecting his brief sojourn, except that Dr. Rose was sorely puzzled between the vehement and repeated intreaties of the leading has Metis to be introduced to the all -interesting stranger, and his morbid horror of society, and resolute determination to maintain his privacy. The heartless and mischievous publication of Horace Walpole's letter, written in the name of the King of Prussia, had at once the effect of putting an end to Rous- seau's residence in England, and, by filling his mind with unconquerable distrust, of occasioning a furious quarrel with one of his most sincere and attached friends, David Hume. This is not exactly the place to consider either his lite- rary or moral character ; but, before quitting the subject, it may be interesting to give a cursory glance at the different shades of opinion, deliberately entertained of his very mixed and inconsistent qualities by succeeding and eminent writers. Lord Byron, a somewhat kindred erratic genius, in the third Canto of " Childe Harolde" thus describes him. " Here the self-torturing sophist, wild Rousseau, The apostle of affliction, he who threw Enchantment over passion, and from woe Wrung overwhelming eloquence, first drew The breath which made him wretched ; yet he knew How to make madness beautiful, and cast O'er erring deeds and thoughts a heavenly hue Of words, like sunbeams, dazzling as they past The eyes, which o'er them shed tears feelingly and fast." His lordship's friend Mr. Moore, on the contrary, from whom an unfavourable judgment on the score, at least, of strict morality, might not have been anticipated, in his WILLIAM ROSE, LI D. 357 cf Rhymes on the Road," exclaims with much " virtuous indignation" " Strange power of genius that can throw O'er all that's vicious, weak, and low. Such magic lights, such rainbow dies, As dazzle e'en the steadiest eyes. 'Tis too absurd — 'tis weakness, shame, This low prostration before Fame — This casting down, beneath the car Of idols, whatsoe'er they are. Life's purest, holiest decencies, To be career'd o'er, as they please. No ! let triumphant Genius have All that his loftiest wish can crave. If he be worshipp'd, let it be For attributes, his noblest, first — Not with that base idolatry, Which sanctifies his last and worst. All this my heart could dwell on here,* But for those hateful memories near : Those sordid truths, that cross the track Of each sweet thought, and drive them back Full into all the mire and strife And vanities of that man's life ; Who, more than all that e'er have glow'd With Fancy's flame) and it was his If ever giv'n to mortal) shew'd What an impostor Genius is. Out on the craft — I'd rather be One of those hinds that round me tread. With just enough of sense to see The noon-day sun that's o'er my head. Than thus with high-built genius curst, That hath no heart for its foundation, Be all at once that's brightest — worst — Sublimest — meanest in creation !" In adding that Sir Egerton Brydges' opinion coincides with Lord Byron's, while those of Sir Walter Scott and Lord Broughamf agree more nearly with that of Mr. * Les Charmettes. + His Lordship's comparative toleration of the peccadilloes of Rousseau's great contemporary, Voltaire, brings to mind a cbaracteristic story of the latter, told to the writer by a valued old friend, now no more, who was born at Lausanne, in 1700 ; the patriarch having settled at Ferney, about 1758, and continued to reside there for twenty years. In such a neighbourhood, of course everybody must, for the nonce, be literary and theatrical ; and amongst 858 HISTORY OF GHISW1CK. Moore, it may be observed, that the verdict on Rousseau will be generally rather influenced by the temperament, feelings, and dispositions, than by the sober judgment of such as endeavour to solve the riddle. To return, however, to Dr. Rose, with whose family Mr. Berry and his daughters, Mary and Agnes, then resi- dent at College-house, were very intimate. These ladies, afterwards respectively called the Tragic and Comic Musse, became well known by Horace Walpolc having addressed to them his amusing " Reminiscences," and by his bequest of little Strawbery-hill. On their return from the Con- tinent, it was reported that the elder had declined the proffered hand of no less a personage than the King of Sweden ; to which was "soon added that of her ancient admirer, Horace Walpole himself, who, upon hearing the rumour, is alleged to have written an Epigram, — the point consisting in his willingness to add a Strata to Berry. Miss Berry has since distinguished herself in the literary world as the authoress of various elegant and interesting publications ; and her converzaziones still continue among the most select and attractive in the metropolis. Edward Moore, originally a linen-draper, the author of " Fables for the Female Sex," the tragedy of the " Gamester," two forgotten comedies, and editor of the " World," a collection of periodical Essays, was also a neighbour. His name was sufficiently open to the puns of others ; and on one occasion, the title of the last named work gave rise to a pleasantry of his own. Being regular church-goers, his wife, the daughter of Hamilton, table- decker to the princesses, being exceedingly anxious for her good man's welfare both here and hereafter, on their return remarked, that he had been unusually distrait and inattentive during the service, when he replied, " Indeed, the rest, a noted and aspiring barber, at Geneva, wrote a tragedy, which, with some difficulty, the wit was induced to promise to read, and favour the author with his opinion. At the time appointed, Voltaire from his study espied the poor awe-struck perruquier enter the iron gates and approach up the avenue ; when, throwing up the window, and the manuscript out of it, lie exclaimed, " Go, curj your wig — curl your wig," and immediately disappeared. WILLIAM ROSE,, LL.D. 359 my dear, that's very odd, too, for I was thinking the whole time of the next world I " With the notice of Murphy, in consequence of his friendship* with Dr. Rose, also fixing his residence at Chiswick ; and of their being another large seminary kept by Mr. Crawford, at the Manor-house, these desultory local memoranda must be now concluded. Mr. Henry Dundas, afterwards lord Melville, desirous that his son, the present viscount, should get rid of the northern accent, placed him with Dr. Rose, who subse- quently recommended Mr. John Bruce, Professor of Moral Philosophy at Edinburgh, to be his travelling tutor during a long continental tour. This introduction led to very important changes in Mr. Bruce's prospects ; as after resigning his professorship, he Avas appointed historiogra- pher to the East India Company, and keeper of the State Paper Office. He also sat for thirty years as the repre- sentative of a Cornish borough; and dying immensely rich, bequeathed his wealth, in failure of his niece leaving issue, to found a college at Falkland in his native country. Those who remember Mr. Bruce in a later day, will, per- haps, be tempted to smile at the partiality of his kind friend in selecting him to impart the blessings of a pure English pronunciation * Numerous, indeed, were the literary aspirants — parti- ticularly from his " ain countree," to whom advice, pro- tection, and pecuniary aid were liberally extended ; and Dr. Gillies, the historian of Greece, and author of several other works, was amongst the many who received, but the * A character of Dr. Rose, which appeared with the signature of H. B. in the " European Magazine" for October, 1789, then edited by Isaac Reed, has been attributed to Mr. Bruce, and bears handsome testimony to his friend's estimable qualities. In the obituary of the " Gentleman's Magazine," for July, 1786, Dr. R.'s death is thus noticed : — " Died at his house in Chiswick, Dr. William Rose, a gentleman well known in the republic of letters, and highly esteemed for his public spirit, his friendly disposition, his amiable and cheerful temper, and his universal bene\o]ence. He published an edition of " Sallust," and was largely concerned in the " Monthly Review." o60 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. few who ever acknowledged, very valuable assistance in the outset of life. Although a prcsbyterian, Dr. Rose was so tolerant, and his mind so free from sectarian spirit, that the liberal and enlightened Dr. Lowth, bishop of London, at whose table he was a constant and welcome guest, suggested his con- formity to the church, with the prospect of ample pro- vision. The acceptance of this well intended offer, however, being peculiarly obnoxious to the imputation of interested motives, was, after mature consideration, respect- fully declined ; although his general objections like those of Watts and Doddridge, were understood to apply more to the discipline, than the doctrines of the establishment. The example, in this respect, of his brother-reviewer, the learned Samuel Badcock, the real author of Dr. White's Bampton Lectures, certainly afforded but little encourage- ment to similar changes ; his days being embittered and probably shortened by the most acrimonious controversies with Priestley* and others of his quondam associates. Bitter contest, indeed, would have ill suited the bene- volent character of the subject of these scattered notices. Liberal and disinterested in his disposition, open and art- less in his nature, simple and unaffected in his manners, (usually the accompaniment of a really superior mind,) Dr. Rose's character is well described by Pope's line on Gay, " In wit+ a man, simplicity a child." and his cordial and hearty qualities consequently rendered * Dr. Priestley's name recals an anecdote, putting his industry and perse- verance in a strong light. Dr. Rose was rallying him on his frequent cliange of religious belief, and good-humouredly enquired what precise creed he thought of finally adopting, when his friend replied, " Why, sir, I have already gone through the Fathers twice, and am now engaged in reading them for the third time ; after which, I shall permanently make up my mind on the subject." Now, considering that the works of the Fathers of the Church amount to nearly 200 folio volumes, whatever may be thought of Priestley's theological opinions, it is evident that they were the result of a course of laborious inves- tigation, which few would be willing, or indeed able, to undergo. + In the common acceptation of the word, " wit" was not characteristic of Dr. P.. but genial humour — " the most companionable laugh," as Lord Ogleby WILLIAM ROSE, LL.D. 861 him as much a favourite in his intercourse with society, as his kind and warm affections endeared him to his family ^circle. His eldest daughter, Anne, married Mr. Foss, a respect- able solicitor in London, and a descendant of archbishop Tillotson ; and Sarah, the second, was united to the Rev. Charles Burney, D.D.* the eminent Greek scholar, who had assisted her father in his school, and belonged to a family of varied celebrity. His father, Dr. Charles Burney, Mus. D. published the " History of Music," " A Life of Metastasio," the present state of " Music in France and Italy," which was ridiculed in a humorous publication, called the " Musical Travels of Joel Collier," and an " Account of the Commemoration of Handel at Westminster Abbey, in 1784 y" his elder brother, admiral James Burney, accompanied captain Cook in his second and third voyages round the world, and was the author of the " History of Voyages of Discovery in the Southern Ocean ;" whilst " Evelina," " Cecilia," and " Camilla," the produc- tions of his sister, Frances, afterwards Mad. D'Arblay, were names once familiar as household words ; and his says of Canton — ex. gr. His son, when quite a lad, was sitting at the bottom of the dinner-table at a large party at home, when, not having spoken for the day, he at length in a very piano tone, ventured to ask his father the amount of the revenues of the bishopric of Norwich. " Why, Sam," said Dr. R. "lam not very well informed on the subject, but if you have any particular views on the diocese, I will make it my business to ascertain the fact with accuracy." " Sam," certainly, did notpursue his game that day, and the subject was probably adjourned sine die. * Dr. B. had a splendid library, and was also a liberal purchaser, generally, of literary curiosities. Amongst his many treasures, now in the British Museum, was a perfect collection of the Garrick play-bills. .The Rev. Mr. Genest, of Bath, the author of the " History of the Stage, from 10GO to 1830," in 10 vols. 8vo. who was devoted to the subject, had also the same series, but unluckily wanting one bill, which he had never been able to procure. He therefore preferred a humble request to his more fortunate brother, that he might be allowed to copy the much-coveted qffiche in MS., pledging his honour not to have a fac-simile printed. The Doctor, however, not too well pleased to find a labourer in the same field, so close upon his heels, and still less inclined to diminish the distance by removing the inequality, met the petition with a prompt and vigorous refusal. Verily, in all favourite pursuits, it is quite necessary to make ample allowance for the exclusive and all-engrossing spirit of collectorship ; even when, as in this instance, coupled with the most amiable and kind-hearted disposition. HISTORY OF CHISW1CK. younger sister, Sarah, the authoress of" Clarentine," " Coun- try Neighbours," " Traits of Nature," &c. followed in the same path with considerable, though much inferior success. Of the descendants by these marriages, Mr. Edward Foss, following his father's profession, became chairman of the Incorporated Law Society, and a magistrate for the county of Surrey, whilst his brother Henry is a member of the well-known firm of Payne and Foss, classical book- sellers, Pall Mall ; and the Rev. Charles Parr Burney, D. D. is archdeacon of St. Albans, and rector of Sible Heding- ham, Essex. The Rev. George Clark, nephew of Mrs. Rose, and son of the late Joseph Clark, Esq. receiver general for the county of Northampton,* has been for nearly forty years the much respected chaplain of the Royal Military Asylum at Chelsea ; and Dr. Rose's great nephew, the late Rev. Hugh Rose, a very distinguished scholar, was at the time of his early and lamented decease, the principal of King's College, London, and his surviving brother the Rev. Henry J. Rose, late fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, holds the living of Houghton Con- quest, Bedfordshire. Dr. Rose had three sons, — but, a short sketch is sub- joined of the brief career of the only one who survived his father ; and whose own early death was the source of deep and lasting regret to his family and a large circle of attached and admiring friends. * This gentleman was a very popular and agreeable companion, and famous for bis vers de sociele, charades, ban mots, &c. In early life be bad taken an active part in tbe great election for Northamptonshire, in favour of the Spencer interest, which he supported by numerous squibs, pasquinades, hand-bills, &c. and became a great and lasting favourite at Althorpe. The contest was carried on by the Earls of Spencer, Northampton, and another nobleman; and ended in the ruin of one — the broken heart of a second — and something equally pleasant happening to the third party. Mr. C. however, surviv'd the fray, And liv'd to joke another day ; Being, certes, one of the favour'd few, Who fcather'd his nest in the hollabolloo. At this distance of time little of his pleasantry is remembered that was not of merely local or passing interest; but his neat definition of tbe two very dif- ferent meanings of the word " form" — " that we sit on tbe one and stand on the other" — is worth preserving. WILLIAM ROSE, LL.D. 363 Samuel Rose, the second son of the above, was born at Chiswick on the 20th June, 1767 ; and after receiving the benefit of his Father's tuition, was sent in 1784 to complete his education at Glasgow, and lived in the house of Mr. William Richardson, a professor in the University, and author of " Essays on Shakspere's Dramatic Cha- racters," &c. &c. During the three winters of his residence as a student, he contended for all the prizes which were given, and, with a single exception, succeeded in obtaining them. On leaving college, where he gained the esteem of professors Young and Millar, who, with his estimable domestic tutor, maintained a correspondence with him through life, he for a short time attended the law courts at Edinburgh, and obtaining an introduction to the celebrated Adam Smith, that truly eminent man was so highly pleased with his young and lively English acquaint- ance, that he was constantly invited to Mr. Smith's select parties during his stay in the Scotch metropolis. A per- manent friendship was also formed with Mr. Mackenzie, fondly termed by his partial countrymen, " the Addison of the North ! " which was on several occasions personally renewed in London. Two of his brother students with whom he was very intimate at Glasgow, still survive, the very distinguished lawyer, Mr. George Cranstoun, late dean of Faculty, and since raised to the bench by the title of lord Corehouse, the early friend of Sir Walter Scott, and brother of the Countess Purgstall, (somewhat unceremoniously intro- duced to the public by Captain Basil Hall's Schloss Hain- feldj and Mrs. Dugald Stewart; and Mr. Jaines Glass- ford, a gentleman of very elegant acquirements, formerly an advocate at the bar, and subsequently appointed a Commissioner of Education enquiry in Ireland : both, well qualified judges, remember and acknowledge with melancholy satisfaction, the bright and early promise exhibited by the less fortunate companion of their youth- ful pursuits. On returning to England, in consequence of his father's unlooked for death, Mr. Rose, in accordance with his earnest and uniform desire to be acquainted with eminent 364 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. literary characters, paid a visit to Mr. Cowper, then residing at Weston Underwood, near Olney. As, however, the origin and progress of their most confidential and affectionate intercourse, which only terminated with the Poet's life, in 1800, is fully described in Mr. Hayley's publication of his Life and Letters, as well as in his Sup- plementary Memoir of Mr. Rose, and more briefly in Southey's edition, it may be unnecessary here to say more on the subject, than that Mr. Canning in a letter addressed to Mr. Rose's widow, in December 1820, took occasion to term him " Comperes best friend " Choosing the law as a profession, he placed himself in 1787, for three years under Mr. Serjeant Praed, the eminent special pleader, and afterwards chairman of the board for Auditing Public Accounts. In 1790, his marriage took place with Sarah, the elder daughter of Dr. Farr, who had been his father's intimate friend. In 1792, appeared his improved edition of" Lord Chief Baron Comyn's Reports." In 1796, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's-Inn, and attached himself to the home circuit and Sussex sessions. In 1800, he published a new edition of " Comyn's Digest of the Laws of England," corrected and continued to that date; and also joined his friend, Mr. Hayley in assisting Gibbon's Executor, Lord Sheffield, in preparing the Historian's " Miscellaneous and Posthumous Works " for the press. In 1803, he edited " Dr. Goldsmith's Miscel- laneous Works" in 4 volumes 8vo. and wrote the prefatory Memoir ;* the particulars of the poet's early career being chiefly supplied by his old literary friend and club compa- nion, the venerable Dr. Percy, bishop of Dromore, then still living in retirement and old asre at his diocese in Ireland. * Mr. R.'s share in the publication was anonymous ; but he has been since named as the editor of the works and author of the memoir, in the Rev. Mr Carey's "Notes on Johnson's Lives of the Poets," inserted in Mr. John Scott's " London Magazine," edited on his death by the now equally lamented Thomas Hood. These " notes" are written with a research and critical acumen not unworthy of the translator of Dante ; and, considering the cart- loads of rubbish which are constantly transferred from their fitting depositaries, the fashionable Magazines of the day, it is rather odd that they have not," ere this, been published in a separate form ; or is it because there really are not a sufficient number of congenial readers left to secure a modes! but sterling little volume from proving a total loss or comparative failure ? WILLIAM ROSE, LL.D. Connected with the proprietor by family tics, he was also, like his father, a regular contributor to the " Monthly Review;" chiefly, though not entirely, confining himself to articles on legal subjects. Having been much noticed by Hogarth's widow, (Sir James ThornhilPs daughter,) who prior to her death in 1789 at the age of 80, had long resided at Chiswick, he was in possession of many personal anecdotes of the painter's life, character, and manners, the want of which has been so much felt and regretted by Allan Cunningham and his other biographers. On Hogarth's death, a Mrs. Mary Lewis was employed to sell his prints in Leicester Square. This person (who survived until 1808) lived a good deal with Mrs. Hogarth as a companion, and after her decease, resided altogether in the same house, where Mr. Rose continued to be a very frequent visitor. He was conse- quently engaged by Dr. Kippis,* also a Monthly Reviewer, to write a Memoir of Hogarthf for the " Biographia Bri- tannica;" but that work, after the publication of five volumes in folio, stopping at the name of Fastolf, the task was never executed; and probably much curious and amusing matter " which the world would not willingly let die," shared a too common fate in failing to be timely rescued from oblivion. Mr. Rose had in early youth suffered severely from periodical head-aches. Whilst ploughing the proverbially * Doddridge, as is well known, was an Arian, whilst Kippis, though his friend and pupil, being an Unitarian, " went further," but whether he " fared worse" is not equally certain. + In which his good taste would probably have induced Mr. R. to notice the mistake made in inscribing Garrick's instead of Johnson's lines on the " great painter's" tomb. Garrick's epitaph having been already inserted in this work, need not be repeated here. The strain is above his usual pitch, and he probably did his best ; the first stanza being measured and graceful, and the last, character- istically light and easy : but when compared to the strong sense and strength of expression condensed in Johnson's four lines, the difference is immense. " Look on that picture, and on this." Tbe hand of him here torpid lies, That drew the essential form of grace ; Here clos'd in death the attentive eyes, That saw the manners in the face. see HIKTOllY OF CH IS WICK. heavy way to legal name and fortune, his mind was much harassed by the pressure of anxieties incidental to the pro- vision of a young family; and in the beginning of 1804, his constitution, never very robust, discovered a decided tendency to pulmonary consumption, of which fatal dis- ease — after twelve months of severe suffering — he died on the ฃ0th December, in the 38th year of his age, a period, alas ! " too short for friendship, not for fame." Mr. Rose largely inherited his father's intellectual and social qualities and fine literary tastes. His manners were polished and engaging, and his conversation animated, lively, and most agreeably imbued with the knowledge and spirit of the Belles Lettres. His judgment of books and of the relative value of the best editions, was excel- lent ; whilst his classical knowledge well qualified him to join Mr. Fuseli in the revision of Cowper's translation of Homer, for the press, and to undertake a new edition of Dr. Rose's Sallust, to which he had intended to prefix a Memoir of his father, — a duty, however, he did not live to perform, but which, in his case, would have been truly " a labour of love." At the bar he was encouragingly noticed by LordKenyon; and among his legal contemporaries who have since attained to eminence, was intimate with Lords Tenterden and Wynford, SirVicary Gibbs, Judges Park, Garrow, and Gurney, Sir Samuel Toller, and Messrs. Jekyl, Robert Smith, Jervis, and Adolphus. He received the appoint- ment of counsel to the Duke of Kent; and was much patronized by the Earl of Egremont, Lord Sheffield, and Sir George Shuckburgh, celebrated for his proficiency in scientific pursuits. His more general acquaintance in- cluded the dramatic authors, Cumberland and Murphy, and the admirable but now scarcely remembered actress, Miss Pope — a worthy relic of the time and school of Garrick ; the poets Cowper, Hayley, Hurdis, and Rogers ; the artists West, Romney, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Paul Sandby, Fuseli, and Flaxman ; the miscellaneous writers WILLIAM HOSE, LL.D. \67 Dr. Aikin, Alexander Chalmers, and Mrs. Barbauld ; the novelists Madame D'Arblay and Charlotte Smith; and above all, the unrivalled scholars Professor Porson, the Rev. Drs. Parr and Burney,* and Gilbert Wakefield. Dying at his residence in Chancery Lane, he was, in compliance with his oft-expressed feeling, that " where the tree falls, there let it lie," interred at his parish church of St. Andrew, Holborn ; and the following lines to his memory were written by his friend and biographer, Mr. Hayley— " Esteem' d, adinir'd, and lost in manhood's prime — But who shall question God's appointed time ? Rash grief, profane not Eose's hallow' d tomb, Tho' heav'n its gifts of earthly hope resume ; Learning, and wit,t and eloquence, and truth, The patient thought of age, the zeal of youth, To man these bright endowments seem'd to claim A long and rich career of legal fame. But angels often from their sire impart, His earthly summons to the pure in heart. Friendship must weep, tho' faith with blameless pride, Tells how the Christian triumph'd, as he died ; Earth's dearest blessings round his heart entwin'd, To God who gave them all, he all resign'd." Mr. R. left a widow and four sons, the second of whom, Captain Cowper Rose, R.E. (the poet's godson), is the author of " Four Years in South Africa;" and the youngest, George Edward, who died in October, 1825, at Odessa, of the Crimean fever, at the early age of twenty-seven, was English Professor at the Polish college of Krzemieniec, on the borders of the Ukraine, in Volhynia, where he * The second and last Lord Ashburton of his family ( Dunning' s son), when discussing the comparative merits of the great scholars of the day, said that " he thought Burney above par ;" and Sydney Smith's elder brother, Robert, (Canning's school-fellow Bobus, and coadjutor in the " Microcosm" at Eton), being asked if he didn't think Dr. Pari- the second best Greek scholar, pleasantly answered, " I can't say, not having tried him." + In this respect Mr. B. was the reverse of his father, as he certainly possessed wit, but not humour. He gave " a taste of his quality" on his return from Edinburgh, by his allusion to the aboriginal state of certain conveniences of that metropolis, in his mauvaisc plaisanterie, " that necessaries in England were luxuries in Scotland." 368 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. translated the Letters of John Sobicski, addressed to his queen, during the memorable siege of Vienna by the Turks, in 1683, and also made some researches in con- nexion with an intended History of Poland. Manor Farm House, situate in Chiswick-lane, is so called from a survey dated 1725, when it was in the tenure of lady Nevil. It belongs to the church of Westminster, and contributes to the payment of the fines, it was for many years inhabited by the Rev. Dr. Home as an academy, who succeeded Mr. Crawfurd. This capital mansion was built in the year 1697, by Sir Stephen Fox in the Wrenean style of architecture, and in imitation of the Royal Hospital at Chelsea,* towards the erection of which he had contributed upwards of thirteen thousand pounds. In the angles of the staircase cieling are shields encircled with oak leaves, bearing the arms of Fox, viz. — " On a chevron 3 foxes' heads erased, on a canton a fleur-de-lis, and on the leaden cistern is the date 1697, and the family crest: a fox sejant on a cap of maintenance." The riding house adjoining was one hundred feet long, twenty feet wide, with eight windows in the front, and the roof supported by columns. It is at present occupied as a medical asylum, by Dr. Tuke and Mr. Bell. Corney House. — The Russel family had an ancient seat in this parish, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, which belonged to Sir William Russel, afterwards Lord Russel of Thornhagh, a distinguished military character. Stowe, speaking of his heroic achievements at the battle of Lutz- hen, says, " he charged so terribly, that after he had broke his lance, he with his cur tie -ax so plaid his part, that the enemy reported him to be a devil, and not a man, for when he saw six or seven of the enemies together, thither would separate their friendship. "f On the 2nd of October, * See Faulkner's Hist, of Chelsea, vol. ii. p. 197, 1829. + Stow's Annals, anno 1586, p. 737, London, 10-11. CORNEY HOUSE. 369 1602, the queen honoured him with a visit at Chiswick.* It is probable that she had visited him the year before also. " I send you," says Sir William Brown, writing to Robert Sidney, " all the queen's entertainment at Chis- wick, and my lord keeper's. "f Sir William Russel's mansion descended to his only son, Francis, the First Earl of Bedford, who died on the eve of the civil war. From the interest he took in the concerns of this parish, it is probable that he frequently resided here. After the death of his widow, Catharine, Countess of Bedford, which happened in 1654, the premises at Chiswick were inherited according to the custom of the manor, by her youngest son, Edward, who, in the year 1659, aliened a freehold messuage to William Gomeldon. Since that time it has passed through various hands, and was, in 1747, the property of the Hon. Peregrine Widd- rington, who, by his will of that date, left it to his wife, the Duchess of Norfolk, for life, with remainder in succes- sion to his nephew, the Hon. W. Tempest Widdrington, and John Townley, Esq. and their heirs. Of the latter it was purchased by Sir C. W. Boughton Rouse, Bart, of Rouse Linch, in the county of Worcester, who, in 1802, sold it to Viscountess Bateman ; it was afterwards the property of Lady Caroline Darner, subject to a lease for life to the Countess Dowager of Macartney, who resided there with the late Earl, at the time of his decease, in April, 1806, The mansion was then called Corney House. Mr. Widdrington, in 1745, purchased certain tenements and a piece of land, called Corney Houses and Corney Close, adjoining to his own premises, which probably were the same houses and land which James Russel, youngest son of Edward, held in 1670, some time after the alien- ation of the mansion above mentioned. The premises were much improved by Mr. Townley, who surrounded the whole with a brick wall, and built a handsome lodge. * Queen Elizabeth's Progresses, 1601, p. 21. + Sydney Papers, vol. ii. p. 231. 370 HISTORY OF (IIISWICK. A house situated opposite the top of the road leading down to Corney House, called the " Turret House," was sold to Mr. Cock, -the gardener, in 1804, by Sir Rouse Boughton, Bart.* Corney House was pulled down in the year 1882, and the premises are now the property of his grace the Duke of Devonshire, f George, earl of Macartney was the only remaining son of George Macartney, and the only male descendant of his great grandfather, George Macartney, who removing into Ireland in the year 1649, settled near Belfast, in the county of Antrim, where he acquired a large estate. This ancestor of the earl was a captain of horse, surveyor general of the province of Ulster, and in the year 1688, at the head of his troop, proclaimed King William and Queen Mary at Belfast, for which he was soon after obliged to fly into England, and was attainted in King James's par- liament, held at Dublin in 1689 ; but being restored on the settlement of Ireland, he returned, where he soon after died. He constituted his wife executrix of his sons Chichester and George, from the latter of whom was descended the late earl of Macartney. He was born the 14th of May, 1787, at the family man- sion of Lissanoure. It may be sufficient to observe with regard to young Macartney, that at an early period of life he was under the tuition of a clever and ingenious clergyman of the name of Dennis, for whom his lordship always preserved a sincere attachment. At the age of thirteen he was admitted a fellow commoner of Trinity college, in the university of Dublin, and proceeded master of arts there in 1759. From Dublin he came to London, and was entered of the Societjr of the Middle Temple, where he formed an intimacy with Mr. Burke, and many other eminent characters. In the year 1764, Mr. Macartney was appointed envoy extraordinary to the Empress of Russia, and on this occa- * Lysons' Middx. MSS. Additions, Brit. Mus. + Corney is supposed with great probability to be a corruption of the word thornhagh, a name belonging to the Russel family as earl; as the time of Queen Elizabeth. GEORGE VISCOUNT MACARTNEY. 371 sion he received the honour of knighthood, on the first of February, 1768. Sir George Macartney was married to the right honourable lady Jane Stuart, second daughter of John earl of Bute, and in the month of April following, he was chosen one of the representatives of the borough of Cockermouth, in the parliament of Great Britain. On the first of January, 1769, he was appointed chief secretary of Ireland. In the month of October, 1774, he was chosen member of the British parliament, and in December, 1775, was appointed captain-general and governor-in-chief of the islands of Grenada, the Grenadines, and Tabago. On the 10th of June, 1776, his Majesty was pleased to advance him to the peerage of Ireland, by the title of lord Macartney, baron of Lissanoure, in the county of Antrim. On his arrival at Grenada his first object was to restore harmony in the colonial legislature, his measures gave general satisfation, and the colony flourished. Early in July, 1779, the count D'Estaing appeared before the island with a large fleet, and seven thousand land troops; they soon effected a landing, and after a brave resistance lord Macartney was under the painful necessity of surren- dering at discretion to the superior and overwhelming force of the enemy. On the 2nd of May, 1792, lord Macartney received his appointment of ambassador extraordinary and plenipo- tentiary from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China, and on the 28th June following, his Majesty was pleased further to advance him to the title of Viscount Macartney, of Dcrvock, in the county of Antrim. On the 17th March, his lordship left the coast of China, and on the 5th September, 1794, he landed at Ports- mouth. A man who had thus filled such various and eminent situ- ations in the four quarters of the globe, who with the eye of a statesman and a philosopher, had surveyed mankind in every region and climate of the earth, and who, after a long and laborious life spent in the service of his country with an unblemished reputation, resigned it at last full of o -„ o < neither few nor unimportant, of his Majesty's reception in the capital. Whatever might have been the case with others, who had hazarded life and sacrificed their time in the royal cause, Mr. Fox had no reason to complain that his merits were overlooked after Charles the Second ascended the throne. He was immediately appointed to the office of first clerk of the green cloth, being the most conspicuous situation in the household, under the duke of Ormond, 1 lord high steward. He had held this appointment but a short time, when there was added to it that of paymaster to the king's guards ; two regiments having been embodied in 1660 — 1, in consequence of the tumults that had attended the insur- rection of Vinner, and the fifth monarchy men. Xor did the stream of royal bounty cease here. When the Dutch war broke out it was found necessary to increase the army, Mr. Fox was constituted paymaster-general of all the king's land forces ; the emoluments arising from which, being added to those of the first clerkship of the green cloth, placed him in a state, not only of independence, but of opulence. Nor could the gifts of fortune be bestowed on any one who was more disposed to use them aright. Mr. Fox was a liberal contributor to the fund for building the College of arms, after the fire of London. He erected at his own charge, the church of Farley, the vicarage of which he endowed, built the church of Culford, in Suffolk; new paved the body of the cathedral at Salisbury ; and repaired the chancel of a church in the north part of Wiltshire, merely because the rector was too poor to repair it himself. Besides these acts of benificence and piety, to him the hospital at Farley ows its existence and its endowment. It was completed in 1678, and comprises lodgings for six old men, and as many old women, a chapel, and a residence for the chaplain, who is likewise styled the warden, and is supported by a rent-charge on the estate of Farley, amounting to the sum of ฃ188. Moreover, there is a school attached, which was likewise established by him, and in which six boys and six girls arc instructed by the 378 HISTORY OF CUTS WICK. warden ; while at Burne, in Suffolk, and at Ashby, in Northamptonshire, his bounty found scope in the erection of similar establishments.* That, however, which more than all other occurrences in his life seems most to demand our approbation and gratitude, was the active part which he took in the com-, pletion of Chelsea hospital. No matter with whom the idea may have originated, whether with him, with his master, or with Nell Gwynne, it is certain that but for his exertions the project would have come to nothing; and that he took no note of self in the whole matter, is demon- strated by the fact, that he made over not less than thirteen thousand pounds towards the completion of the noble design, f In 1665, on the 1st of July, he received, at the king's hands, the honour of knighthood ; and on the funeral of the Duke of Albemarle, April 30, 1670, he was the first assistant in bearing the royal standard from Somerset House to Westminster Abbey. That, as well as the duty which devolved upon him of bearing, with five knights as his companions, the canopy over Monk's effigy, when it was removed from the car to the mausoleum in the Abbey, were duties of state, which, even in the seventeenth century, had their uses. Such, however, was the political position of Sir Stephen Fox from 1679 to 1685-6, when the Earl of Rochester being at the head of the treasury, he withdrew for a season from all public business. When Sir Stephen Fox undertook the duties of a lord of the treasurv, he requested and obtained j^crmission to resign his charge as paymaster of the forces ; not, however, till he had obtained that appointment for his son, Charles, in conjunction with Nicholas Johnson, Esq. This occurred in 1679, when Mr. Fox was little more than twenty years of age ; yet the youth of this joint paymaster does not seem to have told against him ; for his colleague dying within three years, on him the undivided honours, and duties, * Collins's Peerage, vol. ii. p. (>4. t Faulkner's Hist, of Chelsea, vol. ii. 05. SIR STEPHEN FOX. 879 and emoluments of the office devolved. Meanwhile his father's dignities continued to be enlarged. On the 18th of February, 1684, just twelve days after the accession of James the Second, Sir Stephen became sole commissioner for the master of the horse ; and though for a short time the influence of Rochester eclipsed him, that cloud (perhaps the only one that ever seriously darkened his horizon), soon passed away. In 1686 Rochester was dismissed, and Sir Stephen Fox restored to his seat at the treasury board, in company with John, Lord Belasis ; Sidney, Lord Godolphin ; Henry, Lord Dover ; and Sir John Ernly, chancellor of the exchequer. Thus far we have followed the fortunes of this distin- guished individual, under whose management Chelsea hospital rose and flourished; throughout whose whole career he appears in the light of a devoted servant of his prince — a sincere and unyielding advocate of the rights of the monarchy. But the hour was at hand when the personal allegiance of the minister must needs be put to a test more searching by far than any which had yet been applied to it. James the Second, by his insane attacks upon the rights and the liberties of his subjects, caused even the most determined royalist to weigh in his own mind the relative duties which he owed to the sovereign and to his posterity. It was determined, by a small majority, that the claims of the latter were to be preferred to those of the former ; and Sir Stephen Fox, not without a severe internal struggle, adopted these sentiments. Being in parliament, in 1688, as one of the representa- tives of the city of Westminster, he concurred in the votes which declared the throne vacant, and that it ought to be filled bv the Prince and Princess of Orange, on this sole ground, " That Popery was inconsistent with the English constitution ; and, therefore, that Papists should be for ever excluded from the succession to the throne of these realms." If even in these days we find it somewhat hard to reconcile to our notions of honour and personal probity such conduct in one who had enjoyed the bounty of his sovereign, we cannot be surprised to learn that by the sovereign himself, 380 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. and by such as adhered to his fallen fortunes, Sir Stephen Fox was regarded as a monster of ingratitude. It was said of him as of Marlborough, that after having obtained all that he could expect from the house of Stuart, he turned round, like the wolf in the fable, and bit off the hand that fed him ; indeed, so indignant was the Jacobite court, that in every proclamation that issued from St. Germains, of which it was the object to win over partizans by the pro- mise of pardon, Sir Stephen Fox was excepted by name. On him, however, who doubtless had been guided through- out by the stern though sometimes painful pressure of prin- ciple, these proofs of rancour among his former friends produced no effect. He accepted office under William the Third as one of the lords commissioners of the treasury, of which he continued to discharge the duties down to 1701 ; when, conceiving that the time had come when it became him to look to another world than the present, he gave up his appointment. From his retirement at Chiswick, where he built a house, he never again emerged, except to walk in procession before Queen Anne, at her coronation, on the 23rd of April, 1702. Sir Stephen Fox was married a second time, July 11th, 1703, to Christian Hope, the daughter of the Rev. Charles Hope, of Naseby, in the county of Lincoln, his first having died in 1696. There was a considerable disproportion in their ages, Sir Stephen being in his seventy-sixth year. He had issue by her Stephen, afterwards Earl of Ilchester, baptized at Chiswick, September 17, 1704 ; Henry, after- wards Lord Holland, a distinguished political character in the reign of George the Second, and father of Charles James Fox, baptized at Chiswick, October 15, 1705; Christian, his twin sister, was baptized the same day; and Charlotte, afterwards married to the Hon. Edward Digby, was baptized May 9th, 1707. He sat for a brief space in that stormy parliament which preceded the rebellion in 1715, and he died on the 28th of October, 1716, full of honours, and in the possession of all his faculties, in the 89th year of his age. Sir Stephen SIR STEPHEN FOX. 381 Fox sat in many parliaments ; first for Salisbury, next for Westminster, and last of all for Salisbury again. This latter distinction, for such be accounted it, inasmuch as Salisbury being close to the place of his birth, he was accustomed to speak of it as his native city, was pressed upon him by a circumstance which occasioned him great pain ; I allude to the death of his son Charles, first the paymaster-general of the forces, and ultimately vice-trea- surer to King William the Third, and receiver general and paymaster of the revenues in Ireland, which occurred in the year IT 13. But he does not appear to have taken an active part in the politics of the time. Indeed, his great age, as well as the affiction which the demise of his son occasioned him, rendered this impossible. Sir Stephen Fox died as he lived, a good christian, a sincere protestant, a generous and charitable man. His will, indeed, is crowded with bequests to the needy and the afflicted, and among which may be enumerated, twenty pounds to the poor of St. Martin's-in-the-fields ; a like sum to the poor of the chapel of Westminster ; forty pounds to the poor of the parish of Chiswick ; thirty pounds to the poor of Salisbury ; twenty pounds to Cricklade, in Wiltshire ; ten pounds to the poor of Grinstead, Plaitford, and Whaddon; eight pounds to the poor of Farley, to be distributed at the discretion of his widow. " Sir Stephen Fox's garden at Chiswick being but five years standing, is brought to great perfection for the time. It excells for a fail" gravel walk betwixt two yew hedges, with rounds and spires of the same, all under smooth ton- sure, xlt the far end of this garden are two myrtle hedges that cross the garden ; they are about three feet high, and covered in winter with painted board cases. The other oardens are full of flowers and salleting, and the walls well clad. The green-house is well built, well set, and well furnished."* Population. — The first mention of the population of * Archseologia, vol. xii. p. 186. 382 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. this place occurs in the chantry roll in the Augmentation Office. Mem. There arre of howsellyng people within this Pishe the nober of cxx. " Housling people" is a phrase of doubtful import in the present day, the first word being obsolete. Shakspeare it is well known, causes the ghost in Hamlet to say — " Thus was I, sleeping, by a brother's head, Of life, of crown, of Queen, at once dispatched : Cut off even, in the blossom of my sin, Unhoussell'd." — Act 1. Scene 1. Average of Baptisms. Average of Burials. 1680—1689 . . 53 T % 62 T \ 1730—1739 ... 76* 108^ 1780—1784 .. 96f 116f 1784—1789 . . 104f 128* 1790—1799 .. 97 99f 1808—1807 . . 96i 93ฃ Houses Inhabited 1042 Uninhabited 71 Building 61 Persons — Males 2676 Females 3135 — 5811 The return for the parish of Chiswick includes the village of Turnham-green, forty-five persons in two pri- vate lunatic asylums, and thirty-two persons in barges.* The poor rates are upon an average of two shillings and eight-pence in the pound. Annual value of property assessed in 1845, ฃ16,419. For the parish lammas lands the duke of Devonshire pays annually the sum of ฃ107. 14s • by half yearly payments in aid of the poor rates. f Two guardians are annually chosen for this parish, as representatives in the Brentford Poor Law Union. It appears by the following entries in the church- wardens' books, that the rates were formerly collected here the same as at Brentford. * See Population Eeturns, fol. 105, 1811. t See the Act of Parliament relative to tbese lands, page 270. POPULATION. 383 1622. Cleared at Whitsuntide 5 Paid for making a new payre of pigeon holes 2 6 Chiswick pays the sum of ฃ666. 16s. lOd. to the land- tax, which is at the rate of one shilling and six-pence upon land, and one shilling upon houses. It appears that in the year 1715, Sir Stephen Fox, then a parishioner, built at his own expence a cage, or parish round-house, a pair of stocks, and a whipping post.* 1715, Oct. 12. The Honourable Sir Stephen Fox, his bill for Carpenter's work, by Thomas Board. For building a round house, and a pair of stocks <ฃll 13 To iron work done the round house and stocks, by Thomas Kirtonf 1 19 6 trade of town is small import, inns arc few. principal are Burlington Arms, Lamb, George, Devonshire Arms. There two capital brewhouses carried on Messrs. Sich, Fuller Co. which have been established for more than eighty years. annexed tokens issued trades- men Chiswick in latter end seventeenth century, seem imply a larger share commerce they now enjoy. copied from ori- ginals preserved British Museum. pulling down so many mansions within last thirty years, has thinned population this part parish, given it dreary aspect. * Shafcspeare introduced stocks upon stage, " Fetch As I life honour, shall he sit till noon. Dr. Farmer commenting passage, says, should be remembered tbat formerly great houses, still some Colleges, were moveable correction servants. — Malone's Shakspeare, vol. x. p. 99. + Earl Ilchester Papers. 384 HISTORY CHISWICK. 25th October, 1809, celebration Jubilee, sum one hundred pounds was expended poor bread, meat, beer, district town, Turnham-green. years 1813-14, during frost, sub- scription raised, amounting six twenty- pounds, poor, giving them employment repairing roads foot paths not jurisdiction parish. Walpole Mall takes its name hav- ing residence noble family that name, several members whom buried church. About sixty ago occupied Mrs. Rigby boarding-house, here Mr. Daniel O'Connell resided whilst studying bar. mansion lately put into state repair, Allen classical commercial academy. Bedford-House, situated at western extremity Mall, originally various family, built wall churchyard.* See page 340. cms wick house. 385 CHAPTER IV; Historical Biographical Reminiscences Bur- lington Duke Duchess Bight Hon. C. J. Fox G. Canning Visit Illustrious Sovereigns year 1814 Her Majesty Queen, His Royal High- ness Prince Albert, 1812 Imperial Majesty, Emperor Nicholas, 1843. villa stands site an ancient house, Bowack says Sir Edward Wardour.* pulled 1788, and, Kip curious print, seems Elizabethan age. monument chancel church erected 1612, Wardour, Esq. person might afterwards knighted, Towards reign James First, property Robert Carr, Somerset, whose abandoned countess ended days misery disgrace, 1632. earl, who partaker crimes, survived 1645, but never able recover broken fortune, or tarnished name. only daughter, lady Ann married William, fifth, Bedford ; father, reduced, sold Chiswick, all plate, jewels, furniture, make up ฃ12,000. demanded portion.! mortgage having paid off, premises became celebrated Philip, Pembroke, J mortgagee him passed John Lord Pawlet, active royalist, Antiquities Middx. p 87. Loud. 1705. Strafford Letters, ii. 58. Court Bolls. 2c 386 commander eminence king army. 1647, permitted compound estate, through interest general Fairfax,* months August September following, appears once visitor Chis- wick. 9. Fairfax with guards came take possession Tower London, evening Pawlet Perfect Occurrences, Aug. 1647. 13. Putney excellency three Turnham-green, returned day head quarters. Ibid. Sept. 10, 1669, being then William Crofts, occupation Mon- mouth, Charles Gerard, Brandon, aliened Richard viscount Ranelagh. 1682, Seymour, Maiden Bradley, Burlington, descended after death late Devon- shire, Charlotte Boyle, daughter sole heir. third fourth Cork, born April, 1695. travelled much Italy, where acquired strong love architecture fine arts. 1721, Dorothy Saville, eldest daughters co-heiresses marquis Halifax. Charlotte, youngest lady, Devonshire. 1780, lordship installed knight garter, following year, appointed captain band gentlemen pensioners, post resigned 1733. title extinct 1753, since revived. Among architectural works, repaired Inigo Jones St. Paul, Covent Garden. know- Collins Peerage, iii. 387 ledge favourite art always command others. assisted Kent (whom also maintained house) publishing designs Whitehall, own expence printed edition" Fabriche Antiche designate da Andrea Palladio, 1730. Pope thus alludes : You shew us Rome glorious, profuse. baths, drawings architect. near Vicenza, called Capra, furnished idea Chiswick-house which, notwithstanding well known sarcasm, too little live in, big hang watch chain," must considered model very pure taste. Anions other works estate Lanesborough, Yorkshire front Burlington- Piccadilly, father colo- nade court; dormitory Westminster school Petersham, Harrington Richmond Whitehall another Wade, Cork-street. assembly room York esteemed chef-d'oeuvre. eulogy addressed no means exaggerated pi'oceed ! falling arts your care, Erect new wonders, old repair , Palladio themselves restore, whate'er Vitruvius before. Moral Essays, Ep. iv. 1. 191. Sylvan scenes art, alone, pretends dress mistress, disclose charms, Such miniature Las shewn, Bathurst widening forest spreads, form Richmond, Stowe. Thomson Liberty, pt. v. 096. Chatterton publication, describes 1840. 2 c2 388 CHIS Wednesday, 10th July. delightful we spent wandering over beautiful gardens interesting rooms villa. Besides pictures adorn walls lovely views windows command, histo- rical recollections connected place most interesting. statesmen modern times died, Canning. breakfast month Rogers had visited illness, showed spot bed stood statesman expired. long removed, fete, used refreshments. Gay parties fro while poet telling hours dying statesman, song laugh joyous thoughtless youth sounded our ears. glad, therefore, again day, when scene withdraw thoughts recollection dead. cheerful room, covered tapestry, doors hangs por- trait Pope. thought imagined what feelings going Maker presence, pleasure passages Brougham sketch statesman: " Let forgotten, heart sweet disposition man unscathed ordeal almost every instance, found deaden kindly generous affections. gambling, intrigue, faction, left nature Fox, tainted selfishness falsehood, hardened if lived died farm rather outlived boyish went died; rough made will give form. curtains chintz, large flowery 389 pattern green red, alight ground; wooden cornice painted light brown fringe curtains, tassels, lining green.* stairs ably described Bulwer, paper published Monthly Magazine. low chamber, chose himself; formerly, believe, sort nursery, present accidentally slept just before took villa, likely aired free damp, any costlier apartment. even view window, overlooks wing were, like back yard. Nothing can cheerless walls, furniture side fire ranged few books, chiefly character. Oprjosite chim- ney-piece bronze clock. weeks house-keeper shewed stairs, read prayers each Sunday. him, private society singularly amiable attractive, though, except early rarely frequented circles society, confining intercourse extremely number warmly attached friends. relations domestic life, blameless, delight placed own. shewn dark passage another, afflicted wife over. She lay looks out yard, funeral. despaired days," said housekeeper time Ckattertons Home Sketches, Foreign Recollections, i. 94. 1841. 390 son arrived wept, physicians hope, taken night dress, carriage away. these statesmen, those brilliant fascinating Devonshire, circumstances particularly century belonged Somerset. portrait Anne may seen J^gremont collection, "Wobourn Abbey. girl, seventeen, sought marriage young Russel, promising soon won impediments their union. Bedford, did approve choice, lovers began despair told shows sensitive delicacy mind. mother first married, divorced Deve- reux, Essex, innocent girl kept complete ignorance blot parent fair fame. pamphlet incautiously window seat, commenced reading. contained, amongst histories nobility account dishonour. struck accidental discovery, fell fit, senseless floor, book open her. suffered resolved endeavour bring about. accomplished letter Garrard deputy Wentworth, extract Garrard, Lieutenant " March 23. 1636. betwixt Russel 891 shortly, Easter, solemnized. My loves money much, together Somerset unexpected poverty, cause treaty, diminution party Chamberlain, hath mediator business, undone mar- riage undo himself unhappy, word. of, lives house- hold stuff, raise portion content accept. proved happy, continued ardently other, children added enjoyments. suffering store days. beheaded 1684, letters. affectionate outlive son. Chenies, contains monuments family. fact, though Carr enable marry, lost descendants; Rachael, beheaded, cele- brated wife, second spent, ancestors. AVe containing sketches Jones, full masquerades, likenesses caricatures beauties characters day. know duchess, something me peculiarly luxuri- ous romantic appearance thing 11, 392 is, too, southern air makes exactly fitted moon-light walks serenades. variety gardens, gorgeous hues perfumes flowers choice exotics, render whole fairy dream, fancies exquisite reality. Spencer felt charm expressed lines leaving white gloom winter sheeted ground, dead flow'ret tree; Yet rich relics summer found, Immured cell bee. doomed abandon happy retreats, hive treasure sweets, joys blossom more. edifice planned constructed design partly produced imitations, Vicenza.* Kent, architect, employed under superintend- ance carrying work. would appear undertook build- study, pavilion exhibit refined taste, residence. structure, calculated receive central exhibited view, design; circumscribed proportions Hervey occasion say, inhabit, watch; owner habitable, without taking away beauty, addition wings, admirably correspond original, assist form- suite apartments adequate service Sec original Edw. Hoppus, 83, INICO GATEWAY. 393 nobility, sleeping accommoda- tion visitors detached building considerable extent, eastern side. compartment crowned octagonal dome handsome proportions, grand entrance flights stone steps, double approach. portico surmounted pedi- ment, tympanum plain, supported columns Corinthian order architrave, entabla- ture, frieze, cornices, richest possible steps statue Palladio. magnificent portico, fails impress spectator high notion capabilities entered octangular apartment, usually termed Saloon. cieling richly stuccoed compartments, uni- formly white, interspersed gilding. 1838, Waagen, Berlin, pictures, result recorded. yesterday, four'clock afternoon, company fifty persons diplomatic body, assem- bled breakfast, differed splendid dinner, garden, remained awhile looking adorned. good ones, excellent, unfortunately bad condition, either wanting cleaning, dryness. unfavourable light, decided opinion formed them. Artists England^ F. Waugan, 3 vols. LoncL pp. 243—271. 394 especially worthy notice. Gaspar Poussin landscapes moderate size, respects admirable. Grimani landscape, tbe spirit Annibal Carracci. Carlo Maratti Clement XI. sitting arm chair, knee piece. picture master, portraits rare. good, features animated, execution cheerful. tone weak, are. Italian schools, likewise Bassano, Schiavone, Procaccini, Lucca Giordano, &c. poetical ruins foreground, cir- cular form, carefully picture, Borgognone, Cavalry. Prederigo Zucchero Mary Queen Scots, length, pleasing, properly speaking, face care. Paul Veronese procession Doge, masterly probably intended life. Baroccio Cardinal Baronius, half stately portrait, hanging light. Giacomo Bassano Marys' mourning cross. heads usual, colouring clear nnd warm, extravagant, often case. Guido Heni Painting drawing, represented women, surely strange kind allegory. delicacy, colour clear. perhaps, inferior copy same Louvre. 395 Albano- Mars Venus Cupids, landscape. resembles, extent value, Louvre; warmth colouring, elegance figures, beauty Guercino Christ Mount Olives, figures effect, peculiar, certain coolness harmony drapery. Holbein warriors, wbole later period consequently, usual spirit, breadth handling. B. Van Orley— female delicate, glass reason Petrarch Laura. 2. profile, Cleopatra, serpent bosom expression indifference face, does Vandyck Killigrew, poet, young, length. lays hand dog spiritedly finely coloured. Blind Boy— charwoman gives obolus, ascribed Vandyck. according Walpole, purchased Paris, along Giordano 1000 guineas, am perfectly convinced, master merit cannot master. Rembrant man, clearest, darkest- gold colour, astonishingly powerful effect. glowing animated. L. Jordaens Twelfth Night. subject, treated nevertheless extravagant vulgar countenances, usual. effect bril- liant powerful. Cornelius Jansens spaniel feet, landscape ground. spirited, warm tone. 396 HISTOHY Vandervelde agitated sea ships, warm-tone striking begins scale consequence dry. duke, however, joy, bas promised care repaired. Stynmark younger, von Schonjans, Meytens, Jan Breughel, second-rate masters. Lastly, case collec- delicate paintings. line English had, Holbein, eminent Nicholas Hilliard, flourished Elizabeth both. best painter England was, Isaac Oliver, deal First. son, Peter skilful. Sixth, Hol- bein, exquisitely finished, local tints flesh paler, brownish shadows. Samuel Cooper distinguished painters Second. Alphabetical List mentioned thefolloic Catalogue. 1578. Albano. 1577. Cavedone. 1510. Bassano. 1550. Cellini. 1624. Berchem. 1596. Cortona. 1564. Blomaert. 1600. Claude. 1606. Bolognese. 1616. Castiglione. 1621. Borgognone. Caracino. 1610. Booth. Danielli. 1500. Bourdenone. Dobson. 1623. Brandi. Dolce Carlo. 1589. Brughel. 1581. Domenichino. 1607. Canaletti 1613. Dowe, 1555. Calvert. Dyck, Ant. Elde, 1560. Carravagio. 1366. Eyck, Van. HOVSE. •397 178.3. Gabrielli Rosa Salvator. 159G. Gogen, 1665. de Tivoli Guelplii. Rotberhammer 1590. Guercino. 1640. Ruysdael. 1575. Guido. Rubens. Hayter. 1448. Sarto, A. del. 1498. Holbein. 1643. Scbalken. 1572. Inigo. 1522. Schiavoni, 1594. Jordaens. Scbeemaker. 1685. Keinings. Scbidone. Kent. 1579. Sneyders. 1648. Kneller, Godfrey. Schonis. 1609. Lint, Steinwick. 1625. Maratti, 1620. Swanefeldt. Mola, Teniers. 1634. Men! en, Vander. 1512. Tintoretto. Murillo. 1477. Titian. Myttens. Vaga, P- da. Ostade, Adrian 1599. 1503. Parmegiano. Gogen. 1770. Phillips. Velasquez. 1586. Polemberg. 1639. Vandervelde. Poussin, Gaspar. 1558. Veronese, Nicholas. 1530. 1548. Procaccini. 1432. Vinci, Kembrant. 1657. Viviani. 1679. Ricci, Marco. 1765. Wootton. 1660. Seb. Wouvermans. 1630. Rousseau. catalogue presents reader description gallery appeared, including brief remarks merits respective painters. Diffident abilities undertaking, writer direction public taste talents acquirements confer value opinion, hoped induced undertake accomplish extended critical collection.* Catalogues deservedly grown esteem. remains entire use obvious, dispersed serves authenticate adds imaginary aud bestows it. wished practice composing cata- logues conspicuous collections universal. Horace WaJpole. 398 DOME. 1st. posture, standing right hands resting knee. supports infant hlack feet king, spirited exceedingly numerous England, industrious. neglected. earlier deemed hest, traits Charles, Buckingham, Strafford. Van- dyck imbibed deeply Titian, allowed approach nearer carnations Anthony but, reaches grace dignity antique. duplicate, Windsor. Morocco Ambassador Godfrey Kneller. figure horse ground Wycke. displaying singular paucity imagination, excelled gracefulness drawing portraits, harmonious true nature. conceit excessive pretensions vanity flattered Dryden, Addison, Prior, Steele, Rape Proserpine upright colour. urgent flame impatient delay, Swift seiz'd beauteous prey, bore sooty car OvicPs Metam. Liberality Modesty rate painting, elegantly disposed beautifully names higher unsurpassed. beau ideal respect sacred subjects admirable, celestial character pecu- liarly impressed strongly attests genius. Sweetness, deli- cacy, facile execution, chief characteristics. Daphne Apollo— Cay. Daniello. animated remarkably fine, both CHISW1CK heard half, furiouly flies ear th' imperfect accent dies. Fear gave fled, wind Increasing, spread flowing hair hehind, Ovid h. Lewis Thirteenth— Fred. Elde. easy up, hack Judgment Paris Cav. reclines apple hand, Mercury Caduceus points apple. Una dabit regnum, belli daret altera laudem, Tyndaridis conjux tertia dixit eris. Ovid. Busts, recesses brackets Socrates. Lucius Antoninus, 28. Britannicus, Claudius, A.D 12. Domitian, A.D. 81. Hadrian, 117. Antoninus Pius, 138. Justiua, elder, Emperor, Plautilla, Caracalla, 211, Apollo. Bacchanals. Roman Emperor. Eight handsomely carved oak chairs, tables inlaid marble, gilt. west saloon adjoins preceding enlarged additions building, compartments. Cupid Sebast Ricci. holding arrow endeavouring catch Bicci ideas, agree- colourist, deficient corectness obliging consult imagination Scripture Piece Pietro Cortona, men, children, subject allusion story Jacob specimen writer, colours,, vehemence hands, fury pencil." Philosopher Myttens, Countenances dark, black dresses ruffs collars. style entirely school, sometimes proportion. imitated successfully, famous 400 .First age 2%, 1639 drab blue drapery thrown shoulder. Halifax moustaches, shewn. seated table feasting, fat fellow woman child arms drinking him. Although coarse vulgar, principally historical, executed highest degree brilliancy, correctness. " II copioit la nature, sans en choisir les beautes et ecarter defauts. Vandyck- cuirass, slashed sleeves sash, dog. Baronius short complexion majestic air, boldness style, contrasts artist exhibits lights shadows, rapidity genius, epithet " 11 furioso. Ninth Maratti. grave cast, pink trimmed fur. admired Madonnas saints. admirable natural, easy, lively. Susannah Elders style. naked, delicately arranged forcibly relieved Elders, deep principles Cremonini Gesnari, improved consultation Schools Venice, Bologna, Rome. numerous, remarkable dignity. quarter pale countenance, ruff. reputation Rubens considerable, possibly some- over-rated, appearing possess individuality resemblance. CH1SWICK HOX T SE. 401 Ruddy complexion, decked jewels. Bacchus Ariadne S. Bjcci. placing ring finger Ariadne, descending wreath. Women selling Fish Herbs Gerard Douw. shop pair scales side, fruit front. Flemish school. Douw surpassed country, line. ever zealously collectors, engraved thing, indeed, pencil precious, vast sums country. Holy quarters Wilderness Francesca Mola. reclining Cherubim sky, rocky dark. Mola not, equal Raphael N. compositions, displayed excelled. Military horseback skirting water. Rocks distance; painting. cre- ditable countrymen for- sook hard dry manner predominated battle pieces uncommon display ardour mind delighted engaged. beholding hear shouts war, neighing horses, cries wounded actual field battle. circular frame Wooton. Gloomy rocks, water, agreeable flight Egypt scenery, mounted asses, accompanied goats mountain pass. Bercliem distribution masses, conduct shadow masterly, aeriel perspective, floating skies, transparency water surpassed. behind etchings 2d 402 east sur- Dome, structure. stucco gilt, Inside interior church, figures. Velde. Dutch boats, decorated. offing vessels firing salute. cabinets Cbarles palm less disputed Raffael history, Velde Pieces. Schiavoni. Jesus lap Virgin, Joseph repose Schiavoni accounted finest colourists Venetian Wise Offering charming red white. Saviour holds lily, Virgin blue. tender, pathetic, devout, painter, pre- cedence all. Infants playing Leonardo Vinci. naked sporting watching door. Vinci greatest geniuses possessed powers expression. scarcely engineer, philosopher, painter. 231. VINCI.— i). 402. MURILLO.— 421, IYIARATTI.— 404. 403 Poussin. Figures— ditto. trees, towns, foreground. design, mention excellence, procuring prints them, wbich do remember seen. feeding Candlelight Schalken. candle boy spoon, laughing, port folio, highly finished. March, Soldiers refreshing Vander Meulen. Inn Cottage imita- exact faithful, skies distances wane veldt. Trees apiece temple distance. Gasp ah Miraculous Draught Fishes hauling fish, boat. bold sketch. impossible derive unmixed Scriptures, depends elevated sanctity, purity, calm beatitude. finished forms altar Cathedral Mechlin. Fritters receiving boy, lamp, ouions. Merry Making Ostade. boors cards, humour Ostade consist interiors ale- peasants smoking drinking. clear, 2d2 404 CIIISWICK. exceed scenery perspective artist, represen- tation land storms, tree agitated, leaf motion. Presentation Camillo Proccacino. endowed surprising faculty conception, combined naivete, comeliness, charms eye, suavity Samaritan Paulo Veronese. well, addressing draperies brilliant, magnificent, touch free, paintings high, lights, therefore accurate inspection obtained. Temptation Caracci. Saint reclining, lion animals surrounding Angels clouds. poets fol- lowers former ludicrous temptation, epigrams disciples. faut attaque diverses tentations. dit meme que demons se presentment lui sous differents formes affreuses, le chargoient coups." Ladovcat. Diet. Hist. Venice Canaletti. Palace Mark. management aerial tint approaching illusion. country pupils erroneously assigned drapery, left, lily. Madonnas, satirically Salvator Bosa, " Carlucco della Madonna. Mountebank mountebank, Quack Doctor around, buildings back. picture. 405 army Moses moving ascent right. Pharaoh host overwhelmed Priests Spanish hair, coloured black, laced collar, compositions Velasquez expression, freedom pencil, itself. candelabrum five ship. frame, 12 carvings ivory Saints, Magdalen. correpsond variegated marble. chimney enriched marbles Italy. ROOM. occupies wirg, spacious elegant Magdalen raised. designing females. Albaxo. Cupid, arranged. " Tbis resembles Louvre, pleasing" 406 Colosseum Dull del Sarto. head. force beautiful, Raphael. cotemporaries" Senza errore, fault. Arch Constantine, front, came, lifts fairer soul. 500. Darnley dress. portraits. Titian simplicity character, entitle respect, undoubtedly rank branch (says Reynolds) turn eyes, find excellence regard shade degree. art. trees. Ruysdael ranks delineation wood Cattle horse, shore lake, bark near, coast right, Andrew painters, Europe. masters extraordinary readi- Madonna Domi^ichino. painted, rose. Dominichino understood excellent study labour. expressing passions. Tent Horses backed tent. 407 arrangement genius directed rose perfection, Claude model, competition Constantiiie Viviani dis- position, nor subjects. Nobleman Rembrant. Dressed furred gown, pensively hand. valuable inte- resting. real Garritor, Ryn banks Bhyne, imitating genuine incredible prices, collected curious. superb collection Hawking horseback, hawk dogs pond hilly distance ash relieve centre stormy sky. hunting Wouvermans, admired. also, estimation. melancholy complexion. Chemist Laboratory Alchymist blowing charcoal stand, table, che- mical apparatus, careless examining chemical matters, condition. Teniers fairs, rustic sports> and drinking parties, which he exhibited with such truth, humour, and origi- nality, that he may be considered the founder of a style of painting. Three Statues — Nicholas Poussin. Painted in Chiaro Oscuro, in imitation of statuary. Poussin (says Sir J. Reynolds) lived and conversed with the ancient statues so long, that he may 408 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. be said to Lave been better acquainted with tbem, tlian with the people about him. By many he is considered not only as the Eaphael of France, but as one of the greatest painters that ever existed. Killegrew and his Dog — Vandyck. Thomas Killegrew, the dramatist, when young, a half length. One hand on a dog, spiritedly and finely painted. Landscape — Fishing — ? Salvator Rosa. This is a very fine picture, of large size. Vast rocks on the sea-shore, with boats and fishermen, warm and bold in effect, and in most excellent condition. " Salvator Rosa," observes Sir J. Reynolds, " gives us a peculiar cast of nature, which, though void of all grace, elegance, and simplicity, though it has nothing of that elevation and dignity which belong to the grand style, yet has that sort of dignity which belongs to savage and uncultivated nature." Everything is of a piece, his rocks, trees, sky, even to his handling, have the same rude and wild character which animates his figures. The Baron De Non says that he was ' grand compositeur, dessinateur spirituel, penseur poetique, grand paysagiste, et tout a fait original dans ce genre, vaste et grandiose en tout.' " The Emperor and Empress of Russia — Two Portraits — Miniatures — These are miniatures on ivory, carefully and finely painted. DINING ROOM. Marriage of Cupid and Psyche — Andrea Schiavoxe. An upright picture, the figures whole length, the left hand of Cupid is over the shoulder of Psyche, the right hand raised, holding a crown of laurel, Jupiter presenting a ring to Psyche, who is represented with the wings of a butterfly to intimate the lightness of the soul. Perry Boat and Cattle — Berghem. A first rate painting in fine condition, cattle in the foreground, and figures embarking in the ferry boat : on the opposite shore are represented trees and the ruins of a cottage ; the warm, red and yellow of the cattle of the figures oppose, and at the same time harmonize finely with the sombre tints of the trees and ruined castle in the middle distance; the sky enlivened by rolling clouds tinged by the sun. The Repose — N. Poussix. Ruins of a Temple and Figures. The Earl of Pembroke and his Sister — Vandyck. Tbe Earl of Pembroke in a pink dress gathering roses. The lady in white, a three quarter picture. CHISW1CK HOUSE. 409 The Inside of a Church — Kelrings. Soman architecture, circular columns and arches, altar splendidly decorated, a priest officiating, ladies and other figures kneeling. This artist copied his views, and every particular object from nature, and he finished them with amazing patience. Noah Sacrificing — Carlo Maratti. A figure in white is seen kneeling in front of a rude altar, Noah with his hands supplicating, other figures on the right. Susannah and Elders — Paul Veronese. The elders in long robes, Susannah in drapery to the knees. Salmacis and Hemaproditus — Albano. or leave me to mvself alone You rude uncivil nymph, or I'll be gone ; Fair stranger then, says she, it shall be so And, for she fear'd his threats, she feigned to go." Salmacis embracing the object of her regards, who appears to be repulsing her; a Cupid is in the back ground, the flesh exceedingly fine and warin in colour, a glowing picture, first rate, and in good condition. Albano is cele- brated for the grace and elegance of his female figures, and the loveliness of his Cupids. Connoisseurs remark a great sameness in his delineation of these subjects, which is accounted for by the fact that his wife Doratea, a woman of extraordinary beauty, was his model in the first case, and the twelve children she bore him in the second. He was denominated the painter of tbe graces, and the anacreon of painting. Women at the Cross — Bassano. A dark picture, women weeping, a man with his left hand elevated looking up, colouring clear and warm. Bassano painted history and portrait, and was an artist of considerable reputation. Madonna and St. Catharine — Parmegiano. A capital painting. In his professional career Parmegiano first imitated the style of Michael Angelo, and afterwards followed that of Baffael ; his colouring was most beautiful, and he is supposed to have been the first artist who employed the point for etching. Sleeping Venus — Seb. Bjcci. The figure naked. Coach and six Horses — Sir Godfrey Kneller. Cream coloured horses, coachman and postillion in green and red, braided with white. A remarkable picture. 410 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. Holy Family — Schidone. Saint John kneeling to the Saviour, Joseph reading, and Virgin with the right [hand raised. The genius of Schidone was noble and grand, and his style of painting is exceedingly elevated ; his touch light, delicate, and admir- able, and all his pictures are finished in an exquisite manner. His pictures are very rare. Small Landscape — Polemberg. This is a landscape with naked figures sleeping. This artist distinguished himself chiefly by his landscapes, in which he treated nature with much truth; his skies are particularly admired for the transparency of then* colouring. His animals are sometimes by other painters, particularly by Berghem. Romulus and Remus — P. Da Cortona. The goatherd with the infants in his arms, the right hand points towards the place where they were discovered. The woman is sitting in the shade of a rude hut or cottage. A naked boy reclines at her feet. The figures beau- tifully drawn and the colouring good. The invention of this artist was rich, and his execution graceful and beautiful. It has been said " that he had fire in his colours, vehemence in his hands, and fury in his pencil." This is also engraved by Le Strange. Piazza del Popolo — Gabrielli. The entrance into Rome. A Jew Rabbi — Rembrant. Represented in a cap, and having a beard. This is the celebrated Jew Rabbi so well engraved by Peltier, and is considered as the best of all Rembrant' s portraits. Rembrant in his Painting Room — Gerard Douw. Rembrant is seen at his easel painting, a bureau or cupboard in back ground, pieces of armour, and violin in front, a staircase at the back. The easel rests against a column. A capital picture of considerable size, which was exhibited by the Duke of Devonshire's permission, in Pall Mall, in the Summer of 1844. Pope Innocent the Ninth — Velasquez. Half length, right hand raised, very fine. The pictures of this great Spanish artist are of excessive rarity and price. Holy Family — And. del Sarto. Holy family, finely painted. The Virgin supporting the Saviour in left hand, the infant is standing, two female figures are near. Ponte Rotto — Gabrielli. The Tiber and remains of a bridge, on the opposite bank a causeway leads to the river, figures and boats in front. This bridge was the " Pome Senatorio." CHISWICK HOUSE. 411 Two richly carved tables, inlaid with marble. Susannah and Elders — Rousseau. Susannah in blue drapery over her shoulders. Elders at the back looking over her shoulder. In the choice of his scenes Rousseau shews remarkable elegance of taste, his grounds are well broken, his distances well conducted, his skies finely imagined, and there appears great harmony in most of his compositions. A Man Hawking — Inigo Jones. A field of trees, and a man hawking, a curious and spirited picture. Two Views of Venice — Van Lint. Two Views of Venice, warm and clear in colouring. The manner of the composition of this artist was in the grand style, his design being correct, and his colouring good. Four Portraits of Boys, representing the Four Seasons. Four small half-length figures of Boys, the painter not known. Landscape and Figures — Castiglione. A female with an infant reposing in the shade of a building, trees behind. A small darkly coloured picture. Castiglione is distinguished for his landscapes and animals, but he is not incapable of moving in a higher walk of the art, as is proved by his picture of the Nativity, in St. Lucca. His pencil was vigorous and unaffected. Four Views in Rome. Four Views in colour. Ponte Rotto, or Broken Bridge. View of Rome, and Tiber in front. A distant View of the City. Castle on the Sea Shore. Van Lint. View of Florence — Gabrielli. The city in the middle distance backed by a mountainous country, an open space in front. Fir trees in fore ground. The doorways, and the whole of this apartment are superbly gilt, on a white ground, and the initials R. B. and D. B. carved and gilt on the mouldings. SMALL BED ROOM. Earl of Strafford — Vandyck. Serious and inflexible expression of countenance, dark in complexion and black dress ; in a bad light. 412 HISTORY OF CHIS WICK. Landscape — Bolognese. Dark picture, trees and high mountains, figures in front. Placed in a bad light. GALLERY. Centre of the cieling, an oval, (ornaments by Kent,) P. Veronese. Apparently a repose after a battle — spirited and effected. Battle Piece — Borgognone. A skirmish of cavalry — remarkably spirited and clear in colouring. A Feast — Bassano. Preparation for a feast, several female figures in various occupations ; warm in effect. Landscape — Bolognese. Bridge and waterfall, buildings and mountains in distance, foreground trees and figures. A fine picture. Bolognese became a good painter in fresco, and his subjects were architecture and perspective. Three Landscapes — Bolognese. Placed over the window in a bad light, much too high for inspection. The first fruit trees and figures. 2. Figures and architectural groups. 3. Trees and woody scenery, bold and dark. Two Statues, Muse and Apollo — Scheemaker. Two Statues, Venus and Mercury. Two small Busts over chimney piece. Two Porphyry Vases from Rome. Infant Hercules, bronze — Guelphi. Three incense Lamps over chimney piece — Cellini. Benvenuti Cellini has wrought both in marble and in metal, and imitated, in his works of statuary, the fame of his great master, Michael Angelo. Three Landscapes — Bolognese. Tables and candelabra, carved and gilt, and inlaid with variegated marbles. Twelve chairs similar to those in the Dome Room. CHISWICK HOUSE. 413 SALOON OR TAPESTRY ROOM. Five subjects worked after designs, by Teniers. These tapestry pieces reach from the dado to the cornice. Countess of Burlington and her Sister. Lady Thanet, Aikman. Alexander Pope. Earl of Cumberland. Four Portraits, ovals — Kent. These portraits are painted in an admirable style, but the painters names are not mentioned. EAST SALOON. Flower Piece — Bapt. Seb. Ricci. A large upright picture, a figure of Cupid in front, by Sebastian, the flowers by Baptist. Landscape — Rubens. High trees and figures, dark in effect. Portrait — Rembrant. Portrait of a man in a hat, warm in colour, and powerful in effect. Marriage at Canaan — Marco Ricci. A fine picture, splendid architecture, and a variety of figures, clear colouring and effective. Landscape — Rubens. A road winds, by a tomb, towards mountains. Portrait — Vandyck. Half-length, hair dark and long, mustaches and armour. Duchess of Somerset — Vandyck. Three-quarter figure, fair hair and dark eyes, left hand raised, a fine portrait. Portrait of a little Girl — Dutch School. Well painted in a red dress, with worked laced collar, a whole length. Dog and Cat, and Dead Game — Sneyders. A fine specimen of Sneyders animated subjects, a dog and cat snarling over dead game. His dog pieces are life-like and vigorous. 414 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. Fruit Trees and Figures — Well arranged, a female purchasing fruit of a man at the back, fruit, &c. in front, on a table ; a large painting. Portrait of a Youth — Rembrant. In a cap, red drapery relieves the head, warm in colour, and beautifully finished. Portrait — Hayter. With a pallet and brushes, well and clearly painted. Saint at Prayer — Caracci. A capital picture, three-quarter length, dark in effect. The Nativity— Giatenti Brandi. The light appears to come from the infant Jesus in this painting : Joseph reclines in front. This artist had, indeed, a lively genius and a free pencil, but he was exceedingly incorrect, and his colouring was weak and disagree- able. He worked more for money than for fame. Saint Gregory — Cavedone. Pensive countenance with a book, a dove on the right hand. It has been observed by some good judges, that this artist had three different manners, at three periods of his life. His first was excellent, the second indifferent, and his last feeble and miserably bad. Game and Dogs — Sneyders. Game highly coloured, trees and two dogs in back ground. Fruit Piece — Spirited and beautiful in colour ; a Turkey carpet introduced. This piece combines well with the various colours of the fruit. Two Landscapes— Franc. Mola. Dark pictures with figures. The Ascension— Alb an o. A small painting in bad condition. Lot and his two Daughters — Rotenhammer. Landscape— Savanefeldt. A Sketch. — His pictures have a sweetness and tenderness like Claude, but they want his warmth and are not so striking in their effect ; yet, with respect to his figures and animals, they are far superior to his master, Claude, both in the design as well as in the outline. CHISWICK HOUSE. 415 Portrait — Portius — Rubens. Landscape Bolognese. Dark wood and figures. Portrait — Vandyck. A fair complexion with mustacliios and hat, left hand on breast. Portrait — Tintoretto. Three-quarters, dark beard and dress, spiritedly painted. Small Portrait of a Man — Rubens. Holding a letter in his left hand, a small painting highly finished. Diana and Endymion — Marco Ricci. Upright painting. Crucifixion of a Saint — Bourdenone. Saint crucified head downwards, spirited and warm. The landscapes of Bourdenone are in the taste of Titian. His touch is extremely light, his colouring good, his attitudes are full of variety and generally graceful, and his expression is lively and animated. Inside of a Church — P. De Vaga. A sketch, priest and figures at the altar. Portrait of a Lady — Rubens. Black silk dress, large ruff and cap. Three-quarter length. A View in Rome — Salvator Rosa. Boldly painted with dark effect. Portrait of a Man — Rubens. Dark dress and large ruff". Three-quarter length. Procession of the Doge of Venice — P. Veronese. A masterly sketch, about twelve feet long, containing a vast number of figures, Palace of the Doge, and the Beucentaur in the back ground. Jesuit's Church of Antwerp — Steinwick. Remarkably carefully painted, the architectural details highly finished, per- haps too much so in the distant parts, for the aerial perspective. A procession entering at a side door, figures kneeling. A very fine picture. Virgin and Child — Parmegiano. Virgin and Child in playful expression, clearly and beautifully painted. 416 HISTORY OF cms WICK. Holy Family — John Van Eyck. An altar-piece with wings, the centre two feet high by two and a half wide ; the Virgin and child seated in the middle, with the Saviour in her lap, reaching at an apple which is presented by an angel ; on one side an angel playing on an instrument, to the right a man in a kneeling posture, accompanied by St. Catharine , on the left his wife, wearing a sugar-loaf shaped cap, and his daughter, accompanied by a female Saint. In the wings are painted the figures of St. John the Divine- The backs of these wings have each a figure painted in chiaro oscuro, representing statues. Here is the picture which Horace Walpole in his book on painting in England mentions by Jan Van Eyck. It is an altar-piece, with side doors, or wings, the centre piece of which is about two feet high and two and a half wide. In the middle the Virgin is seated, with the child on her lap, reaching at an apple, which an angel presents to him ; on the other side, an angel playing on an instru- ment ; on the right hand, a man kneeling, recommended by St. Catharine ; on the left hand, his wife, wearing a sugar- loaf shaped cap, and his daughter, recommended by another female Saint. According to Horace Walpole's account, these persons represent the family of Lord Clifford. On the right hand is St. John the Baptist with a lamb ; on the left, St. John the Evangelist with a cup, from which the serpent appears The back -ground is a landscape. John Van Eyck is quite out of the question ; but the picture is, however, amongst the finest of his school ; in the Virgin and angels it strongly reminds us of the great picture in the hospital of St. John, at Bruges, which the inscription assigns to Memling, and in the wings of the small altar, with St. Christopher, by the same master, in the collection formerly belonging to Messrs. Brissiere. Unfortunately this gem is hung too high to allow the spectator duly to appreciate the execution of the details, which is a principal charm of the pictures of this school ; and though it is at present in good preservation, the sun, to which it is very much exposed, threatens its destruction. It is remarkable that while manuscripts, adorned with miniatures by this school, are so highly esteemed by the English that they cms wick house. 417 purchase them at high prices ;* yet with very few excep- tions, they have not a taste for the oil paintings of the same school, though the latter served as models for the miniatures, in a still higher degree. All the qualities for which the latter are valued, simplicity and depth of feeling, truth to nature, and admirable execution of the details, the greatness, freshness, and beauty of the colours, are superior to every thing that painting has produced in the ancient German style, which has the greatest affinity with the gothic architecture of which the English are so passionately fond. The chief reason may, perhaps, be, that the English have too much accustomed themselves to consider pictures as ornaments of rooms. Hence they first see whether a picture belongs to a period when art was in perfection, by its chiaro oscuro perspective and animation of figures, and want of spirit, feebleness of conception, negligence in the execution, so common in many of the latter Italians, are more readily pardoned than a certain meagerness of form, awkwardness of attitude, or faults in perspective, which we meet with in old Flemish painters. An eminent genealogist has at length decided the iden- tity of the portraits, and the age of the picture : — " The occasion of my present writing is to make known the real subjects of the portraits. The favourable circum- stances to which I have already alluded, enabled me to examine the picture sufficiently close to ascertain the charges upon a row of small shields placed upon an archi- tectural cornice in the upper part of it. The charges upon all the shields are the same, viz: — Azure a wolf salient argent, impaling argent, a maunche, sable. Now neither of these coats has any thing to do with the Clifford's, but the former belongs to Donne, and the latter to Hastings. By a reference to the genealogy of the latter illustrious house, it will be seen that Elizabeth, one of the sisters of William, first lord Hastings, the lord cham- * Not quite true, as a picture of a very small size, by Van Eyck, was lately purchased for the National Gallery at a considerable price. 418 HISTORY OF CHISWICK. berlain of King Edward the Fourth, was married to Sir John Donne. From a pedigree of the Gwrgant MS. in the College of Arms, I have ascertained the identity of this Sir John Donne with " John Donne of Kydwelle," who was one of the Welshmen of rank who were slain when the earl of Pembroke's army, fighting on the king's party, was routed at the field of Edgccote, near Banbury, on the 26th July, 1469. In the historical narrative, edited by Mr. Flalliwell, for the Camden Society, under the title of Warkworth's Chronicle, their names are thus given; and among others, Harry Donne, of Pickton; John Donne, of Kydwelle, &c. " In this short list occur not only the names of Sir John Donne and his brother, but it commences with his brother's father-in-law, Sir Roger Vaughan, and also contains one of the family into which his brother's heiress was married. " It is clear, therefore, that Sir John Donne, and Eliza- beth Hastings, his wife, are the personages whose portraits are so vividly and minutely preserved in the Chiswick picture. It is to be remarked that both the knight